Speeches PowerPoint Speech Unit_2

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SPEECH UNIT
Part 2: Language & Mass Communication
IB11 Language and Literature
RESEARCH
• Using your SMART phones, research:
• Nelson Mandela (imprisonment and President of South Africa)
• Springbok Rugby Team
• Apartheid (what was this in South Africa? Groups involved?)
• Movie, Invictus
MORGAN FREEMAN PORTRAYING
NELSON MANDELA IN THE MOVIE
INVICTUS
• Context: The National Sports Council has just voted to change the colors,
emblem and name of South Africa’s National Rugby Team, the Springboks.
Upon hearing the news, Nelson Mandela (portrayed by Morgan Freeman)
rushes to the meeting to persuade the Council to reconsider its vote.
• Audience:
• Purpose:
• Effects:
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: Brothers, sisters, comrades, I am here because I believe you have
made a decision with insufficient information and foresight. I am aware of
your earlier vote. I am aware that it was unanimous.
Commentary: Mandela lets the Council know from the outset that he
disagrees with them. However, he is respectful of their authority and explicitly
recognizes their vote and the fact that the vote was unanimous.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: Nonetheless, I believe we should restore the Springboks. Restore their
name, their emblem and their colors, immediately.
• Commentary: He states his position clearly, forcefully and at the outset. There
is no room for doubt. He still has his work cut out for him, but everyone knows
where he stands. Coming clean with his audience at the outset will not likely
win much support – but it should earn him some respect for having the
courage to state his convictions openly.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: Let me tell you why. On Robben Island, in Pollsmoor Prison, all of my
jailers were Afrikaners. For 27 years, I studied them. I learned their language,
read their books, their poetry. I had to know my enemy before I could
prevail against him.
• Commentary: Here begins the argument. He immediately seeks common
ground with his audience. And that ground is obvious – the years of
oppression that they all suffered under Apartheid. Of course, Mandela had it
worse than most; but he doesn’t pity himself. Instead, he talks about the
effort he went through to understand the “enemy” – a strong word – in order
to prevail against him.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: And we did prevail, did we not? All of us here … we prevailed.
#1 Commentary: ??
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Commentary: Again, seeking common ground. And also letting the
audience know, subtly, that they have already won. There is no need to
continue to fight.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: Our enemy is no longer the Afrikaner. They are our fellow South
Africans, our partners in democracy.
• #2 Commentary: ??
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Commentary: This comes as a shock to many in the audience, but Mandela
has to get his point out: times have changed; we need to work together to
build the country. It is here that he starts to appeal to his audience to think
about a higher ideal.
• Text: And they treasure Springbok rugby. If we take that away, we lose
them. We prove that we are what they feared we would be.
• #3 Commentary: ??
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Commentary: Emphasizing that rugby is something more than a sport for the
Afrikaners; it is something that runs deep within them. Note the gesture with
his fist. And note also the caution at the end that the Council risks becoming,
in a sense, as oppressive as the Afrikaners had been in the past. This is a
powerful rhetorical tool – showing the audience that their position is similar to
something against which they are adamantly opposed.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: We have to be better than that. We have to surprise them with
compassion, with restraint, and generosity
• #4 Commentary: ??
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Commentary: Another call to a higher ideal.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: I know. All of the things they denied us.
• #5 Commentary: ??
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Commentary: Again recognizing the suffering of the audience in the past.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: But this is no time to celebrate petty revenge. This is the time to build our
nation using every single brick available to us – even if that brick comes
wrapped in green and gold.
• Commentary: ??
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Commentary: But immediately appealing once more to the higher ideal and
the importance of using every available resource to build the country.
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Text: You elected me your leader. Let me lead you now. Who is with me on
this? Who is with me?
• #6 Commentary: ??
WHAT DOES THE TEXT SAY?
• Commentary: Asserting his authority and ending with a call to action.
ANY GIVEN SUNDAY
• Get into groups
• Watch movie trailer
• Watch Al Pacino’s speech
• Fill in Audience, Purpose, Effects (of speech)
• For group assignments:
What do you notice in the speech? What’s Pacino saying? What’s the
effect of different elements that you notice? High light these elements and
write down notes.
--Write down notes
ANY GIVEN SUNDAY
• Get into combined groups and compare notes
• Present notes to class. Class take notes.
