HIP-HOP AND R&B POWERPOINT PRESENTATION!! By Renee Armantrading HISTORY OF R&B ‘ RHYTHM AND BLUES’ Rhythm and Blues also known as ‘ R&B’ is a popular African- American type of music, originated in the 1940s R&B was introduced by artists combining a variety of music styles of jazz and blues, and influences of the Gospel and Disco genre. In the 1940s and early 50s R&B represented beats, and jazz . However it has further developed to what is known as Contemporary R&B. It contains many different elements of Soul, Funk,. Also from 1986, ‘ The New Jack Swing’ known as Hip- Hop. Artists like ,Prince, Lionel Richie , and Michael Jackson, helped R&B become a popular genre. Especially as Disco started to decline in the 1980s. 2001 has been seen as the ‘ Golden age’ for contemporary R&B and soul music, with acts of Akon, Alicia keys, Beyonce and Rhianna etc. Top artists that created success within the genre : Michael Jackson, Stevie Wonder, Prince, Boys II Men, Smokey Robinson, Marvin Gaye, Diana Ross. HISTORY OF HIP-HOP Hip- hop came about in the 1970s., In New York by African American communities. Particularly in the Bronx. This was also developing amongst the Latino and Jamaican Americans. Some African- American families would gather around a block, dance, have a show, or a social event. This is known as a block party. The first Hip- Hop recording was in 1979 , featuring ‘ Rappers Delight’. The 1980s put the Hip- Hop genre in a group of it’s own . The music started to show more creativity through the styles in which it was played i.e. Rapping, Dj-ing, sampling , scratching, beat boxing, Funk, Disco, Soul , Dub and reggae. In 1983 Hip – Hop took a huge leap and changed into ‘New School ‘ Hip- Hop. This has been seen as one of the most controversial genres. In the 1990s Hip – Hop became a popular genre , so much that artists of other genres was incorporating Hip- Hop into their own work. 2007 Hip- Hop music begun to decrease through album sales. Reasons possibly being the controversial issues within the music. Furthermore, Hip- Hop has had a huge impact on the progression of music over 30 years. Key Artists In The Development Of The Genre Hip-Hop Jay- Z is a 40 year old American rapper, entrepreneur through is clothing line Rocawear and co-ownership of the New Jersey Nets and the 40/40 club, and finally businessman with a net worth of over $150USD. Jay- Z holds the most number one albums on the billboard 200, and has had 4 number ones on the billboard hot 100.This was partly enhanced with his collaborations with Mariah Carey (Heartbreaker), Rhianna ( Umbrella) and the most recent Alicia keys ( Empire State Of Mind). Jay – Z has also used his music as a platform to get to his critics ( I.e. Nas feud). Run- D.M.C is one of the most influential acts in the history of hip-hop, it has helped to break the genre into more mainstream music. The group received a number 1 charting rap album and are the second record group to appear on American Bandstand. The rap act was successful in their work with gold, platinum, and multiplatinum albums, and winner of a Grammy award nomination. Key Artists In The Developments Of The Genre Hip-Hop Lil Wayne started in a group called ‘ Hot Boys’ in 1997. The groups major debut came n 1999 with ‘Guemilla warfare’, which reached number one on the Billboard magazine , and top hip-hop and R&B chart albums reached number 5 on the Billboard hot 200. The group continued making hit songs until Lil Wayne opted for a solo career. That proved successful as Wayne bagged himself an award for Best new artist. Lil Wayne has taken other career paths such as; actor, CEO, and fashion designer. Other artists that helped to create or are developing in the genre; • Missy Elliot • 2- Pac • Notorious Big • LL Cool J • Nas • Lauryn Hill • Eminem • Kanye west • Snoop Dogg • T.I. • 50 Cent • Eve • Fat Joe Key Artists In The Development Of The Genre Rhythm And Blues Mario Barrett is An American R&B and Pop artist, as well as actor, dancer and model. Mario is best known for ‘Let me love you ‘ and ‘Just a friend’ which received two billboard awards. In addition to this Mario has starred in ‘ Step – up’ and ‘Freedom Writers’. His album ‘Turning Point ‘was more successful than his first, however the tracks above put him at number one on the billboard for nine straight weeks. Rhianna is a recording artist, singer, model, dancer, and emerging fashion trendsetter . The 22 year old has sold over 12 million records in her short career and has bagged many awards for her work. In 2005, ‘ Music of the Sun’ went up in the top ten of the billboard 200 chart. Rhianna has also received several accolades, and five hot 100 number singles. This making herself and Beyonce joint with the most number ones within the 200s. Usher Raymond has sold over 21.5 million albums in the USA according to the (RIA) recording industry association. In addition to this Usher has sold over 40 million albums worldwide and is one of the most successful black artists of his time. In 2008 usher won five Grammy awards and has a few tracks set to be released this year. and has helped bring new artists on the scene. Mariah Carey is a singer, songwriter, model, actress, and record producer who works in the R&B and Hip-Hop genre. Mariah has sold more than 175 million albums, singles, and videos world-wide. Carey has gained the most number one singles for a solo artist in the USA, and in 2008 was ranked number six on ‘ The Billboard Hot 100 Top All-Time Artists. This made her the second most successful female artist in Billboard 100 history. Mariah has also bagged commercial success and won 5 Grammy awards. Key Artists In The Development Of The Genre Rhythm And Blues Many black artists have contributed to the development of the R&B genre. An example would be Ray Charles a pioneer of soul during the 1950s and fusing rhythm and blues, Bo Diddley and more. R&B changed into soul music, the whereabouts of this was Sam Cooke the creator of soul music. Ne-yo: is a black American R&B artist who also features in the pop genre. Ne- Yo is an actor, record producer, at times a rapper and a song writer, (he wrote’ Take a Bow ‘ for Rhianna) Ne- yo has been able to bag 2 number onealbums on the Billboard 200 and 5 top ten songs on the Billboard 100, as lead artist. Ne- yo has worked with many artists within