Disaster Management Plan

Report
SUSTAINABLE AND DISASTER RESILIENT
URBAN DEVELOPMENT
J.B.Kshirsagar
Chief Planner
Town and Country Planning Organization
Ministry of Urban Development
9th September,2014
VULNERABILITY TO DISASTER
The Indian Sub continent is vulnerable to various kinds of
disasters. Some of the Natural disasters have been highlighted
in the presentation
Earth quake
Urban Flooding
Tsunami
Cyclone
Presentation highlights the different types of Natural
Disaster and Efforts towards mitigation of disaster.
CITIES/TOWNS FALLING IN SEISMIC VULNERABLE
ZONES
Earthquake
ZoneV -Very High Risk Zone: (Intensity 9
and above)
Srinagar,
Dharamshala,
Guwahati,
Shillong, Aizawl, Agartala, Imphal, Jorhat,
Kohima, Tezpur, Itanagar, Bhuj and Port
Blair.
Zone IV – High Risk Zone: (Intensity 8)
Jammu, Shimla, Amritsar, Jalandhar,
Chandigarh, Delhi, Meerut, Gorakhpur,
Naintal, Roorkee, Patna, Gangtok and
Jamnagar.
Zone III - Moderately Risk Zone:
(Intensity 7)
Agra, Lucknow, Varanasi, Dhanbad,
Asansol, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Vadodara,
Indore, Surat, Nashik, Pune, Mangalore,
Chennai, Kochi and Trivandrum.
About 59% of land area liable to seismic hazard
damage
Seismic zonation and intensity map of India-2002
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE OF EARTHQUAKE
RELATED DISASTERS
 Location of cities/towns in seismic areas, especially on
poorly consolidated soils, on ground prone to landslips or
along fault lines.
 Building Infrastructure such as houses, bridges, dams,
which are not resistant to ground motion.
 Unreinforced masonry buildings with heavy roofs are more
vulnerable .
 High density of buildings per hectare with high
occupancy(high rise high density) without any room for
ingress and egress of fire-tenders/vehicles for emergency
measures.
 Lack of access to information about earthquake risks.
ATTEMPT FOR BUILDING REGULATION TOWARDS
EARTHQUKE SAFETY
 After the Bhuj earthquake, Gujarat incorporated structural
safety of the Buildings in the Building Bye-Laws.
 Ministry of Urban Development amended the Unified
Building Bye-laws, 1983 of Delhi to incorporate structural
safety /stability provisions in 2001.
 Ministry of Home Affairs constituted a Committee to
formulate Model Building Bye-Laws and Review all Town
and Country Planning Act and the Zoning Regulations in
Jan, 2004.
Prof. Arya Committee Report (MHA):
 MHA constituted the Prof. Arya Committee in 2007.
 In 2008, the Prof. Arya Committee Reports were also circulated to all
the State Governments.
Four important aspects of report:
 Amendments in the Town & Country Planning/ Urban Development Acts.
 Zoning regulations.
 Additional Provisions in Development Control Regulations for Safety.
 Additional Provisions in Building Regulations/Byelaws for Structural Safety In Natural Hazard Zones of India.
Details of various BIS codes relating to Structural Safety for natural
hazard are given for the guidance of the professionals to design
structures/buildings, keeping in view of the provisions of such codes to
combat different natural hazards.
Revised Model Building Bye-laws,2014
 Model Building Bye-laws, 2004 brought out by Ministry of Urban
Development prescribed Structural Safety in Chapter 5.
 The revised Model Building Bye-Laws, 2014 incorporates the Prof.
Arya Committee recommendations:
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Structural Design And Safety
Additional Provisions In Building Regulations/ Bye-laws For Natural Hazard Prone Areas
Occupant Load and Structural Design Basis Report
Seismic Strengthening/Retrofitting
Review Of Structural Design
Certification Regarding Structural Safety In Design
Constructional Safety
Quality Control And Inspection
Structural Requirements Of Low Cost Housing
Issue Of Occupancy Certificate
Protective Measures In Natural Hazard Prone Areas
Registration Of Professionals
Professional Fees For SER/SDAR And CER/CMAR
Alternative Materials, Methods Of Design And Construction And Tests
CITIES/TOWNS /DISTRICTS FALLING IN VULNERABLE
ZONES for URBAN FLOODING
Urban Flooding
(Over 40 million hectares (12 per cent
of land) is prone to floods and river
erosion)
Cities having Average Annual Rainfall
< 1000 mm
Ahmedabad ,Bengaluru , Hyderabad
,jaipur, New Delhi, Srinagar.
Cities having Annual Rainfall from
1000 to 1500 mm
Bhopal, Chennai, Chandigarh, Lucknow,
Nagpur, Patna.