“WHAT’S IN YOUR BACK PACK?”
• Get into groups
• Watch movie trailer
• Watch George Clooney’s speech
• Fill in Audience, Purpose, Effects (of speech)
• For group assignments:
What do you notice in the speech? What’s Clooney saying? What’s
the effect of different elements that you notice? High light these elements and
write down notes.
--Write down notes
WHAT’S IN YOUR BACK PACK?
• Get into combined groups and compare notes
• Present notes to class. Class take notes.
COMP. BOOK #6
• What makes a good speech?
• What does a speaker need to do?
• What have you noticed works well in Morgan Freeman’s speech as Nelson
Mandela and Al Pacino/George Clooney’s speeches?
ANALYZING SPEECHES
WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
SPEECHES AND RHETORIC?
• Greek philosopher Aristotle defined rhetoric as “the
faculty of observing in any given case the available
means of persuasion.” Basically, it is the study and
the art of using language effectively to persuade an
audience. Speakers use rhetoric to persuade or
compel the audiences of their speeches.
CONTEXT & PURPOSE
• Rhetoric is always situational – it has a context – the occasion or the time
and place it was written or spoken – and a purpose or goal that the speaker
or writer wants to achieve.
CONTEXT
• When considering context – consider current events or cultural bias that the
speaker must take into account.
PURPOSE
• When considering purpose – ask if the speaker
is trying to win agreement, persuade us to take
action, evoke sympathy, make someone
laugh, inform, provoke, celebrate, repudiate,
put forth a proposal, secure support, or bring
about a favorable decision
ARISTOTLE’S RHETORICAL TRIANGLE
• Before looking at the construction of arguments, it is
first necessary to look at their shape and form. To do
this, we must recognize that arguments occur within
a social context--they are the process/product of
people interacting, and relating. Over the years,
several scholars have mapped out these relations,
much as you would a family tree. Aristotle was the
first to notice the similarities of arguments and stories.
For Aristotle, the act of storytelling consisted of three
elements: a story, a storyteller, and an audience.
ARISTOTLE’S RHETORICAL
TRIANGLE
Storyteller------------------------>Story----------------------------->Audience
Similarly, arguments also required these three elements:
Speaker/Writer--------------------->Message------------------->Audience
ARISTOTLE’S RHETORICAL
TRIANGLE
• Aristotle defined these three elements as ETHOS, LOGOS,
and PATHOS. Since then, different scholars have conceived
of different models of rhetoric, but the model we are
concerned with comes from Robert Scholes. Realizing the
three elements, Scholes examined the relationship between
the speaker/message, speaker/audience, and
message/audience. These three relations make up the
three sides of the rhetorical triangle. You may use this
triangle to map out the overall effectiveness of an
argument.
ARISTOTLE’S RHETORICAL
TRIANGLE
Note how the equilateral triangle below would refelct an
argument with a careful balance of ethos, logos, and pathos.
HOW DO SPEAKERS USE RHETORIC
TO PERSUADE AUDIENCES?
• According to Aristotle, speakers use the three corners of the rhetorical
triangle to persuade audiences.
ETHOS
• Ethos – represents the author's ability to reveal his or her credibility through
the tone established, his/her reputation, or the type or thoroughness of the
information being presented. (speaker)
ETHOS
PATHOS
• Pathos - represents the author's ability to appeal to the audience through
the use of figurative language, allusions, personal anecdotes, etc. to
engage their emotions. (audience)
http://www.storyboardthat.com/userboards/kated/pathos-in-action
PATHOS
LOGOS
• Logos - represents the author's ability to reveal logic and reason through their
offering of a clear claim (or main idea), specific details, examples, facts,
statistical data, or expert testimony and support. (subject)
http://www.storyboardthat.com/userboards/kated/logos-in-action
LOGOS
YOUR TURN
• You are to write appeals based on ethos,
pathos and logos.
• Your appeals must all be based on the
same product or idea.
• Be creative.
• Have fun.
• We will share these with the class.
WORKS CITED
• Docimo, Katherine. "Ethos, Pathos, Logos." Storyboardthat.com. N.p., 13 June
13. Web. 19 Sept. 14.
DICTION
• How does diction play a role in rhetoric?
