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CRIME
Chapter Thirty-Five
VOCABULARIA
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Vocab List
Verbs
Nouns
ligo
collis
credo
deus
consecuti sunt
vulnus
percutio
Subura
corripio
fustis
adimo
timor
tergum
Adverbs
celerius
facile
fortissime
Adjectives
gravis
summus
Quirinalis
securus
affectus
pronus
FABULA
CRIME (lines 1-14)
Postquam Aurelia cubitum iit, Cornelius
adhuc in atrio manebat sollicitus. Eucleides
enim mane ierat domum redierat. Quid ei
acciderat?
FABULA
Tandem intravit Eucleides, sanguine
aspersus. Cornelius, “Di immortales! Quid
tibi accidit? Clamavit. Eucleides nihil
respondit; ad terram ceciderat. Statim servi
ad atrium vocati celerrime concurrerunt.
Eucleides in lecto positus est et vulnera eius
lauta atque ligata sunt. Diu iacebat
immobilis.
FABULA
Tandem animum recuperavit et lente oculos
aperuit. Postquam aliquid vini bibit, rem
totam explicavit.
“Hodie mane, dum in urbe descendo,
poetae cuidam occurri cui nomen est
Marcus Valerius Martialis. Breviore itinere
me duxit ad eam insulam in qua habitat
frater meus.
FABULA
Plurima de praedonibus huius urbis mihi
narravit. Ego tamen vix ei credidi. Sed, ubi
insulae iam appropinquabamus, homines
quosdam in popinam intrantes
conspeximus.
“’Cave illos!’ inquit Martialis. ‘Illi sunt
praedones scelestissimi. Nocte solus per has
vias ambulare non debes.”
FABULA
CRIME (lines 15-24)
“Totum diem apud fratrem meum
mansi. Post cenam optimam domum redire
constitui. Quamquam nox erat, nihil periculi
timebam. Securus igitur per Suburam
ambulabam cum subito e popina quadam se
praecipitaverunt duo homines qui fustes
ferebant.
FABULA
Timore affectus, celerius ambulabam. Facile
tamen me consecuti sunt. Ab altero
percussus sum, sed baculo me fortissime
defendi. Tum a tergo ab altero correptus ad
terram cecidi. Mihi est ademptum baculum,
adempta pecunia. Abierunt illi ridentes. Diu
pronus in luto iacebam. Tandem surrexi et
summa difficultate domum redii.”
FABULA
Cornelius, “Doleo quod vulnera gravia
accepisti. Stultissimus tamen fuisti.”
Cui Eucleides, “Ita vero, domine! Sed
iam prudentior sum. Non iterum nocte solus
per vias urbis ambulabo.
Building the Meaning:
Comparison
Examples of direct comparison:
1. Sextus est molestior QUAM
Marcus.
-QUAM is used with the same case
on either side of it
2. Sextus est molestior MARCO.
-there is NO word for THAN,
MARCO is in the ABLATIVE
CASE
Ablative of Degree of Difference
Sometimes an ablative is used with comparatives to
indicate the degree of difference
(multo, paulo)
Book Activity 35D: Translate
1. Hic servus est ignavissimus omnium. Nullum
servum ignaviorem habet Cornelius.
2. Cornelii coquus est optimus omnium. Nemo
meliorem coquum habet quam Cornelius.
3. Liberi laetissimi sunt quod cras feriati erunt.
4. Martialis Eucleide est multo prudentior.
5. Ego semper habeo multo minus pecuniae quam tu.
6. Marcus est maximus liberorum, Sextus est minimus.
7. Flavia est paulo minor Marco, sed multo maior Cornelia.
8. Ad amicum epistulam longissimam mittam, ad fratrem
breviorem.
9. Davus est servus optimus. Sine dubio nemo est
diligentior.
10. Coquus plus cibi in culina parabat.
Workbook Activity 35C: Rewrite
1. Titus est arbiter bibendi melior quam Messala.
2. Hoc aedificium est infirmius quam illud.
3. Praedones celeries Eucleide cucurrerunt.
4.Eucleides serius quam Titus advenit.
5. Cornelia nihil miseries quam id spectaculum antea
viderat.
