2013 Illinois Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders’ Conference Sheila Marie Trzcinka, Ph.D. Consultant [email protected] Midwest Urban School District Demographics Racial: 84% Black, 9% White, 5% Hispanic, and 2% other SES: Median Household Income: $27,195 K-12 enrollment, 9,519 One: Day Treatment Program for students with E/BD The paraprofessionals within the day treatment program Paraprofessionals provided no instruction, instead: Recorded only behavioral data points Reprimanded students by reinforcing inappropriate behavior Conducted personal activities during class time (e.g., craft projects, eating, reading). Restrained and physically attacked students. Refused to carry out instructional requests from their assigned teachers. Culture of corruption – jobs are political patronage (untouchables) "Iron rice bowl“* *A Chinese term used to refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security, as well as steady income and benefits. There is no problem - denial “Paras have all been adequately trained”* Resistance to change * Any instructional paraprofessional employed after January 8, 2002, must either have completed two years of college, hold a two-year degree, or pass a state or local assessment. Help administrators/teachers recognize there was a problem. Help administrators/teachers understand what a paraprofessional should be doing. Change the picture in his/her head of a responsibilities of paraprofessionals. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What are your expectations for your teachers in this school? What are your expectations for your paraprofessionals in this school? What training or qualifications are people required to have to work here in day treatment? What additional training have they received? How happy are you with the performances of your teachers and paraprofessionals? Tell us about your school and classroom rules and behavior. What behaviors do you expect teachers to punish and how do you expect them to punish the student? What behaviors do you ask your teachers to reinforce or reward? Initial assessment to start the conversation about the duties and responsibilities of paras. Grskovic & Trzcinka, 2013 CEC Para-educator Professional Development Standards Foundations Development and Characteristics of Learners Individual Learning Differences Instructional Strategies Learning Environments and Social Interactions Language Instructional Planning Assessment Professional and Ethical Practice Collaboration Conduct Needs Assessment Provide Professional Development Role clarification - Understanding role/work of a paraprofessional Understanding the hierarchy Classroom management skills Skills in teaching social skills Skills in how to teach academics (reading) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What do you consider to be the most important abilities that your job requires? What are some aspects of your job that you like the best/least? What are some ways in which your supervising teacher can help you do a better job? In what aspects of your job do you feel you need more training & experience? What recommendations would you make to help the classroom run more efficiently? (Grskovic & Trzcinka, 2013) In preparation for next week’s session, please briefly describe your experiences with helping students with the following areas of reading. What do you use with students? Worksheets? Read a louds? Games or other techniques? Phonics Reading comprehension Comprehension in subject areas Word attack skills Letter recognition Sound recognition Providing context skills How could you be more effective increasing the student achievement in reading? Use the other side also. Thank you. Provide Training 5 one-hour sessions (after school) Self-assessment of paraprofessional’s skills Role clarification Videos (image in the head) Skill training Lack of attendance (avoidance) Conflict with a student teacher (called the union) Change in Building Principal Change in Principal expectations Change in teacher expectations Change in paraprofessional behavior Developed Paraprofessional Manual New Beginnings New Roles: Supervision of Paraprofessionals New Roles: Paraprofessionals New Administrator New Teachers Acknowledgement: Research conducted by Dr. Janice A. Grskovic and Dr. Sheila Marie Trzcinka to support the professional development efforts of a mid-western urban school corporation through a university/school collaboration. Orientation Planning Scheduling Delegating On-the-job Training Monitoring task performance Managing the workplace French, 2008 1. Define paraprofessional roles a. b. Specifically define classroom responsibilities Follow/create job description 2. Train paraprofessional to fulfill roles a. b. Describe classroom procedures for para to fulfill Initially, monitor closely para performance 3. Evaluate paraprofessional performance a. b. c. Develop method to assess performance Create a schedule of when and how assessments occur Share assessment form and schedule 4. Communicate, collaborate, redefine, reconstruct paraprofessional role within guidelines of CEC and district job description a. b. Establish periodic meetings to review role responsibilities Meet informally to briefly ‘touch-base’ on red flags Role confusion Social versus professional relationship confusion Skills and knowledge of team members are not known Elusive long-range goals Confusion about how teams will operate Gerlach, 2010 Coordinate Your schedule and Theirs Establish CLEAR goals for classroom professionalism with students AND adults Provide time for Daily or Periodic planning Utilize Strengths and Interests of paraprofessional to delegate supportive instructional, behavioral, clerical tasks Schedule time for observation and feedback to the paraprofessional As the educational staff in the classroom, both the teacher and paraeducator work together to facilitate the academic and social growth of our students. The teacher develops; the paraprofessional supports. The following agreement outlines the recognized activities we agree to pursue within the classroom. As the classroom teacher, I will: • Take responsibility for delivering whole class instruction to students • Develop educational and behavioral plans for individual students • Develop a classroom management program • Prepare the paraeducator to perform all classroom tasks asked of him • Evaluate paraeducator performance objectively • Meet with parents, teachers, and related service providers • Notify paraeducator of changes to the academic or behavioral program in the classroom • Listen to and consider the insights the paraeducator has for students As the classroom paraeducator, I will: • Support students in need of academic assistance during instructional periods • Implement educational and behavioral plans, designed by teacher, for individual students • Assist