DICTION
• The words speakers use shape an audience’s impression.
Understanding how diction works is paramount to
understanding rhetoric.
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN
ANALYZING DICTION:
• Which of the important words in the passage (verbs, nouns, adjectives, and
adverbs) are general and abstract? Which are specific and concrete? What
is the effect of abstract words? What is the effect of concrete words?
• Are the important words used formal, informal, colloquial, or slang? What is
the effect of using formal diction? What is the effect of using slang?
• Are some words used non-literal or figurative (figures of speech such as a
metaphor or simile)? What is the effect of using a metaphor or simile?
SYNTAX
• Another important aspect to consider is
syntax, or the organization of words into
sentences
QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER WHEN
ANALYZING SYNTAX:
• What is the order of the parts of the sentence? Is it the usual (subject-verbobject), or is it inverted? What is the effect of an inverted sentence?
• Which part of speech is more prominent – nouns or verbs? What is the effect
of a noun-heavy sentence?
• What are the sentences like? Are they periodic (moving toward something
important at the end) or cumulative (adding details and support as
important idea in the beginning of the sentence)? What is the effect of using
a periodic sentence?
• Are the sentences short, medium length, or long? What is the effect of the
length of sentences?
“THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS”
• Take out your phones or computers.
• Research The Battle of Gettysburg
RHETORICAL DEVICES
• The speech is full of rhetorical devices.
• Each of these devices was chosen by Lincoln
for a specific effect.
YOUR TASK
• Rewrite the speech removing ALL rhetorical
features from it.
• You are to create a speech with the same
meaning, but without any flourish.
• You will do this with your tablemate.
• While you do this, I will check off your speech terms
set.
ENUMERATIO
•
Figure of amplification in which a subject is
divided into constituent parts or details, and
may include a listing of causes, effects,
problems, solutions, conditions, and
consequences; the listing or detailing of the
parts of something.
WARM UP: ENUMERTIO
• "Much
will be said about my father the man, the storyteller, the
lover of costume parties, a practical joker, the accomplished
painter. He was a lover of everything French: cheese, wine, and
women. He was a mountain climber, navigator, skipper,
tactician, airplane pilot, rodeo rider, ski jumper, dog lover, and
all-around adventurer. Our family vacations left us all injured and
exhausted. He was a dinner table debater and devil's advocate.
He was an Irishman, and a proud member of the Democratic
Party."
-- Ted Kennedy, Jr., Eulogy for Ted Kennedy, Sr.
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/figures/enumeratio.htm
WARM-UP: ENUMERATIO
Kramer: "Who's gonna turn down a Junior Mint? It's chocolate; it's
peppermint; it's delicious."
Seinfeld: "That's true."
Kramer: "It's very refreshing!“
-- from the TV sitcom Seinfeld
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/seinfeldenumeratio.mp3
COMP. BOOK #8:
SPEECH TERM WARM-UP: ENUMERATIO
• Write a series of sentences which employ
enumeratio.
BACKGROUND RESEARCH
“THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS” PRESENTATION
• Group Work
• #1: Abraham Lincoln
• #2: “The Gettysburg Address”
• #3: The Battle of Gettysburg
Directions:
1) Label each piece of butcher paper with title of subject
(e.g. Abraham Lincoln)
2) List at least 6 facts about your assigned topic
3) Present your poster
C.A.P.E.
• Context:
• Audience:
• Purpose:
• Effect(s):
LISTEN TO “THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS”
• Colin Powell https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mn4pUQmimOc
• Ken Burns https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndmcgAsA1aI
DISCUSS “THE GETTYSBURG ADDRESS”
• What do you notice?
• What is Abraham Lincoln saying?
PARALLELISM
Parallelism: Figure of balance identified by a
similarity in the syntactical structure of a set of
words in successive phrases, clauses,
sentences; successive words, phrases, clauses
with the same or very similar grammatical
structure. This figure often occurs in a public
address with others such as
antithesis, anaphora, asyndeton.
WARM-UP: PARALLELISM
• "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill,
that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet
any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to
assure the survival and the success of liberty.“
-- John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/jf
kparallelism.mp3
WARM-UP: PARALLELISM
• "I've tried to offer leadership to the Democratic Party and
the Nation. If, in my high moments, I have done some
good, offered some service,shed some light, healed some
wounds, rekindled some hope, or stirred someone from
apathy and indifference, or in any way along the way
helped somebody, then this campaign has not been in
vain."
