SRSD presentation

Report
1
SELF-REGULATED STRATEGY
DEVELOPMENT (SRSD)
INSTRUCTION
Harris, K, Graham, S, Mason, L. & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful
writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Objectives
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


Describe how self-regulated strategy development
can support struggling writers.
Name strategies for teaching informational writing,
narrative, and revising.
Identify how writing instruction can embed selfregulation.
Agenda
3



What is a struggling writer?
What does the research says works for struggling
writers?
Self-Regulated Strategy Development
 Writing
Strategies
 Informational
 Narrative
 Revising
 How
to Teach the Strategies
 Self-Monitoring
Let’s Try This!
4

30 seconds to plan
3 minutes to write

Write about your most memorable school year.

Let’s Try This!
5


30 seconds to plan
3 minutes to write
A Few New Rules
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Include a period after ever 5th word.
Puts quotations marks around every “verb.”
Capitalize every five letter word.
Spell every four letter word backward.
Also, you MUST write with your non-dominant hand.
Let’s Try This!
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



30 seconds to plan
3 minutes to write
An Inspirational Person in your life.
Remember the rules.
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Struggling Writers
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Strengths
Challenges
Informational Writing Assignment
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Students will select a state gems or minerals (quartz,
amethyst, etc.) or a mineral that is native to their region.
They will use various internet and nonfiction resources to
gather information and write a report about their mineral or
gem. Their reports will include: where the mineral is found,
a description of its physical attributes, and its uses.
Informational Paper 1
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Informational
Paper 2
Informational
Paper 3
Informational
Paper 4
The Challenge of Helping Struggling
Writers
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
Generating content:
 Struggling
writers do not know how to access what they
know in writing
 They do not have as much difficulty when given the
opportunity to “say” rather than “write” what they know

Making revisions
 Less
than 20% of revisions made by struggling writers
change the original text
 Revisions tend to focus on word substitution, mechanical
errors, or a neater product because these “rules” are
concrete and accessible.
Why Do Students Struggle?
16

Struggling writers do not respond to the abstract
terms that are a part of the writing process
(brainstorm, plan, draft, and revise), even though
they have received writing instruction.
Recommendations
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


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
Strategy instruction has a high evidence base
Teach the writing process
 The planning step is often short-changed
 Revising and editing are challenging
Time needs to be allocated to writing instruction
Writing experiences should be purposeful and offer variety
Research supports the Self-Regulated Strategy
Development Model
Philosophy of the Self-regulated
Strategy Development Strategy
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

Provides struggling writers with specific, concrete
strategies
Helps students by providing concrete models for
“what has to happen in the mind”
Review of research supporting SRSD
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

Over 40 studies using the SRSD model of instruction have
been reported (elementary through high school)
Significant findings in four main aspects of student
performance:




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
Quality of writing
Knowledge of writing
Approach to writing
Self-efficacy
Meaningful improvements found with average-to-better
writers, as well as students who score at or below the 25th
percentile on writing measures
Research based practice according to CEC’s Evidence Based
Practices Identification Criteria
“Pros” of the strategy
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

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Little to no start up cost
Materials readily available
“transparency” of the materials
Systematic, explicit, and consistent implementation
strategy for teaching
“Cons” of the strategy
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


Sheer number of strategies
Newness of strategy; many teachers may be
unfamiliar with approach
Does not specifically teach mechanics of writing
Target Audience
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

Wide range of students from “average-to-better”
writers, as well as students who score at or below
the 25th percentile on writing measures
Can be effective in one-to-one, small group, or
inclusive classroom instructional setting
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Stages of Instruction
Develop Background Knowledge
Discuss It
Model It
Memorize It
Support It
Independent Performance
Student Assessment Prior to
Implementation
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
Assessment is integrated in steps of implementation:
 Stage
1: Develop background knowledge (can assess
preskills here)
 Stage 2: Discuss it
 Stage 3: Model it (think alouds)
 Stage 4: Memorize it
 Stage 5: Support it (use scaffolding; critical and
longest stage)
 Stage 6: Independent performance (goal: “covert”
self-instruction)
Step 1: Activate and Develop Background
Knowledge
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
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Discuss the characteristics of good writing.
Teach text structure for genre to be developed
Develop the vocabulary of the genre.
Introduce the mnemonic for the strategy.
Use a mentor text in the genre being address to
develop relevant vocabulary, genre knowledge, and
writing techniques.
A Metascript of Instructional Stages in Self-Regulated
Strategy Development (SRSD)
Step 2: Discuss It
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