Cities having Average Annual Rainfall
above 1500 mm
Bhubaneswar, Goa, Guwahati, Kolkata,
Mumbai, Thiruvananthapuram
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR URBAN FLOODING
 Violations of Zoning regulations in congested
areas.
 Unorganized development in form of
slums/squatters encroaching natural drainage
channels, thereby leading to urban flooding.
 Silting up of catchment basins and drains with
overflow of drains.
 Constructions spanning this area in and
around the River Plains and specially in the low
lying Flood Plains results in the change of flow
patterns in the rivers.
MEASURES TO MITIGATE URBAN FLOODIND
Master Plan of a town, areas vulnerable to flooding are to be
delineated for which Flood zoning Maps are to be prepared and
appropriate development control is to be prescribed based on the
degree of risk associated.
An inventory of drainage and sewerage system for the entire city is to
be prepared and mapped into Utility maps. Water logging, Sewerage
and Drainage improvement /augmentation needs can be addressed.
Water Resource Management Plan is needed for identifying areas
receiving high rainfall and low rainfall along with coefficient of runoff.
Action plan for preventive measures like raising the height of river
embankment, afforestation in the catchment areas of river, periodic
review of water flow from the barrages and information on the water
discharge so that steps may be taken in advance to rehabilitate people
likely to be affected by floods.
MEASURES TO MITIGATE URBAN FLOODING
 Strict enforcement of Zoning regulations and Building Bye-Laws is
needed in flood prone areas. In Master Plans, the Flood plains need
to be declared as litter free and no construction zone and may be
designated for intensive agriculture/horticulture.
 For major land use changes, impact assessment should be made
mandatory for the towns with sparse open spaces / green or are
vulnerable to encroachment / development to reduce the chances of
flooding.
 Slope analysis and runoffs need to be assessed with areas of natural
vegetation and plans must take these aspects into account.
 Strict periodic cleaning of urban drains and sewer lines is to be
carried out by the ULBs and Development Authorities including
screening chambers to reduce the chances of flooding during
monsoons.
CITIES/TOWNS /DISTRICTS FALLING IN TSUNAMI
VULNERABLE ZONES
Tsunami (5,700 km coastline is
prone to Tsunamis)
Tsunami Zone are defined as:
Zone-1 maximum water depth 0-3m
Zone-2 maximum water depth 3-6m
Zone-3 maximum water depth 6-9m
Zone maximum water depth > 9 m
Coastal State
Tamil Nadu ,Puducherry, Andhra
Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Andaman
& Nicobar, Gujarat, Dadra & Nagar
Haveli, Daman & Diu, Maharashtra,
Goa, Karnataka ,Kerala Lakhsadweep.
Maximum Storm Surge in meters
for each coastal District
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE OF TSUNAMI RELATED
DISASTERS
Tsunami are ocean waves caused by under sea Volcanic Eruptions,
Earthquakes and Landslides with waves travelling at high speeds.
• Coastal Towns are prone to Tsunami hazards for their proximity to
shores.
• Landuse and habitation density in the Tsunami prone Coastal Zone also
determines the extent of damage and loss.
• Environmental degradation due to urbanization.
• Haphazard urbanization along the coastal areas.
• Preparedness and Early warning systems and their efficiency.
MEASURES to MITIGATE- TSUNAMI DISASTERS
 Preparation of coastal land use map on large scale.
 Strict Implementation of the CRZ regulations for planning Costal
Towns.
 Planned layouts with easy “Evacuation routes” in case of early and
swift evacuation.
 Low rise, medium density developments beyond the CRZ in prone
coastal towns.
 Provisions of Early Warning systems by the Local Authorities
 Community Based- Costal Zone Management and
 Community Based Information Systems.
CITIES/TOWNS /DISTRICTS FALLING IN VULNERABLE
CYCLONE ZONES
Cyclone
(5,700 km coastline is prone to cyclones)
Very High Damage Risk Zone –B (Vb= 50 m/s)
East Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam,
Vizianagaram, Nellore, Visakhapatnam ,
srikulam, Kachchh,Junagadh, Cuttack,
Ganjam, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Khurdha,
Puri, Balasore, Bhadrak, Jajpur, Thanjavur,
Cuddalore, Kanchipuram,Tiruvallur,
Tiruvanamalai,Viluppuram,Ramanathapuram,
Nagapattinam,Thoothukudi,Tirunelveli
High Damage Risk Zone (Vb=47 m/s)
Moderate Damage Risk Zone-A (Vb=44 m/s)
Moderate Damage Risk Zone-B (Vb=33m/s)
where Vb is – Basic Wind Speed
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE OF CYCLONE RELATED
DISASTERS
Cities and towns are prone to Cyclone hazard due to:
• Climate Change Patterns.