the industry and has become a known name within the genre. A great influence to him was Michael Jackson in his dance. Beyonce Knowles: came about in the 1990s in the form of a girl band called ‘ Destiny’s Child’. A part from her fabulous vocals, Beyonce is also an actress who has starred in films such as Austin Powers in Gold member, Dream-Girls. Beyonce has bagged herself five number one singles and named the Billboards Top female artist of the decade 2000. Chris Brown: is an American recording artist and actor. Chris made his explosive debut in late 2005 with his self-titled album Chris Brown at the age of 16. CB’s interesting dance moves and various songs has attracted the young audience especially females. The major influences in browns dance have been taken from Usher and Michael Jackson. Audience And Fans FAN: is where one takes an overwhelming liking or interest in something , most common a celebrity, soap , art, product, designer or an activity. Fans. Most fans for particular things has a fan base which can vary in size depending on the popularity of something. Audience: A group of people who view a show or production, who show their appreciation of the work through clapping or loud praise. In addition to the above an audience is also a target of people for a specific thing whether it be magazine, soap , film certificate or game certificate. The participation of an audience is down to the event. The audience and fans for my Hip- Hop and R&B genres is mainly going to be black people as it has originated from African- Americans and Jamaican- Americans. Many of the musicians I know , or have enhanced the popularity of this genre are black also. However, the genres are very broad and can be listened to by anyone whatever creed or colour. The audience today ranges from about (12-19) and for the more mature audience (20-35). Sub- Genres of the Genres Sub- Genres of Hip-Hop: Alternative Hip-Hop is also known as alternative rap this is where groups go against the original rap style and fuse other genres into their work. Turntablism, Acid Pop, Christian Hip- Hop, Instrumental Hip-Hop and nerd care Hip-Hop. Gangsta Rap is a lyrical sub genre of Hip-Hop that reflects urban crime, violence, aggression, experiences or views of artists within the genre. Fusion genres of Hip-Hop: Hip-Hop soul, Hip House, Ragga Rapcore and Hip Life. Sub-Genres of R&B: Contemporary R&B contains Hip- Hop as well as R&B. The style has various instruments used in the production of work for example, saxophone, drum machine backed rhythms. Electrical instruments are starting to become a popular feature in the genre. Lastly smooth R&B is a calm version of traditional R&B and reflects slow jam and smooth Jazz. Record labels for HipHop There are many labels in the industry and many that support artists that work within this genre. • Bad Boy Records was founded in 1993 by Sean “Diddy” Combs. •Interscope Records , founded by Jimmy Iovine and Ted Feild in 1990 Aftermath Entertainment founded in 1996 by DR. Dre • •Cash Money Records ( Universal) founded in 1991 by Brian “ Birdman Williams and Ronald “Slim” Williams. • Motown records was founded as Tamla records in 1959. Motown record corporation was recreated in in 1960 by founder Berry Gordy. Public Perception And R&B Of Hip-Hop Hip- Hop was home to many great artists who helped the genre become popular and commercially successful. However,, Hip –Hop today is seen quite volatile, negative, and derogatory in some cases. This could be just the style in which the artist chooses to be seen or the way one wishes to highlight views and experiences. Some of the public believe that Hip-Hop has released old values and taken unnecessary or unimportant values into piay. The context has become much more powerful an negative for the hearing of young children and can influence wrong- doing. Particularly in the US. The genres have increased 13% of the music sales in the Us. However the negative public perception will be hard to change because its down to what one chooses to listen, as well as what the artists want to represent them. Competition The magazine market is very competitive as many represent a given genre but portray their information or gossip differently. The magazine can be judged through feature articles and main images that would appeal to the audience more. Magazines like; XXL, Vibe , The Source, Billboard magazine,, Ebony,, sometimes comes as a bimonthly issue, some ,magazines include a calendar with an artist for each month. Further analysis, some of the magazines have similar conventions as they advertise artists clothing lines , or clothes in general, jewellery, perfume advertisements, latest gadgets, new drink flavours etc. This can be seen in magazines XXL, The Source or even Vibe. Cross-Media There are many types of media that exposes the genres of Hip- Hop and R&B , Websites like MySpace, facebook, twitter or blogs keep audiences up to date with artists , tours, shows, music, appearances etc. Websites where one can listen for free is readily available on the internet from sites such as; www.Youtube.co.uk, www.slack-time.co.uk, and www.spotify.com or www.musicjesus.co.uk , (which only allows you to listen for free but not download like the above.) Magazines supporting the genre is readily available in corner-shops, pharmaceutical shops stationary shops. For example ‘XXL’, ‘ Vibe’ ‘ The Source etc. Music can be heard on the television through music channels or radio stations. i.e. Heart, Kiss, Choice or Radio 1. Channels ranging from, MTV, MTV BASE, Smash Hits , channel AKA etc. Predictions For The Future In the Hip-Hop genre my predictions are: Drake Graham, will collaborate with a variety of artists and add various genres to his work. In addition to this I believe artists in the young money group will come with a few explosive tracks for Hip-Hop lovers i.e. most recent Bedrock. In this genre I also believe younger artists will enter the genre and add new styles, dances in their work . Hip- Hop will become much more controversial. In the R&B genre my predictions are: Rhianna will move into fashion and acting with an on- going music career, tours etc. Akon will continue making money through collaborations with new artists and the ones already in the genre. There would be more stylistic ways to present the genre.