-- Jesse Jackson, 1984 Democratic National Convention
Address
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/jessejacksonparallelism.mp3
WARM-UP: PARALLELISM
• "We have seen the state of our Union in the
endurance of rescuers, working past
exhaustion. We've seen the unfurling of flags, the
lighting of candles, the giving of blood, the saying of
prayers -- in English, Hebrew, and Arabic."
George W. Bush, 9-20-01 Address to the Nation on
Terrorism
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/georgewbushparallelism.
mp3
COMP. BOOK #8:
SPEECH TERM WARM-UP: PARALLELISM
• Write a series of sentences which employ
parallelism.
ANAPHORA
• Anaphora (an-NAF-ruh): Figure of repetition
that occurs when the first word or set of words
in one sentence, clause, or phrase is/are
repeated at or very near the beginning of
successive sentences, clauses, or phrases;
repetition of the initial word(s) over successive
phrases or clauses.
WARM-UP:ANAPHORA
• "To raise a happy, healthy, and hopeful child, it
takes a family; it takesteachers; it takes clergy; it
takes business people; it takes community leaders; it
takes those who protect our health and safety. It
takes all of us."-- Hillary Clinton, 1996 Democratic
National Convention Address
Note: Can you spot the alliteration?
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/
hillaryclintonanaphora.mp3
WARM-UP: ANAPHORA
• "That my heart has been troubled, that I have not
sought this nomination, that I could not seek it in
good conscience, that I would not seek it in honest
self-appraisal, is not to say that I value it the less.
Rather, it is that I revere the office of the Presidency
of the United States."-- Adlai Stevenson, 1952 DNC
Presidential Nomination Acceptance Address
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/adlaistevensonanaphora.
mp3
WARM-UP: ANAPHORA
• "What we need in the United States is not division. What we need in the United
States is not hatred. What we need in the United States is not violence and
lawlessness; but is love and wisdom and compassion toward one another,
and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country
whether they be white or whether they be black."
-- Robert F. Kennedy, Announcing the death of Martin Luther King
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/rfkanaphora.mp3
“SECOND INAUGURAL”
• Today we are going to start looking at
Lincoln’s “Second Inaugural” speech.
• What is an inaugural speech?
INTRODUCTION
• Write an introduction as if you were writing an analysis essay
for “The Gettysburg Address”
• Details
• Begin with a “hook”
• Consider the background research you’ve done
--The Battle of Gettysburg (1/3)
--”The Gettysburg Address” (2/3)
• Include a claim as the last sentence
• Must be 5-8 sentences in length
INTRO. HOOK---FIVE STRATEGIES
• Make a controversial statement
• Ask a question
• Define your subject
• Compare your subject to something
compelling
• Quote someone else
BACKGROUND RESEARCH
“SECOND INAUGURAL”
Directions:
GOAL: Establish context and purpose of this speech
1) Research Lincoln’s speech
2) Write down at least 6 facts on the back of the speech
that you found.
3) Walk around room and add your research to the
hanging posters. Your contribution must be original
ANALYZING A SPEECH
•What should do after you have
established the context for the
speech?
ANALYZING A SPEECH
• Read for comprehension
• Circle unknown or interesting words
• Patterns
DISTINCTIO
• Distinctio: Figure of explication (full
explanation) in which an introductory
reference to a word's meaning is made (e.g.,
"by x I mean", "which is to say that", "that is")
followed by a further elaboration of that
word's meaning; explicit definition of or
elaboration upon the meaning or meanings of
a particular word or set of words.
WHICH RHETORICAL DEVICE IS IT?
• "Let me walk you through the five procedural errors that occurred in
conjunction with that mission [the flying of 12 cruise missiles back to
Barksdale AFB, Louisiana] that facilitated this serious and unprecedented
incident. As you see here -- if we'll bring up slide 1, please -- on the morning
of August 29th, a team of Minot airmen was dispatched to the base
Weapons Storage Area to pick up and transport two pylons to a Barksdale B52 aircraft. For those of you unfamiliar with the term "pylon," for our purposes
today, a pylon is a self-contained package of six cruise missiles that can be
quickly mounted to the wing of a B-52."-- U.S. Department of Defense briefing
on B-52 munitions and the "Bent Spear" incident, delivered 20 October 2007
by Major General Richard Y. Newton III, USAF
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/figures/distinctio.htm
WHICH RHETORICAL DEVICE IS IT?
