Grid Integration Group

Report
Grid Integration, Renewables, and
Distributed Energy Resources
Rish Ghatikar; Deputy Leader for LBNL Grid Integration Group
http://grid.lbl.gov
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
http://gig.lbl.gov
Grid Integration Objectives
The electric grid, end-uses, renewables, and electrical vehicle fleets
represents key efficiency and energy security objective.
The Grid Integration Group conducts, develops, and demonstrates strategies and technologies
to transform, coordinate, innovate, and integrate distributed energy resources and markets.
1.
2.
Dynamic interaction between grid operators and energy consumers
Support the grid integration of intermittent renewable sources, electric vehicles
Demand Response (DR)
•
•
•
•
•
Energy Technology & Systems
Integration
Tariffs, Measurement & Verification
Communications and Telemetry
Commercial, Industrial and
Residential End Uses, Automation,
Control, and Modeling
Open, Automated DR (OpenADR)
Microgrids
•
•
•
•
Optimization of Distributed Energy
Resources
Distributed Energy Resources,
Technologies, and Integration
V2G, Vehicle to Building (V2B),
Microgrids
Distributed Energy Resources
Modeling
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
Electricity Reliability
•
•
•
•
•
Real-Time Grid Reliability
Management
Customers & Markets
Renewable Integration
Load as a Resource (LAAR)
Reliability Technology Issues &
Needs Assessment
1
Grid Integration and Technology Innovation1
Applied Research and
Development
Technology Demonstration and
Deployment
Market Facilitation
1. IEC Publicly Available Specification
OpenADR specification (v1.0) by LBNL*
Research initiated by LBNL/ CEC
2. U.S. SGIP Catalog of Standards
1. DR 2.0 Pilots and field trials
- Wholesale markets, ancillary services
- Dynamic pricing, renewable, EVs
- International pilots (e.g., Europe, Asia)
OpenADR 1.0 Commercialization
2. All end-uses and sectors
Pilots/field trials
2002 to 2006
- IEC/PAS 62746-10-1 ed1.0
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
OASIS EI 1.0 standards
1. OpenADR Standards Development**
- OASIS (EI TC), UCA, IEC
2. NIST Smart Grid, PAP 09, 19
1 The Electric Program Investment Charge (EPIC) Energy Innovation Pipeline
* OpenADR v1.0: http://openadr.lbl.gov/
** Publication: http://drrc.lbl.gov/sites/drrc.lbl.gov/files/LBNL-5273E.pdf
** OpenADR v2.0 standards: http://www.openadr.org/specification
- OpenADR profiles
1. OpenADR 2.0 deployment
- International standardization (IEC)
2. USGBC national pilots
3. Codes (CA T24)
4. Transition plans
1. Adoption (100+ members)
2. Test/Certification (OpenADR 2.0***)
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
2
OpenADR and Interfaces with End-Uses
Enables California electricity providers to
communicate targeted grid-services to
customers using non-proprietary and open
standardized interfaces using a common
language and existing communications (e.g.,
Internet).
Developed to meet CEC DR automation goals
Low cost automation, technology for two-way secure
communications, and controls integration
Pricing, Reliability
Data Models
Server
$/kWh,
kW
Data
Model
Control
Strategies
Physical
Communications
OpenADR
Comm.
Internet
Protocol
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
Client
AutoDR
EndUses
Facility
Actions
3
Clean Energy Generation
•
Requires California utilities (IOUs and Municipal Utilities) to generate 33% of
electricity from renewables by 2020
–
–
–
4GW of ancillary services for grid stability
Thermal generation : fossil fuel, high costs
Energy storage mandate (1.3 GW by 2020)
Flexible and responsive loads can
play an important role in ramping
services
International Experience: Denmark goal is 50% by
2020, plans for 100% in 2050
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
4
Linking Grid with Customer-Side Distributed Resources
Distribution Grid,
Operations, Market, and
Provider Challenges:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Large and variable
generation, decentralized
energy resources(roof-top
PVs, on-site and co-gen)
Diversity of electricity
markets, technology, and
services
Cost, cyber security,
metering, communications
interoperability
New options: storage, EVs
Customer Challenges:
1.
2.
3.
4.
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
Different brand of
equipment, distributed
energy resources
Ease of adoption and cost
effectiveness
Grid services requirements
Optimized use of DER
(e.g., Microgrids)
5
Evolution of a Decentralized Energy Ecosystem
• Electricity System is evolving from a centrally planned generation
to a decentralized energy eco system
– At various levels: demand, distribution, and transmission
NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid
DRAFT NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart
Interoperability Standards, Release 2.0
Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 3.0
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
6
DR Automation and Renewable Integration
•
Market transformation towards a clean
energy system and load flexibility
Challenges with high renewable
generation:
•
–
Intra-hour variability, fast ramping (up/down), over generation
and forecast errors
Cost-effective
flexible loads
(costs only ~7%
to 14% of gridscale storage*)
Research Potential:
• Identify potential issues with high penetration of renewables
• Assess technologies (storage, generation, and DR, and their costs)
• Consider interoperability standards and integration with DER
(commercial, residential, industrial)
* http://drrc.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/LBNL-5555E.pdf
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
7
Contact
Rish Ghatikar
– Deputy Leader; The Grid Integration Group; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
– Vice Chairman; The OpenADR Alliance
– [email protected]
Web References:
• http://www.lbl.gov/
• http://gig.lbl.gov/
–
–
–
•
http://der.lbl.gov/
http://drrc.lbl.gov/
http://certs.lbl.gov
http://www.openadr.org/
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
8
BACK-UP SLIDES
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
9
Products and Loads for Fast DR
Current products don’t fully address the ambitious renewable
generation goals for 2020 and beyond
Products
Product
Type
General
Description
Response
Speed
Regulation
Response to
random
unscheduled
deviations in
scheduled net load
(bidirectional)
Additional loadfollowing reserve
for large unforecasted
wind/solar ramps
(bidirectional)
Rapid and
immediate
response to a loss
in supply
Shed or shift
energy
consumption over
time
Ability to serve as
an alternative to
generation
30
seconds
Flexibility
Contingency
Energy
Capacity
Physical Requirements
Time to
Length of
How often
fully
response
called
respond
Energy
5
Continuous
neutral in
minutes
within
15
specified bid
minutes
period
Participation of end-uses in Fast DR service products
(shading colors identify resources that contribute to the
same set of products)
Products
End-Uses
Regulation
Flexibility
Agri. Pumping
5 minutes
1 minute
5 minutes
1 hour
≤ 30
minutes
≥ 1 hour
20
minutes
≤ 10
minutes
10
minutes
Continuous
within
specified bid
period
≤ Once per
day
1-2 times per
day with 4-8
hour
notification
Top 20 hours coincident with balancing authority area
system peak
Comm. Cooling
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Contingency
Energ
y
Capacit
y
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Comm. Heating
Comm. Vent
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Comm. Lights
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Res. Heating
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Res. Cooling
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Refrigerated
Warehouses
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Municipal Pumping
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Wastewater
Pumping
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Data Centres
THE GRID INTEGRATION GROUP
10

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