• Environmental changes and degradation.
• Loss of Green Cover and Mangroves along the shoreline.
Cyclone related hazards for coastal towns:
• Flooding- Coasts and Inland
• Beach Erosion.
• Damage to Structures.
• Loss of Power and Communication
• Land Subsistence
•Crop Destruction
• Contamination of water and food.
• Injuries and loss of life.
STEPS NEED TO BE TAKEN FOR PREVENTING
DISASTER FROM TOWN PLANNING POINT OF VIEW
 Planning is a sequential and continuous process, involving a series of
measures and steps at various levels.
 Formulation of Spatial Master Plan involves coordinated Sectoral
plans, effective management of disaster needs clear-cut priorities
and appropriately coordinated actions between Central and State
governments.
 New buildings approvals to be in consonance with earthquake
resistant regulations and all existing buildings to be rigorously
checked for structural stability.
 Disaster Management Plan should be integrated within the context
of overall Master Plan. Existing land-use maps needs to indicate
hazard prone areas keeping in view the regulations for Land Use
Zoning and regulations for Natural Hazard Prone areas.
 Mapping and Mitigation Plan for Unregulated mixed land use
developments on narrow streets to evacuate in disaster event.
STEPS NEED TO BE TAKEN FOR PREVENTING
DISASTER FROM TOWN PLANNING POINT OF VIEW
 Area / buildings for evacuation purposes and temporary shelter to be
earmarked.
 Detailed GIS and remote sensing based micro-zonation and hazard
maps need to be prepared and revising and updating the
Vulnerability Atlas for all States.
 The State Town and Country Planning Departments, Development
Authorities, ULBs and State Disaster Management Agencies need to
work in close coordination.
 Need for Capacity Building of town planners, engineers and
architects in safe design and construction of new buildings and for
strengthening of existing unsafe buildings and structures through
retrofitting.
 Disaster-resistant features specified in National Building Code should
be adhered to.
DISASTER MITIGATION PARAMETERS ADDRESSED IN
VARIOUS PLAN (as per URDPFI Guidelines,2014)
Plans
Parameters
Perspective
Plan
• Climatological studies, identification of areas prone to hazards
• Transportation-analysis of the existing network
• Social and Physical Infrastructure
Regional Plan
• Settlement pattern
• Transportation Network
• Social and Physical Infrastructure
• Environmentally sensitive areas- Hazard prone zones such as
earthquake, floods/ flash floods, high winds, cyclone, fire, land slide,
tsunami, vulnerability and risk assessment of the region
Development
Plan
• Hazard prone zones such as earthquake, floods/flash floods, high
winds, cyclone, fire, land slide, tsunami
• Disaster mapping - vulnerability and risk assessment of the region
• All environmentally sensitive areas
• Assessment of Disaster management infrastructure to meet the
requirement of prescribed in the District Disaster Management Plan
DISASTER MITIGATION PARAMETERS ADDRESSED IN
VARIOUS PLAN (as per URDPFI Guidelines,2014)
Plans
Parameters
Local Area Plan • Strategy for hazard zone and regulations
City
Development
Plans
Special
Purpose Plan
•Existing situation
•Disaster prevention and management plan
•Investment estimates
•Training and other programs
•Information management system
•Implementation plan
Disaster Management Plan (as per NDMA guidelines)
DISASTER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR
DIFFERENT SECTORS (URDPFI Guidelines,2014)
Parameters
Strategy
Housing
•Guidelines for construction of buildings on slopes
•Structural stability of buildings in hills and for the entire GMA
•Soil erosion and sedimentation control for construction in non-hill areas
Ecologically
sensitive urban
planning
•Demarcate eco-sensitive areas in the city as low/ no built up areas
•Bring in principles of climate resilient urban development based on
environmental parameters like conservation of natural ecosystems, natural
drainage patterns
Urban
infrastructure and
services
•Augment the piped water supply network in the city
•Augment the water treatment capacity of the city
•Water Conservation and Rainwater harvesting
•Development of a sewerage system
•Monitoring water quality at disposal points
•Integrated natural drainage plan for the city
•Prepare and implement a storm water drainage plan
Disaster
Resilience
•Preventive health measures
•Public health management and surveillance system
•Emergency medical response
BUFFERS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES
(URDPFI Guidelines,2014)
Parameters
Buffer Zone
Natural hazard
zones such
River flood
plains and
water bodies
including
wetlands
Area likely to be affected by floods (up to 10-year frequency)
reserved only for gardens, parks, playgrounds, etc. All other
habitable buildings to be prohibited in this zone.
