1 SELF-REGULATED STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (SRSD) INSTRUCTION Harris, K, Graham, S, Mason, L. & Friedlander, B. (2008). Powerful writing strategies for all students. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. Objectives 2 Describe how self-regulated strategy development can support struggling writers. Name strategies for teaching informational writing, narrative, and revising. Identify how writing instruction can embed selfregulation. Agenda 3 What is a struggling writer? What does the research says works for struggling writers? Self-Regulated Strategy Development Writing Strategies Informational Narrative Revising How to Teach the Strategies Self-Monitoring Let’s Try This! 4 30 seconds to plan 3 minutes to write Write about your most memorable school year. Let’s Try This! 5 30 seconds to plan 3 minutes to write A Few New Rules 6 1. 2. 3. 4. Include a period after ever 5th word. Puts quotations marks around every “verb.” Capitalize every five letter word. Spell every four letter word backward. Also, you MUST write with your non-dominant hand. Let’s Try This! 7 30 seconds to plan 3 minutes to write An Inspirational Person in your life. Remember the rules. 8 Struggling Writers 9 Strengths Challenges Informational Writing Assignment 10 Students will select a state gems or minerals (quartz, amethyst, etc.) or a mineral that is native to their region. They will use various internet and nonfiction resources to gather information and write a report about their mineral or gem. Their reports will include: where the mineral is found, a description of its physical attributes, and its uses. Informational Paper 1 11 Informational Paper 2 Informational Paper 3 Informational Paper 4 The Challenge of Helping Struggling Writers 15 Generating content: Struggling writers do not know how to access what they know in writing They do not have as much difficulty when given the opportunity to “say” rather than “write” what they know Making revisions Less than 20% of revisions made by struggling writers change the original text Revisions tend to focus on word substitution, mechanical errors, or a neater product because these “rules” are concrete and accessible. Why Do Students Struggle? 16 Struggling writers do not respond to the abstract terms that are a part of the writing process (brainstorm, plan, draft, and revise), even though they have received writing instruction. Recommendations 17 Strategy instruction has a high evidence base Teach the writing process The planning step is often short-changed Revising and editing are challenging Time needs to be allocated to writing instruction Writing experiences should be purposeful and offer variety Research supports the Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model Philosophy of the Self-regulated Strategy Development Strategy 18 Provides struggling writers with specific, concrete strategies Helps students by providing concrete models for “what has to happen in the mind” Review of research supporting SRSD 19 Over 40 studies using the SRSD model of instruction have been reported (elementary through high school) Significant findings in four main aspects of student performance: Quality of writing Knowledge of writing Approach to writing Self-efficacy Meaningful improvements found with average-to-better writers, as well as students who score at or below the 25th percentile on writing measures Research based practice according to CEC’s Evidence Based Practices Identification Criteria “Pros” of the strategy 20 Little to no start up cost Materials readily available “transparency” of the materials Systematic, explicit, and consistent implementation strategy for teaching “Cons” of the strategy 21 Sheer number of strategies Newness of strategy; many teachers may be unfamiliar with approach Does not specifically teach mechanics of writing Target Audience 22 Wide range of students from “average-to-better” writers, as well as students who score at or below the 25th percentile on writing measures Can be effective in one-to-one, small group, or inclusive classroom instructional setting 23 Stages of Instruction Develop Background Knowledge Discuss It Model It Memorize It Support It Independent Performance Student Assessment Prior to Implementation 24 Assessment is integrated in steps of implementation: Stage 1: Develop background knowledge (can assess preskills here) Stage 2: Discuss it Stage 3: Model it (think alouds) Stage 4: Memorize it Stage 5: Support it (use scaffolding; critical and longest stage) Stage 6: Independent performance (goal: “covert” self-instruction) Step 1: Activate and Develop Background Knowledge 25 Discuss the characteristics of good writing. Teach text structure for genre to be developed Develop the vocabulary of the genre. Introduce the mnemonic for the strategy. Use a mentor text in the genre being address to develop relevant vocabulary, genre knowledge, and writing techniques. A Metascript of Instructional Stages in Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) Step 2: Discuss It 26 Introduce the strategy to be taught and