Hydrosphere - glassscience

Water Water Everywhere…
Essential Standards
EEn. 2.3 Explain the structure and processes within the hydrosphere.
• EEn.2.3.1 Explain how water is an energy agent (currents and heat
• EEn.2.3.2 Explain how ground water and surface water interact.
EEn. 2.4 Evaluate how humans use water.
• EEn.2.4.1 Evaluate human influences on freshwater availability.
• EEn.2.4.2 Evaluate human influences on water quality in North
Carolina’s river basins, wetlands and tidal environments.
Water Cycle
Where does water come from? Where does it go?
What are the parts of the water cycle?
• Evaporation – water changes from a liquid to a gas
• Transpiration – water changes from a liquid to a gas through intake
from plants
• Condensation – water changes from a gas to a liquid through cooling
• Precipitation – Water falls from clouds as rain, snow, sleet, hail, dew,
• Infiltration / percolation – water moves through the ground becoming
Are there other ways water changes phases?
• Yes but these are less common
• Deposition – water changes from a vapor to a solid without a liquid
phase – very cold temperatures and high altitudes
• Sublimination – water changes from a solid to a vapor without a
liquid phase – snow seems to disappear without melting
What other factors make up the water cycle?
• Flow – collection of water moving downhill
• watershed – a ridge of land that funnels water into rivers or streams,
separates one river basin from another
• River basins - an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries
• Occurs on the surface and underground
• Draw the water cycle
• You will need:
1 large sheet of paper
Colored pencils
Label everything!
Take up the whole page
Remember River Basins?
• How many river basins are in NC? What do you remember about
your river water quality?
• Carry freshwater to the ocean
Remember watersheds?
• Define watershed:
A ridge of land that separates water flowing to different rivers,
basins or seas
Where is water underground?
• Much is in aquifers
• Bodies of permeable rock that hold or transmit groundwater
• Humans tap into aquifers to use as wells
What is the water table?
• Level below which the
ground is saturated
• Can vary with season
• Can vary greatly with
• Changes over time
How are groundwater and surface water
• Surface water percolates through
the regolith to become
groundwater carrying substances
with it which it has contacted
• Groundwater replenishes through
surface water collected from
• When water tables fill, flooding
events happen more frequently
• The water table can vary from one
house to another
Ocean Currents
Motion in the ocean
How does ocean water move?
• Surface currents
• Gyres
• Density currents
• Upwelling
• Coreolis effect
What are surface currents?
• Develop due to friction between ocean surface and wind
• Short
• Affect small areas
• Subject to seasonal or local influence
What are gyres?
• Circular moving ocean systems
• 5 main gyres:
North Pacific
South Pacific
North Atlantic
South Atlantic
Indian Ocean
• Debris is pulled in with the
current and continuously spirals
in the ocean
• Great Pacific Garbage Patch
• Revisiting Journal Assignments
• Watch the following video The Great Pacific Garbage Patch to:
• Write a summary on the video (5 W’s)
• Write a personal statement on what you think of the information you have
just seen, how you may contribute, and what specific solutions you have to fix
the problem.
• Follow up questions:
Where does all the plastic come from?
How has it been damaging to ecosystems so far?
When will the plastic be out of the ecosystem?
How much more plastic is in the ocean than plankton in some places? Why is this
What are density currents?
• Vertical ocean currents that result
from different densities
• INCREASES in density can be
attributed to:
• Higher content of salinity
• Colder temperatures
• What do hot things tend to want
to do? Because they are _______.
Hot things tend to want to rise
because they are less dense
How does temperature affect density?
• As water molecules get colder, they begin to get closer together.
Think about ice forming
• As water molecules get warmer, they have more energy and spread
apart, meaning there are less of them in an area.
How does temperature affect salinity?
• As water freezes,
freshwater is stored in ice
but salt is left out.
• Cooler water has higher
concentrations of salt.
• In areas such as the
Mediterranean, high
tempeartures combined
with low precipitation
leads to increased
• Salt is left behind in higher
Where do density currents take place?
• At high latitudes (the poles) water
• Water cools
• Shrinks and becomes less dense
• Salinity increases
• South of India and Alaska water is
pushed upward
• Water is heated
• Expands and becomes less dense
• Salinity decreases
• The Mediterranean
• Water is trapped and heated
• Evaporation increases salinity
• Water sinks
thermohaline circulation
• Group Quest
• http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/investi
• We will do this together in preparation for lab
• Thermohaline circulation lab:
• You will need:
Large bin
250 mL beaker (at least)
2 different food colorings
Stirring rod
Hot plate
Ice water bath
What is upwelling?
• Wind blow from the equator parallel to the
• Warm water is pushed away from the
coast by wind
• In a normal year this piles up warm water in
the Western Pacific
• What do we call it when these winds subside
and warm water is not relocated?
• Cold water moves up from the depths of
the ocean to replace the warm water that
has been blown away
• Happens off the California Coast
• Brings a rising of nutrients from the deep
• Increases fish populations
• Fish markets thrive in affected areas
upwelling importance
upwelling demo
How do ocean currents affect climate?
• Water is carried from the equator to the poles
• Pushed along by density currents
• Water absorbs heat at the equator
• Heat is released as water moves toward the cooler poles
• Compare temperature trends for Fayetteville and Havelock from
September through the present
• Create a graph to show temperature trends between the two cities
over time
• Type a half a page in 12 pt font using Time New Roman on how
temperatures compare in the summer vs. the winter in an inland city
and a coastal city
• Complete the chapter sheet for 16.1 on ocean currents
• Turn into box when complete
Honors Assignment!