Forms:
Adverbs
Positive Degree
*1st and 2nd declension adjectives
change to ADVERBS by changing the characteristic vowel of the stem to –e
Adjective:
Adverb:
carus-dear(stem=caro-)
care-dearly
amicus-friend
(stem=amico-)
amice-like a friend
*3rd declension adjectives
change to ADVERBS by adding –ter to the stem
Adjective: fortis-brave (stem=forti-)
Adjective: acer-eager (stem=acri-)
Adjective: vigilans-watchful (stem=vigilant-)
Adjective: prudens-wise (stem=prudent-)
Adjective: alius-other (stem=ali-)
Adverb:
Adverb:
Adverb:
Adverb:
Adverb:
fortiter-bravely
acriter-eagerly
vigilanter-watchfully
prudenter-wisely
aliter-otherwise
Forms:
Adverbs
Comparative Degree
*=neuter accusative of the comparative form of the
corresponding adjective (ending in –ius)
Superlative Degree
*=the adverb form in –e formed from the superlative
form of the adjective
ADJECTIVE FORM
POSITIVE ADVERB
laetus, a, um
felix, felicis
celer, celeris, celere
prudens, prudentis
laete-happily
feliciter-luckily
celeriter-quickly
prudenter-wisely
diu-for a long time
saepe-often
sero-late
ADJECTIVE FORM
bonus, a um
malus, a, um
facilis, is, e
magnus, a, um
parvus, a um
multus, a, um
POSITIVE ADVERB
bene-well
male-badly
facile-more easily
magnopere-greatly
paulum-little
multum-much
COMPARATIVE
ADVERB
laetius
felicius
celerius
prudentius
diutius
saepius
serius
COMPARATIVE ADVERB
melius
peius
facilius
magis
minus
plus
SUPERLATIVE
ADVERB
laetissime
felicissime
celerrime
prudentissime
diutissime
saepissime
serissime
SUPERLATIVE ADVERB
optime
pessime
facillime
maxime
minime
plurimum
Book Activity 35G
longus
longior
longissimus
lentus
longe
lente
pulcher
pulchrior
pulcherrimus
pulchre
fortis
fortior
fortissimus
fortiter
brevis
brevior
brevissimus
breviter
facilis
certus
facile
certior
certissimus
lentius
lentissime
facilius
facillime
certe
fidelis
fideliter
fidelius
fidelissime
rectus
recte
rectius
rectissime
ferox
ferocior
ferocissimus
ferociter
Workbook Activity 35B: Fill in
and Translate
1. Eucleides _________________________ domum
redierat. (sero, superlative)
2. Cornelia a miseris liberis _________________________
commovetur. (magnopere, superlative)
3. Eucleides apud fratrem _________________________
mansit. (diu, superlative)
4. Aurelia speculum ancillae _________________________
ademit. (irate, superlative)
5. Titus _________________________ clientibus advenit.
(sero, comparative)
6. Gaius vinum _________________________ quam
Messalla miscebit. (prudenter, comparative)
7. Quamquam Eucleides quam
_________________________ ambulabat, praedones
eum _________________________ consecuti sunt.
(celeriter, superlative) (facile, superlative)
8. Eucleides vinum _________________________ bibit.
(lente, comparative)
9. Titus _________________________ ebrius Cornelio fit.
(magnopere, comparative)
Workbook Activity 35D: Fill In
1. Eucleides noster ________________ ________________ accepit.
(a very serious wound)
2. Corpus Eucleides fuit ________________ ________________.
(sprinkled with blood)
3. Eucleides ________________ ________________ diu manserat.
(at his brother’s house)
4. Vulnera Eucleidis a servis ________________ ________________
________________.
(very carefully) (were bound up)
5. Titus vino ________________ ________________ subito collapsus est.
(very greatly affected)
6. Eucleides a ________________ ab altero praedone ________________ ________________.
(the back) (was grabbed)
7. Eucleides amico ______________________ ______________________ vix poterat.
(wise) (to believe)
8. Eucleides ______________________ ______________________ ad terram cecidit.
(having been struck with a club)
9. Baculum qup Eucleides ________________ se defendebat a praedonibus
________________ correptum est.
(very bravely) (easily)
10. Eucleides per Suburam ______________________ ambulabat. (too slowly)
11. Ubi Eucleidem vidit, “______________________________________!” exclamavit Cornelius.
(Good heavens!)
12. Praedones omnem pecuniam ________________ ________________.
(from him) (they had taken away)
CULTURE: Cicero, Caesar, and
the Collapse of the Republic
 Marcus Tullius Cicero




Equestrian from Arpinum
Novus homo
Orator
63 BC became consul
 Ran against Catiline (Lucius Sergius Catalina)
 Conspired to assassinate Cicero and to overthrow the government to
gain complete power
 In Catilinam-Cicero’s 4 orations which ousted Catiline’s plot and
drove him from the city and led to the execution of coconspirators
 Catiline tried to continue to rebel from Etruria but died in a battle
with the Roman army in 62
 Cicero joined the senators and equestrians to work on the
republican constitution in a concordia ordinum
 62 BC: Pompey comes back from success in
the East and disbands his army
 Vets from army are denied land grants by senate
to curb Pompey’s potential power
 First Triumvirate formed
 Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus formed a factio against the
people blocking their ambitions
 59 BC: Caesar gained the veteran’s land bill with the
help of Pompey’s vets
 Caesar got a 5 year term as proconsular governor of
Cisalpine Gaul (could gain Transalpine Gaul)
 Crassus obtained financial privileges for wealthy
equestrians who backed him
 First year of Caesar’s
proconsulship
 Led legions to many
victories
 Annexed Transalpine
Gaul to Rome by 50
BC
 Crossed the English
Channel to attack
Britain
 Meanwhile in Rome…
 Populares and optimates battle for power
 Cicero’s moderate voice of the optimates was
destroyed
 Julia, Caesar’s daughter and Pompey’s wife, died in 54
 Weakened the triumvirate
 Crassus killed in 53 in a battle against the Parthians which
broke the triumvirate completely
 Violence in the streets!
