Unit 11 vocabulary words

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Unit 11 vocabulary words
Attitudinal view of
representation
The view which states that a
congressmen vote in
alignment with their ideologies
Bicameral legislature
A legislature that comprises of
two chambers
Caucus (congressional)
A meeting held by the House or
Senate or both to discuss and
possibly to perform legislative
research and policy planning for
its members
Christmas tree bill
A bill on the Senate floor that
attracts many, often unrelated,
floor amendments
Closed rule
A rule granted by the House
Rules Committee that
prohibits amendments to a
particular bill during House
floor action. Under a "closed
rule" the House must either
accept or reject the bill as
recommended by the
sponsoring committee.
Committee of the whole
A committee of all members of
a legislature that meets to
discuss a certain issue or bill
Concurrent resolution
Legislation adopted by both
Chambers to express the
position of Congress. As such
a resolution does not have the
signature of the President; it
does not have the force of
law.
Conference committee
A temporary panel of House and
Senate negotiators. A conference
committee is created to resolve
differences between versions of
similar House and Senate bills.
Congress
The legislature of the United
States government, comprised
of the House of
Representatives and the
Senate.
Congressional budget office
Provides Congress with
objective, timely, non-partisan
analysis needed for economic
and budget decisions and to
provide the information and
estimates required for the
Congressional budget
process.
Congressional research
service
A term for the Library of
Congress’s response to
requests for general
information and issue analysis
from Members, Committees,
or staff.
Conservative coalition
A coalition in American politics bringing
together Republicans (most of whom were
conservatives) and the minority of
conservative Democrats, most of them
from the South. The coalition largely
controlled Congress from 1937 to 1964
and continued as a potent force until the
mid-1980s, when reforms designed at
strengthening the Democratic party
leadership in the United States House of
Representatives came to fruition.
Descriptive representation
rather than the population at
large. According to this idea,
an elected body should
resemble a representative
sample of the voters they are
meant to represent concerning
outward characteristics - a
constituency of 50% women
and 20% blacks, for example,
should have 50% female and
Discharge petition
A petition to force a bill out of
committee. Requires a
majority vote.
Division vote
the chair counts the ayes then
the nays, names are not
recorded. A division vote is
used when the results of a
voice vote are in doubt.
Double-tracking
whereby a disputed bill is
temporarily shelved so that
the Senate can go on with
other business.
Filibuster
An extended debate in the
Senate which has the effect of
preventing a vote.
Franking privileges
to send official mail using
his/her signature instead of a
stamp.
General accounting office
The GAO audits federal
agencies and programs for
Congress
Gerrymandering
gerrymander was coined in
1812 when a county in
Massachusetts was
redistricted into a salamanderlike shape by Gov. Elbridge
Gerry for political purposes.
His last name was combined
with the word salamander to
get "gerrymander."
Honoraria
service or distinguished
achievement for which custom
or propriety forbids any fixed
price to be set.
Joint committee
and Senate. There are joint
committees on the library, on
printing, on taxation, and the
joint economic committee
Joint resolution
become public law if adopted
by both the House and Senate
and, where relevant, approved
by the president. In terms of
Constitutional amendments,
they must be approved by 3/4
of the states.
Majority leader
with the Minority Leader, the
other chamber, and the White
House. The Majority Leader
also seeks unity among
Members on the policy
positions taken by the party,
and works to put together
coalitions to create voting
majorities.
Majority-minority districts
Districts with a majority of
residents who are part of an
ethnic minority.
Malapportionment
Court in 1964 eliminated the
practice by requiring that all
districts in a state contain
about the same number of
people.
Marginal districts
general election gets less than
55 percent of the vote. Such
districts could easily switch to
the other party in the next
election.
Mark-up
vote on proposed changes to
the bill's language, known as
amendments. Most mark-ups
end with a vote to send the
new version of the bill to the
floor for final approval.
with the Minority Leader, the
other chamber, and the White
House. The Majority Leader
also seeks unity among
Members on the policy
positions taken by the party,
and works to put together
coalitions to create voting
majorities.
Multiple referral
The process of sending
legislation to be considered by
more than one committee.
Open rule
A rule allowing all relevant
amendments to be offered to
a bill, without any restrictions.
Organizational view of
representation
fellow members and obtain
their goodwill. Such behavior
is possible since constituents
seldom know how their
representatives vote.
Members vote by following
cues provided by colleagues.
Parliament
A legislative assembly.
Party unity vote
A vote that pits a majority of
one party against a majority of
the opposite party.
Pork-barrel legislation
describe a bill, it implies the
legislation is loaded with
special projects for Members
of Congress to distribute to
their constituents back home
as an act of largesse, courtesy
of the federal taxpayer.
President pro temporeb
absence of the Vice Preisdent.
The position is usually given
to the most senior senator of
the majority party.
individual citizen for a limited
and unique purpose. If enacted by
both the House & Senate and
approved by the president, they
become private, not public, law
Public bill
general interests. Most
legislation passed by the
House are public Bills.
Quorum
while 100 are needed in
Committee of the Whole. A
quorum in the Senate requires
the prescence of 51 senators.
Unless challenged by a point
of order, the Senate conducts
daily business without a
quorum present.
Quorum call
A Quorum Call seeks to bring
a majority of members to the
floor to record their presence.
Representational view of
representation
Representation based on
population. States with more
citizens receive more votes.
Restrictive rule
Representatives which
permits certain amendments
to a piece of legislation but not
others.
Rider
tries to "ride" it to passage on
the strength of the original bill.
Riders are permitted in the
Senate and are routine.
House rules ban riders unless
an exception is made.
Roll-call vote
A vote on the record, noting
the name of each member
and his voting position
Rules committee
specific area of policy, as
most other committees are, it
is in charge of determining
under what rule other bills will
come to the floor. As such, it
is one of the most powerful
committees, and often
described as "an arm of the
leadership".
Safe district
which the winner of the
general election gets a
majority of the vote, increasing
the chance of reelection.
Select committee
for a specific purpose and
usually for a limited period of
time.
Senatorial courtesy
nomination.
The Senate rarely confirms
presidential appointments if
the nominee's own senators
disapprove.
Sequential referral
to a sequential referral. This
obligates the first committee
designated to finish its
consideration by that date or
the bill will be automatically
discharged and sent to the
second, and subsequent
committees, if named in the
original referral.
Seventeenth amendment
of any State in the Senate, the
executive authority of each
State shall issue writs of
election to fill such vacancies:
Provided That the legislature
of any State may empower the
executive thereof to make
temporary appointments until
the people fill the vacancies
by election as the legislature
may direct.
Simple resolution
its non-binding opinion. It does
not become law. Uses include
modifying or proposing an
internal rule, or creating a new
committee.
Sophomore surge
votes candidates receive
between the first time elected
and their first time reelected.
Speaker of the house
House of Representatives.
The Speaker is elected by the
majority party in the House.
Standing committees
the House or Senate,
otherwise a select committee
is temporary depending on the
case.
Teller vote
A vote in which members turn
in signed index cards: green
for yea and red for nay.
Voice vote
A vote that requires only an
oral "aye" or "no"
Whip
A legislator appointed by the
party to enforce discipline

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