with implementing the classroom management program • Ask for guidance from teacher in using appropriate consequences for students • Prepare materials provided by teacher to be used for student instruction • Collect data on student academic and behavioral performance as instructed by the teacher • Collect student work at the end of instructional periods • Provide information to teacher to assist with instructional and behavioral interventions. Together, the teacher & paraeducator accept responsibility for the classroom and will implement, to the best of their ability, the duties outlined above. Signed: Teacher/Date Paraeducator/Date Adapted from: Maggin, 2009 Provide Clear Directions Providing clear directions and helping students comply is essential to maintaining a productive learning environment. Establish eye contact with the student Look at the student and state the student’s name when making a request. Example: “John, put your book away and line up at the door.” Make requests specific In a calm, clear voice, provide a precise description of what you expect from the student. Example: “Sam, quietly read the first paragraph on page 14.” Make one request at a time Do not ask the student to do several things at once. The student may be overwhelmed and may not be able to remember everything. After the student has complied with one request, you may make an additional request. Allow time for compliance State what you want the student to do and give the student three to five seconds to comply. If the student does not comply, restate the request. Praise the student for complying Provide verbal reinforcement when the student complies with your request. This will encourage further compliance in the future. Physical Assistance Full prompt – Hand-over-hand assistance Hold the student’s hand while the student holds a pencil Partial prompt – Supportive guidance Support the student’s wrist while the student writes Verbal Direct – Clear statement “Put your book in your desk.” Indirect – Ask a question “What should you do next?” Model Show student, student imitates Write the student’s name on a paper, Student then writes or traces his/her name Gesture Movement/motion Put your finger to your mouth to remind the student to be quiet Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network What will I be doing? How will I know what to do? When will I be told? Can I make adaptations or modifications? What data should I collect? How often? What is the format for data collection? How will the data be used? Reading components emphasized: Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary building Comprehension Fluency Never be afraid to seek clarification!!! Determine the focus of the lesson Memorizing facts? Addition Subtraction, etc. Developing math skills? • Money • Time • Budget creation • Transportation Navigation Analyzing/solving word problems? How specifically does the para assist student? Explicitly describe the exact accommodation from the IEP!!!! Explain: What to do if student needs something different during the testing situation What to do if the student asks for something different What to do if the student becomes emotionally upset What to do if the student cannot respond to the test What to do if the student becomes noticeably tired Change in the manner in which a student responds or demonstrates knowledge Read a passage that a student cannot read independently Whenever accommodations are made, BE SURE to have the para document what was done Training Schedule Task: Implementing Classroom Management Package Method: Paraeducator will observe teacher for three sessions, implement with teacher support for three sessions, and implement without teacher support. Schedule: Sessions will occur during wholeclass language arts on a daily basis. List of Potentially Important Outcomes Number of paraeducator praise statements, total disruptive behaviors, number of students to complete work on time, aggressive behaviors, number of paraeducator academic questions Rank Order of Important Outcomes 1. Disruptive behaviors 2. Aggressive behaviors 3. Number of students to complete work on time Define Outcome Most Important to Measure Disruptive behaviors will be those behaviors demonstrated by students that do not comply with classroom rules. These behaviors include calling-out, unapproved talking to peers, and refusal to do work Data Collection System Para will collect data by moving a marble from the right pocket to the left pocket for each disruptive behavior observed, • Frequency of Data Collection Sessions Data will be collected on a daily basis, per the training schedule. • Total Behaviors Observed for this Session: • Goal for Next Session: Maggin, 2009 Acknowledge your role as supervisor, not a friend Define & continually refine communication between you and your paraprofessional Learn to delegate the instructional & clerical supporting tasks using clear descriptions Train the paraprofessional how to use your Lesson Plan book Establish an effective, caring, professional interpersonal relationship Clarify continually your expectations Area Special Education Cooperative. (2003). Special education paraprofessional handbook. Grand Forks, MN. Carnahan, C. R., Williamson, P., Clarke, L., & Sorenson, R. (2009). A systematic approach for supporting paraeducators in educational settings: A guide for teachers. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41(5). 34-43. Council for Exceptional Children, (2011), Special Education Professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards: Special Education Paraeducator Common Core Specialty Set. Arlington, VA: Author. Doyle, M. B. (2008). The paraprofessional’s guide to the inclusive classroom: Working as a Team. Baltimore: Brookes. French, N. A. (2008). A guide to the supervision of paraeducators. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources Grskovic, J. A. , & Trzcinka, S. M. (2013). Paraprofessional Handbook (DRAFT).. Gerlach, K. (2010) Let’s team up! A checklist for paraeducators, teachers, and principals. Washington, DC: National Education Association. Grskovic, J. A. , & Trzcinka, S. M. (2013). Dismantling barriers. Teacher Education Division of Council for Exceptional Children. Fort Lauderdale, FL. Maggin, D. M., Wehby, J. H., Moore-Partin, T. C., Robertson, R., & Oliver, R. M. (2009). Supervising paraeducators in classrooms for children with emotional and behavioral disorders. Beyond Behavior, Summer, 2-9. Riggs, C. (2004). To teachers: What paraeducators want you to know. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(5), 812. Trzcinka, S. M. (2013). Paraprofessionals supporting teachers: Reading for students with emotional disabilities. Gary, IN. Riggs, C. (2004). To teachers: What paraeducators want you to know. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36(5), 8-12.