Area liable to flooding (25-year frequency): Residential
buildings could be permitted with certain stipulation of
construction on stilts (columns), minimum plinth levels,
prohibition for construction of basements and minimum
levels of approach roads, etc.
Coastal
Regulation
Zone
Coastal land up to 500 m from the High Tide Line (HTL)
landward side and a stage of 100 m along banks of creeks,
estuaries, backwater and rivers subject to tidal fluctuations is
called the Coastal Regulation Zone, and is regulated for
developmental activities
BUFFERS FOR VARIOUS ACTIVITIES
(URDPFI Guidelines,2014)
Parameters
Buffer Zone
Manmade hazard
zones such as
radioactive,
chemical and gas
treatment /
processing /
distribution lines
Chemical Industry
Development of buffer zones all around the industry and establish OffSite responding agencies at an appropriate distance from the new
installations.
Nuclear Plants
Exclusion zone: 500 Ha maintained as vacant space and developed as a
green belt area.
Sterilised Zone: Area of 5 km radius.
No restriction is imposed by the plant on organic development activities
of population in the annulus between 1.5 and 5 kms. No influx of large
population in this area
Population Restriction:
Population density within 10 km radius: Less than two-third of state
average;
Population within sterilised zone (5Km radius) Less than 20,000;
Population centres with more than 10,000 persons more than 10 km
away;
Population centres with more than 100,000 person) more than 30 km
Some Examples of Good Practices in Disaster Reduction in
the context of Urban Planning Practice.
BHUJ
Pre-disaster scenario
layout of a sample block
narrow roads with dead ends,
irregular plots hinder immediate relief
action disaster
evacuation process rendered difficult.
Post disaster planning
layout of a sample block
wide roads with loop roads,
regular plots, easy access and conducive
to immediate action
evacuation easy.
Good Practices in Disaster Reduction
Contd...
BHUJ
After the
earthquake, the
State Town
Planning
Department
redeveloped the
area through Town
Planning Scheme
with following
features which
mitigates disaster.
Well connected roads with fewer dead-ends.
Increased width of road.
Provision of Open spaces.
Plots are regular with restrictions on height.
PLANNING TOWN & SETTLEMENT:
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
Ministry of Urban Development took the
initiative to ensure that the Layout Plans for
Permanent Settlements in A & N Islands are
taken up in accordance with current town
planning norms and that these settlements
come up as model townships, catering to the
requirements of all facilities and amenities
like schools, shopping, health centres, open
spaces, govt. and semi govt. establishments,
etc.
PLANNING TOWN & SETTLEMENT:
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
Plans for Permanent Settlements at
72 locations prepared by TCPO have
taken into account topography,
socio-economic
characteristics,
forest resource, etc. and above all
located above 3 m contour and
beyond the maximum run up of
Tsunami so as to minimize the
impact of disaster.
MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT ROLE IN
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
 For protecting the buildings against earthquake, the State
Governments have to incorporate provisions of structural safety and
Fire Protection and Safety Requirements in their respective Building
Bye-laws.
 In order to sensitize the State Governments to take necessary action,
Ministry of Urban Development have already circulated following
documents for the State Governments to adopt provisions:
 Earthquake tips prepared by IIT Kanpur have been circulated to all
the State Governments and the same have been uploaded on the
Ministry of Urban Development website.
 Handbook on Seismic Retrofit of Buildings published by CPWD and
IIT, Chennai has been circulated to the State Governments so as to
adopt anti-seismic technology in all types of buildings.
MINISTRY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT ROLE IN
DISASTER MANAGEMENT
 Reports of the Committee of Experts under National Seismic Advisor
which have suggested appropriate amendments to the Town and
Country Planning Acts and Building Bye-Laws to include seismic
safety and landuse zoning regulations for hazard prone areas have
been circulated to State Government.
 A National Workshop on incorporating the provisions related to
Natural Hazards in State Town and Country Acts, Zoning Regulations
and Building Bye-laws in accordance with the recommendations of
the Prof. Arya Committee Report was held on 27.1.2013. to sensitize
State Government representatives.
(Action Taken Report on the recommendations of the Committee)
WAY FORWARD
 Most of the State Government have amended Building Bye
- Laws by incorporating provision for Structural Safety.
 States need to amend their Town and Country Planning
Act to incorporate the Prof. Arya Committee report.
 For all Master Plans which are either being revised or
newly formulated, a chapter on Disaster management has
to be included.
 Disaster Management Plan to be prepared for all the cities
detailing out areas vulnerable to disaster and accordingly
make recommendations for Disaster Mitigation.
THANK YOU

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