Introduce the strategy to be taught and discuss its
benefits and applications.
Practice finding the genre-specific elements in different
selections.
Introduce graphing (self-monitoring) using prior
compositions (this assists with goal setting).
Poor stories or essays can be presented and
collaboratively improved.
Emphasize effort to improve. Establish a commitment to
learn the strategy and act as a collaborative partner.
Step 3: Model It
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
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Model strategy steps and self-regulation procedures
across varied tasks.
Discuss ways that strategy steps may need to be
modified for varied tasks, settings, or goals.
Collaboratively develop self-talk, self-monitoring, and
self-reinforcement procedures.
Develop personalized self-instructions that will be used
throughout the writing process.
Begin exploring application across tasks and settings
(generalization).
Step 4: Memorize It
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
Have students memorize strategy steps,
mnemonics, and self-talk.
Step 5: Support It
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Collaboratively practice using the strategy steps and
self-regulation procedures.
Collaboratively establish challenging but attainable
writing goals.
Gradually fade support as students gain competence.
Discuss generalization and maintenance; assign
homework for generalization.
Step 6: Independent Practice
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Students use the writing strategies and selfregulation procedures independently.
 Monitor use. Support as necessary.
 Fading of overt self-regulation may begin.
 Plans for maintenance and generalization
continue to be discussed and implemented.

Some Tips on Promoting Strategy Maintenance
and Generalization
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Strategy instruction must be prolonged, covering
implementation across tasks, settings, and people
Make the expectation for continued use in many
contexts explicit
Solicit students’ ideas about the conditions under which
a strategy might be deployed and what modifications
might be necessary
Use other school personnel as confederates (i.e., have
them prompt and reinforce strategy use and report on
students’ efforts; have students report back as well)
Some Tips on Promoting Strategy
Maintenance and Generalization
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
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Always relate task performance to strategy use (e.g., discuss
performance before versus after strategy instruction; have
students evaluate pretest/posttest writing samples written by
others who learned the strategy)
Plan instructional booster sessions
Have students teach the strategy to others
Have students create a transportable binder in which cue sheets
or procedural facilitators are inserted and indexed
Encourage students to personalize the strategy after they have
mastered the original steps
Authorize students who excel at particular strategies (or
knowledge or skills) to be experts and serve as a resource for
fellow students
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Types of Strategies
Two Major Text Structures
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Informational
(Expository)
Opinion
Informative
Explanatory
Research
Story
(Narrative)
Story
Personal Narrative
Writing Strategies
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Planning Strategies

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POW+TREE (persuasive)
STOP and DARE
(persuasive)
TREE BRANCH
(expository)
PLANS (expository)
POW + WWW WHAT2, HOW=2 (narrative)
Revising Strategies


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CDO
SEARCH
COLA
PQP (Peer-Revising)
P-O-W!
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Pick my idea

Organize my notes (T-R-E-E)

Write and say more
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When you introduce a strategy...
remember the SRSD Model
Build background
 Discuss
 Model
 Memorize
 Support
 Independent Practice

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Strategies for Informational Writing
POW + TREE
STOP and DARE
TREE BRANCH
T-R-E-E:
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Topic
Reasons
End it
Examine
Paragraph Version
T-R-E-E:
Essay Version
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Topic
Reasons
Explain your reasons
End it
SHOULD CHILDREN HAVE TO GO
OUTSIDE FOR RECESS?
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Everyone should have to go outside for recess. One
reason why everyone should go outside is because
children need to move their bodies. When kids are outside
for recess, they are doing a lot of running, jumping, and
climbing. Another reason for going outside is to get out of
the classroom. It is hard to sit in one place all day. Kids
need to get up and go outside. Another good reason for
going outside is that you get to meet kids from different
grades. They can teach you games that you don’t know. A
final reason for going outside is to play sports. The
teacher won’t let you play soccer or dodge ball inside.
These are some of the reasons why I believe kids should
go outside for recess.
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TREE BRANCH
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The parts of a good report include:
T  Tell what your topic is and why it’s important with a good lead
R  Relate important and interesting facts about your topic
E  Elaborate on the facts with supporting data
E  End with a summary that makes the reader want to find out more
The steps to write a good report are:
B  Brainstorm idea words for my plan
R  Recite my self-talk to keep me going strong
A  Ask myself if my ideas will meet my writing goals
N  Now write a report with good organization, powerful words, and accurate
information
C  Challenge myself to come up with more good ideas
H  Have a close look at my paper for mistakes
PLANS
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
Do P
L
A
N
S


Pick Goals
List Ways to Meet Goals
And
Make Notes
Sequence Notes
Write and Say More
Test Goals
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Strategies for Narrative Text
Narrative Text
Strategies for Narrative
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
W-W-W, What= 2, How=2
 Who,
When, Where
 What do the characters want?
 What happens?
 How does it end?
 How does the main character feel?