• Webquest
• You will compare the climate in Maine and England
• Using what you know about density currents and the “global
conveyor belt”, explain why you see the climate patterns you see in
each location
• Create a powerpoint explaining why you see these climate trends
How does the Coreolis Effect move ocean
• Deflects currents from
their original source due
to Earth’s rotation.
• To the right of the source
in the northern
• To the left of the source in
the southern hemisphere
• How does this affect the
climate of coastal
climates compared to
inland climates?
• Ocean currents foldable
• You will need
3 different colored sheets of paper
Colored pencils
To listen!
How else does water move on the surface?
• Remember river basins?
• What is a river basin?
Land are drained by a river and its tributaries
• What is a watershed?
Ridge of land that divides one river basin from another
• What are our river basins used for in NC?
Drinking water, electricity, drain pollution, fishing
• What types of pollution do you see in our river basins?
Point source – identifiable source (mercury, factory chemicals)
Non – point source – unidentifiable source (sediment, fertilizer, pesticides)
How does water move under the surface?
• Infiltration and percolation – water absorbs through soil and makes its way to
• Aquifers – underground water reserves
• Confined – water surrounded by impermeable bedrock
• Unconfined – water seeps directly into aquifer
• What are aquifers used for?
What kind of wells can be drilled from
• 3 kinds
• Water table wells
• In unconfined aquifer
• Artisian wells
• In confined aquifer
• Above water table
• Flowing artisian wells
• In confined aquifer
• Below water table
How do groundwater levels affect surface
water levels?
• Streams form where the water table intersects with the surface
• As more water enters water table, less water can percolate
• Higher water tables = more flood events
Water Use
“When tempted to fight fire with fire, remember the fire department usually uses
water…” - unknown
How do we use water?
• Cleaning
• Drinking
• Recreation
• Transportation
• Aquaculture
• Irrigation
• Use the following link to calculate how much water you use in your
home a month
• http://www.saveourh2o.org/water-use-calculator
• How do you compare with the household in California?
• What do you think accounts for this difference?
• Click to learn easy ways to lower water use
• List 2 ways to conserve water in EACH area of the home
• List 2 ways to conserve water in EACH area outside the home
Where does our potable water come from?
• Dams
• Wells – from aquifers
• What 2 types of aquifers are there?
Unconfined – water not surrounded by bedrock
Confined – water surrounded by bedrock
• What 3 types of wells are there?
Water table well – drilled in an unconfined aquifer
Artisian well – drilled in confined aquifer above the
water table
Flowing artisian well – drilled in confined aquifer below
the water table
How does water use affect aquifers?
• Aquifers must be recharged through percolation and infiltration from
surface water
• Aquifer depletion happens as aquifers are drained consistently for
long periods of time
• Water in aquifers can be:
• Transpired by plants
• Released into streams
• Used by humans
What are the consequences of aquifer
• Worsens drought conditions
• Lowers the water table
• Salt water intrusion – problem at
the coast
• Pressure is lowered in aquifer allowing
sea water to push its way into the
• Subsidence – land sinking
• Coastal areas are drained allowing air in
the soil sparking decomposition making
land sink
salt water intrusion
Salt water intrusion in the news
What are some positive and negative effects
of dams?
• Drinking water reserve
• Flood control
• Nutrients are cut from flood plain
• Irrigation for agriculture
• Recreation
• Hydroelectric power
• Can cut migration patterns of fish
• Atlantic salmon
• American shad
What happens to old dams?
• They become dangerous, outdated, or ecologically damaging
• Dams are removed
What are the effects of dam removal?
• Can restore migration patterns
of fish
• Increases spawning grounds
• Expensive
• Flood control no longer possible
• Eliminates problems associated
with dam failure and collapse
• Increases rate of erosion until
water levels equalize
dam removal affects on community
dam being removed
What is population growth doing to water
• Humans must have water
• More humans = more pollution =
less potable water
• Higher demand on aquifers will
increase depletion problems
• What will happen to water
reserves in the future if
population trends continue?
• What is responsible for the spike
in population around 200 years
ago? http://joshuaproject.net/world-clock.php
• How does agriculture use water?
• How does recreation use water?
Home pools
Water parks
Water fights
How does sharing watersheds affect people?
• Many people may share
the same aquifer
• Pollutants that
contaminate one
person’s well, may
travel through the
aquifer to affect
neighbors that have
wells in the same
• Water use lab
• You will need:
Water use chart
To listen to the story
• Write! How did your location affect how much water you had to use?
What happened to the water in the well as you used/dumped it?
How do we clean water?
• Waste water treatment!
• Cleans water before it goes into
homes and after it comes out
• Has physical, chemical, and
biological components of cleaning
• Waste water treatment increases
quality and quantity of potable
• Removes effluent (liquid waste),
sediment, trash, some chemicals,
and biological components (fecal
matter, parasites) of water
How is water quality assessed?
• Chemical means
• pH, chemical analysis (what chemicals are present)
• Physical means
• Color, smell, visible pollution
• Biological index
• Pollution tolerant vs. pollution intolerant organisms
• Streams with high numbers of pollution intolerant organisms
= good quality
• Streams with low numbers of pollution intolerant organisms
and high numbers of pollution tolerant organisms = poor
• What if you have a high number of both?
What can we do to preserve water resources?
• Install devices to use less water in homes and businesses
• Low flow toilets and showerheads
• Turn water off when not in use
• Brushing teeth, doing dishes
• Give business to companies with sustainable practices
• Recycle water
• Drip line irrigation in agriculture
• Less water centered recreation in arid areas
• Prevent contamination
• Create a game board where you will explore water conservation
• Specific guidelines available online
Honors assignment!
• Create a brochure explaining why water conservation is important
and ways to conserve water

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