• "I've been in football all my life, really, and I want to say this -- that it's a great
game, and it's a Spartan type of game. I mean by that it takes Spartan
qualities in order to be a part of it, to play it. And I speak of the Spartan
qualities of sacrifice and self-denial rather than that other Spartan quality of
leaving the weak to die."
-- Vince Lombardi
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/vincelombardidistinctio.m
p3
DISTINCTIO
• "It was the best of times, it was the -- I say -- worst of times -- andby worse I'm
talkin' as bad -- I say -- as bad as my aunt Jenny's corn puddin'. That stuff will
sink you like a stone."-- delivered by Foghorn Leghorn for GEICO
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/figures/distinctio.htm
COMP. BOOK #
DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
“I Have a Dream”
BACKGROUND RESEARCH
“I HAVE A DREAM”
Directions:
GOAL: Establish context and purpose of this speech
• Research King’s speech
• Write down at least 10 facts for the following topics:
1. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
2. Civil Rights Movement (1960s)
3. “I Have a Dream” Speech
SHARE RESEARCH
• Get together in larger group according to topic
• Discuss research
• Compile research and create word doc. with top 10 points
to be shared with the class
• Email doc. to Mrs. Milstead:
[email protected]
TIME DUE: 1:15
• Groups present their research to the class.
• Audience to take notes
ANALYZING A SPEECH
•What should do after you have
established the context for the
speech?
ANALYZING A SPEECH
• Read for comprehension
• Circle unknown or interesting words
• Patterns
“I HAVE A DREAM”
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=smEqnnklfYs
ANALYZING A SPEECH
•The Big 5 of textual analysis
•Tone/ Mood Sheet
ANTITHESIS
• Antithesis (an-TIH-theh-sis): Figure of balance in which two
contrasting ideas are intentionally juxtaposed, usually
through parallel structure; a contrasting of opposing ideas in
adjacent phrases, clauses, or sentences. Ex: "He is no fool
who gives what he cannot keep to gain that which he
cannot lose" -- Jim Elliot
• Ex: Lloyd Braun: "Serenity now; insanity later." -from Seinfeld episode "The Serenity Now"
WHICH RHETORICAL DEVICE IS IT?
• "I have a dream that my four little children will one
day live in a nation where they will not be judged
by the color of their skin but by the content of their
character. I have a dream today!"-- Martin Luther
King, Jr., I Have a Dream
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures
/martinlutherkingantithesis.mp3
WHICH RHETORICAL DEVICE IS IT?
• "The world will little note, nor long
remember, what we say here, but it can
never forget what they did here."-Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg
Address (delivered by Jeff Daniels)
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/abrahamlincolnantithesis.
mp3
ANTITHESIS
• "...although the surface appears to be...very, very
fine-grained as you get close to it. It's almost like a
powder...Okay, I'm going to step off the LEM
now. That's one small step for [a] man; one giant
leap for mankind."-- Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 Moon
Landing Speech
http://www.americanrhetoric.com/mp3clips/figures/
neilarmstrongantithesis.mp3
ANNOTATE THE SPEECH
• Individually annotate assigned section
• With a partner:
• Share annotations/ continue to annotate assigned section of
the speech for rhetorical terms
• Prepare a PowerPoint presentation
• Read passage
• Explain what passage is about
• Present annotations & their effects
• Submit to turnitin.com
• PowerPoint should be clear and easy to understand and see
MINI SPEECH ASSIGNMENT
• Speech opening, position, and point
• 500 words MLA format
MINI SPEECH ASSIGNMENT—
BRAINSTORM TOPIC
Individually….
Choose topic
1. State position
2. What points are you going to cover
* Complete this work beneath the rubric on the back of the
assignment sheet.
Table partners…
Share what you brainstormed
MINI SPEECH ASSIGNMENT—
OUTLINE
I. Outline due: Friday, Oct. 10th
A. typed
B. bring two copies to class
**Reference
Milstead
sample outline from Mrs.

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