 52 BC: senate asked Pompey to help
 Used troops and then became sole consul
 Optimates in senate persuaded him to turn on Caesar
 49 BC: senate issued senatus consultum ultimum for
Pompey to get Caesar to disband army
 Caesar crosses the Rubicon!
 Alea iacta est!
 Goes across the Rubicon River with army, the northern
boundary of Italy and headed towards Rome
 CIVIL WAR
 Pompey & optimates in senate v. Caesar and army
 Pompey flees to Greece to get an army
 Wanted to attack Caesar in Italy with Eastern and Spain
armies
 Caesar became master of Rome, with Pompey gone
 Caesar builds a fleet to attack Pompey
 Goes to Spain and gets rid of Pompey’s
army there
 Secures consulship in Rome and sails to
Greece
http://youtu.be/XdM1Vu2OGTw
 Caesar nearly defeated at Dyrrhacchium
 Forced to withdraw to Thessaly with Pompey chasing
 48 BC (August): Battle of Pharsalus-Caesar beats
Pompey
 Pompey flees to Egypt
 Agents of King Ptolemy XIII murder Pompey and send his
head to Caesar as a gift---not a good gift idea
 48 BC (October): Caesar becomes dictator
 Followed Pompey’s trail to Egypt
 Three year campaign to solidify his position as
head of state
 Alexandria-fought against King Ptolemy and
put Cleopatra on throne to guarantee an ally
 Advances to Asia Minor and defeats
Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates in a few
days (veni, vidi, vici)
 46 BC: Caesar celebrates triumphs for Gallic,
Alexandrian, Pontic and African triumphs in one
month
 Parades-Caesar very popular at this time
 45 BC: Caesar goes to Spain
to get rid of final rebels led
by Pompey’s sons
 44 BC: dicator perpetuus
title given
 Continued reforms
 Granted Roman citizenship
to Gallia Norbonensis
 Public Works Program: expand Forum, Basilica Julia, Temple
of Venus Genetrix, rebuild Curia
 Adapted an Egyptian solar calendar (we still use a version
today)
 Caesar wanted to rule Rome by himself
and get rid of the Senate dominated
republican constitution
 Weakened the senate by appointing a group
of new senators from the equestrian order
and people from other cities in Italy
 Optimates resented Caesar for wanting to be a king
(hated kings since Tarquin the Proud)
 Symbols Caesar used:
 Purple robe, sitting on a golden chair
 Ides of March 44 BC: a group of senators, led by
Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus, assassinated
Caesar under Pompey’s statue at the
Theater of Pompey to rescue the republic
 Stabbed 23 times
 Et tu, Brute? Or καὶ σὺ τέκνον
Workbook Activity 35E: Translate
into Latin
1. Eucleides finally arrived home very late.
2. He had been struck fiercely with a very big club.
3. His tunic was very dirty and sprinkled with blood.
4. Cornelius, however, was more worried than
Eucleides.
5. “You have been rather seriously wounded,” said
Cornelius.
6. He ordered the wounds to be bound as quickly as
possible.
7. The slaves were placing Eucleides on the couch.
8. Cornelius, greatly affected by this sight, said, “Move
him more carefully!”
9. Cornelius then said to Eucleides very sadly, “You
certainly have been most brave, Eucleides.”
10. “When those robbers are found/will have been
found, they will be punished most severely.”
Latin in Law: Exercise 4
1.prima facie
2. nolo contendere
3. subpoena
4. onus probandi
5. habeas corpus
6. in loco parentis
7. corpus delicti
8. ex post facto
9. bona fide (mala fide)
10. malum in se (malum
prohibitum)
11. de facto (de jure)
12. amicus curiae
13. in flagrante delicto
14. non compos mentis
Latin in Law: Exercise 5
1.Ignoratia legis neminem excusat. Ignorance of the law is no
excuse.
2. Caveat emptor. Let the buyer beware.
3. Res ipsa loquitur. The matter speaks for itself.
4. De minimis non curat lex. The law does not concern itself
with trifles.
5. Nemo est supra leges. No one is above the law.
6. Publicum bonum privato est praeferendum. Public good is
to be preferred over private.
7. Potior est conditio possidentis. Possession is nine-tenths of
the law.
8. Qui tacet consentire videtur. Silence is taken as consent.
9. Qui facit per alium, facit per se. He who acts through
another acts by himself.
10. Nemo debet bis vexari pro una et eadem causa. No one
ought to be tried twice for one and the same reason.

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