discuss its benefits and applications. Practice finding the genre-specific elements in different selections. Introduce graphing (self-monitoring) using prior compositions (this assists with goal setting). Poor stories or essays can be presented and collaboratively improved. Emphasize effort to improve. Establish a commitment to learn the strategy and act as a collaborative partner. Step 3: Model It 27 Model strategy steps and self-regulation procedures across varied tasks. Discuss ways that strategy steps may need to be modified for varied tasks, settings, or goals. Collaboratively develop self-talk, self-monitoring, and self-reinforcement procedures. Develop personalized self-instructions that will be used throughout the writing process. Begin exploring application across tasks and settings (generalization). Step 4: Memorize It 28 Have students memorize strategy steps, mnemonics, and self-talk. Step 5: Support It 29 Collaboratively practice using the strategy steps and self-regulation procedures. Collaboratively establish challenging but attainable writing goals. Gradually fade support as students gain competence. Discuss generalization and maintenance; assign homework for generalization. Step 6: Independent Practice 30 Students use the writing strategies and selfregulation procedures independently. Monitor use. Support as necessary. Fading of overt self-regulation may begin. Plans for maintenance and generalization continue to be discussed and implemented. Some Tips on Promoting Strategy Maintenance and Generalization 31 Strategy instruction must be prolonged, covering implementation across tasks, settings, and people Make the expectation for continued use in many contexts explicit Solicit students’ ideas about the conditions under which a strategy might be deployed and what modifications might be necessary Use other school personnel as confederates (i.e., have them prompt and reinforce strategy use and report on students’ efforts; have students report back as well) Some Tips on Promoting Strategy Maintenance and Generalization 32 Always relate task performance to strategy use (e.g., discuss performance before versus after strategy instruction; have students evaluate pretest/posttest writing samples written by others who learned the strategy) Plan instructional booster sessions Have students teach the strategy to others Have students create a transportable binder in which cue sheets or procedural facilitators are inserted and indexed Encourage students to personalize the strategy after they have mastered the original steps Authorize students who excel at particular strategies (or knowledge or skills) to be experts and serve as a resource for fellow students 33 Types of Strategies Two Major Text Structures 34 Informational (Expository) Opinion Informative Explanatory Research Story (Narrative) Story Personal Narrative Writing Strategies 35 Planning Strategies POW+TREE (persuasive) STOP and DARE (persuasive) TREE BRANCH (expository) PLANS (expository) POW + WWW WHAT2, HOW=2 (narrative) Revising Strategies CDO SEARCH COLA PQP (Peer-Revising) P-O-W! 36 Pick my idea Organize my notes (T-R-E-E) Write and say more 37 When you introduce a strategy... remember the SRSD Model Build background Discuss Model Memorize Support Independent Practice 38 Strategies for Informational Writing POW + TREE STOP and DARE TREE BRANCH T-R-E-E: 39 Topic Reasons End it Examine Paragraph Version T-R-E-E: Essay Version 40 Topic Reasons Explain your reasons End it SHOULD CHILDREN HAVE TO GO OUTSIDE FOR RECESS? 41 Everyone should have to go outside for recess. One reason why everyone should go outside is because children need to move their bodies. When kids are outside for recess, they are doing a lot of running, jumping, and climbing. Another reason for going outside is to get out of the classroom. It is hard to sit in one place all day. Kids need to get up and go outside. Another good reason for going outside is that you get to meet kids from different grades. They can teach you games that you don’t know. A final reason for going outside is to play sports. The teacher won’t let you play soccer or dodge ball inside. These are some of the reasons why I believe kids should go outside for recess. 42 TREE BRANCH 43 The parts of a good report include: T Tell what your topic is and why it’s important with a good lead R Relate important and interesting facts about your topic E Elaborate on the facts with supporting data E End with a summary that makes the reader want to find out more The steps to write a good report are: B Brainstorm idea words for my plan R Recite my self-talk to keep me going strong A Ask myself if my ideas will meet my writing goals N Now write a report with good organization, powerful words, and accurate information C Challenge myself to come up with more good ideas H Have a close look at my paper for mistakes PLANS 44 Do P L A N S Pick Goals List Ways to Meet Goals And Make Notes Sequence Notes Write and Say More Test Goals 45 Strategies for Narrative Text Narrative Text Strategies for Narrative 46 W-W-W, What= 2, How=2 