TOURISM PETER ROBINSON MICHAEL LÜCK STEPHEN L. J. SMITH 12 Destination Management Learning Objectives • • • To explain destination management within a theoretical and conceptual context To understand the structures that exist to facilitate effective destination management To evaluate the management of a destination Defining a Destination ‘A physical space in which a visitor spends at least one overnight. It includes tourism products such as support services and attractions, and tourism resources within a day’s return travel time. It has physical and administrative boundaries defining its management, and images and perceptions defining its market competitiveness.’ (UNWTO, 2007) Dickman’s (1997) Five A’s of a Destination • • • • • Attractions Activities Accessibility Amenities Accommodation Butler’s (1980) Tourist Area Life Cycle Levels of Planning • Destination planning should take place at three distinct levels – National and regional level: involves the coordination and management of large tourist regions or a country as a whole – Destination level: the organization and development of visitor attractions and services in and around destination communities – Individual sites and businesses: the planning, design and development of individual tourist attractions, services ad facilities Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) • DMOs are often referred to as DMPs (partnerships), reflecting the partnerships of various stakeholders • DMO is often referred to as a Destination Marketing Organization • Functions: external focus, environmental protection, supply management, community welfare Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) • Tasks – Marketing, promotion, publicity – Administration of a Destination Management System – Providing business support and advice – Developing new tourism products and packages – Fostering a partnership approach to destination management Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) • Tasks (cont.) – – – – Managing stakeholders Developing revenue income and streams Managing specific tourism projects Coordinating and/or managing the Tourist Information Network – Lobbying on behalf of the tourism industry The VICE Model Destination Auditing • • • • Geographical analysis Visitor satisfaction surveys Community surveys Assessment of destination carrying capacity • Economic impact assessment Stakeholder Responsibilities in Destination Planning DMP role Specific factors Stakeholder responsibility Capacity management Car parking Toilets Appropriate parking charges Signage Local authorities Local authorities Local authorities Local authorities Quality management Cleanliness and hygiene Hotels and accommodation Local authorities Star ratings and regulators Visitor/tourist information Provision of services Leaflet distribution Local authority or DMO Private sector organizations Sustainability Marketing and de-marketing Management of the countryside DMO Public sector and private owners Development New infrastructure and facilities Private sector and local authority regulations Destination Development • • • • • • • • Quality management Destination management systems Sustainable transport Tourist taxes and visitor payback Promoting local distinctiveness Sustainability schemes Tourist interpretation and education The Visitor Information Centre Marketing • Step 1: Market evaluation • Step 2: Market identification • Step 3: Marketing mix Performance Management • Indicators – – – – – – – – – Volume and value of tourism Visitor satisfaction TIC satisfaction Industry satisfaction Marketing performance Quality performance Organizational performance Environmental performance Comparative performance Funding and Finance for Destination Marketing • • • • • Advertising European funding Marketing campaigns Sponsorship Tourist Information Centres Destination Strategy • The ultimate success of a DMO relies upon a range of supporting strategies and plans – – – – On-going research Visitor management strategies Marketing plans Funding strategies References • • • • Butler, R. (1980) The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer 241, 5–12. Dickman, S. (1997) Tourism: An Introductory Text. Holder Education, Rydalmere, New South Wales. UNWTO World Tourism Organisation) definition (2007), UNWTO (2007) International Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Provisional Draft, Revision 5. World Tourism Organization, Madrid, Spain.