Story Maps
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Supporting Self-Regulation
Goal Setting
Self-Instructions (Talk)
Self-Monitoring
Self-Reinforcement
Components of Self-Regulation
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Goal Setting
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enhances attention, motivation, and effort
facilitates strategic behavior
prompts self-evaluation
goals should be challenging, specific, proximal, and, if
possible, self-selected
goals can focus on a process or an aspect of the product (for
product goals, quality and quantity goals can be
established)
Sample Goals
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complete a planning sheet/organizer using words or phrases
revise at least twice, once with a checklist, once with a peer
use the spell checker plus backward read aloud to correct
spelling mistakes
include an initiating event, then two actions, and finally a
consequence  increase organization score by one point
include 5 main ideas in a report  increase content score
by two points
include 15 action helpers, descriptive words, or transition
words  increase word choice score by two points
have no more than 5 errors per page  increase
conventions score by one point
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Self-Instruction (instructions or questions)
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help orient attention to relevant information, organize
thoughts, plan actions, and execute behaviors
help cope with anxiety, frustration, self-doubt, and
impulsivity
provide self-affirmation and encouragement
Self-Monitoring

comprised of self-monitoring and self-recording

can self-assess attention, strategy use, and performance
most effective for performance deficits
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Self-reinforcement
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requires self-evaluation in relation to a performance
standard
just as powerful as external inducements
Environmental Management

arranging work environment to maximize productivity (e.g.,
seeking a quiet work space, having all necessary materials,
playing soothing music)
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Goal-Setting
I can set goals for my writing.
Self-Evaluate
I have met my goal. I used
my strategies.
I have not met my goal yet. I
have improved.
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Self-Talk
I will pick my idea. I will
organize my notes and then
I’ll write to say more.
T-What will be my topic
sentence.
R-What are my reasons?
E-I will explain my reasons.
E-I will end it.
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Self-Talk
I will pick my idea. I will
organize my notes and then
I’ll write to say more.
T-What will be my topic
sentence.
R-What are my reasons?
E-I will explain my reasons.
E-I will end it.
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Self-Monitoring
I self-monitoring my use
of the strategy.
I self-monitor the use of
transition words.
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Revising
What is Revising?
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Re-seeing goals, ideas, and text
Dissonance location and resolution
Occurs throughout the writing process
Metaphor of pruning and grafting
Why is Revising So Difficult?
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Make inaccurate presuppositions regarding shared
understanding
Focus on localized and superficial issues rather than
discourse-level issues
Miss inaccuracies and confusing spots and/or do not
know what to change when a problem is detected
Feel too wedded to text already produced
Difficulty managing revising along with other
cognitive, linguistic, physical, and motivational
operations
Little instruction is devoted to helping students revise
Teachers give limited helpful feedback on papers
How Can We Foster Effective Revising?
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Examination of touchstone texts and comparing these
with weak exemplars
Activities to develop genre and topic knowledge
Extensive modeling
Word-processing software
Checklists (e.g., COLA, SEARCH)
Peer and teacher conferencing (e.g., PQP)
Tactical procedures (e.g., goal setting, flash-drafting,
CDO)
Snapshots and thoughtshots to explode the moment
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Adapted from De La Paz & Graham, 1999
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The PQP Method of Responding to Writing
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
P (Praise) What do you like about my paper?

Q (Question) What questions do you have about my
paper?

P (Polish) What kinds of polishing do you feel my
paper needs before it can be published?
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Compare/contrast elements of the
strategy with class
Provides
Strategies to
support this
6 stages
Provided for
In stages and
specific
strategies
Variety of
Strategies to
Teach different
writing skills
Monitoring student progress
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Students self evaluate (written products)
Assess changes in student writing behavior, attitudes,
and cognition
Assess
 before
(cognition)
 During (process)
 After (final product, portfolio, benchmarks)
Addressing learning differences
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
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Attention: Embedded in model, specific emphasis on
scaffolding during stage 5 (support)
Spatial and sequential processing: Embedded in model
Language: Use very specific language during modeling
stage
Memory: Embedded in model (allow extended use of
strategy rather than memorization); book marks, etc.
Higher order thinking: Embedded in model
Motor skills: Consultation with OT, HWWT, assistive
technology
A Final Word…
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


Please, please, please don’
’t PEE in the classroom!
Posting, Explaining, and then Expecting
PEEing doesn’
’t make a meaningful difference for
most students. Real improvement requires all stages
of instruction be implemented with integrity. There’
’s
no magic in the mnemonics. It is in the teaching,
modeling, and holding students’ accountable.

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