Who, When, Where What do the characters want? What happens? How does it end? How does the main character feel? Story Maps 47 48 Supporting Self-Regulation Goal Setting Self-Instructions (Talk) Self-Monitoring Self-Reinforcement Components of Self-Regulation 49 Goal Setting enhances attention, motivation, and effort facilitates strategic behavior prompts self-evaluation goals should be challenging, specific, proximal, and, if possible, self-selected goals can focus on a process or an aspect of the product (for product goals, quality and quantity goals can be established) Sample Goals 50 complete a planning sheet/organizer using words or phrases revise at least twice, once with a checklist, once with a peer use the spell checker plus backward read aloud to correct spelling mistakes include an initiating event, then two actions, and finally a consequence increase organization score by one point include 5 main ideas in a report increase content score by two points include 15 action helpers, descriptive words, or transition words increase word choice score by two points have no more than 5 errors per page increase conventions score by one point 51 Self-Instruction (instructions or questions) help orient attention to relevant information, organize thoughts, plan actions, and execute behaviors help cope with anxiety, frustration, self-doubt, and impulsivity provide self-affirmation and encouragement Self-Monitoring comprised of self-monitoring and self-recording can self-assess attention, strategy use, and performance most effective for performance deficits 52 Self-reinforcement requires self-evaluation in relation to a performance standard just as powerful as external inducements Environmental Management arranging work environment to maximize productivity (e.g., seeking a quiet work space, having all necessary materials, playing soothing music) 53 Goal-Setting I can set goals for my writing. Self-Evaluate I have met my goal. I used my strategies. I have not met my goal yet. I have improved. 54 Self-Talk I will pick my idea. I will organize my notes and then I’ll write to say more. T-What will be my topic sentence. R-What are my reasons? E-I will explain my reasons. E-I will end it. 55 Self-Talk I will pick my idea. I will organize my notes and then I’ll write to say more. T-What will be my topic sentence. R-What are my reasons? E-I will explain my reasons. E-I will end it. 56 Self-Monitoring I self-monitoring my use of the strategy. I self-monitor the use of transition words. 57 Revising What is Revising? 58 Re-seeing goals, ideas, and text Dissonance location and resolution Occurs throughout the writing process Metaphor of pruning and grafting Why is Revising So Difficult? 59 Make inaccurate presuppositions regarding shared understanding Focus on localized and superficial issues rather than discourse-level issues Miss inaccuracies and confusing spots and/or do not know what to change when a problem is detected Feel too wedded to text already produced Difficulty managing revising along with other cognitive, linguistic, physical, and motivational operations Little instruction is devoted to helping students revise Teachers give limited helpful feedback on papers How Can We Foster Effective Revising? 60 Examination of touchstone texts and comparing these with weak exemplars Activities to develop genre and topic knowledge Extensive modeling Word-processing software Checklists (e.g., COLA, SEARCH) Peer and teacher conferencing (e.g., PQP) Tactical procedures (e.g., goal setting, flash-drafting, CDO) Snapshots and thoughtshots to explode the moment 61 Adapted from De La Paz & Graham, 1999 62 63 The PQP Method of Responding to Writing 64 P (Praise) What do you like about my paper? Q (Question) What questions do you have about my paper? P (Polish) What kinds of polishing do you feel my paper needs before it can be published? 65 Compare/contrast elements of the strategy with class Provides Strategies to support this 6 stages Provided for In stages and specific strategies Variety of Strategies to Teach different writing skills Monitoring student progress 66 Students self evaluate (written products) Assess changes in student writing behavior, attitudes, and cognition Assess before (cognition) During (process) After (final product, portfolio, benchmarks) Addressing learning differences 67 Attention: Embedded in model, specific emphasis on scaffolding during stage 5 (support) Spatial and sequential processing: Embedded in model Language: Use very specific language during modeling stage Memory: Embedded in model (allow extended use of strategy rather than memorization); book marks, etc. Higher order thinking: Embedded in model Motor skills: Consultation with OT, HWWT, assistive technology A Final Word… 68 Please, please, please don ’t PEE in the classroom! Posting, Explaining, and then Expecting PEEing doesn ’t make a meaningful difference for most students. Real improvement requires all stages of instruction be implemented with integrity. There ’s no magic in the mnemonics. It is in the teaching, modeling, and holding students’ accountable.