TIER 3

Report
TIER 3 STEADY STATE SIMULATION
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Tier
3
How to Apply Simulation in
the Real World
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Statement of intent
Statement of Intent
In this section an open – ended problem will be
presented. Since this kind of problem can be
solved from different points of view, some of
them will be discussed in the following sections.
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Contents
Structure of tier 3
 Approach to Open – ended problem
 Case of Study.
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General concepts
Open – Ended Problems
An open – ended problem is one which does not have
a single right answer.
Usefulness of open – ended problems:
 Similar to most important real – world problems.
 Develop creative divergent thinking skills.
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General concepts
How to approach open – ended problems
 State the problem clearly, including goals,
constraints, and data requirements.
 Define the trade – offs intrinsic to the problem.
 Define the criteria for a good solution.
 Develop a set of cases to simulate which explore
interesting options.
 Perform the simulation and evaluate results
against solution criteria.
 Evaluate solutions against environmental and
safety criteria.
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Thermo – Mechanical
Pulping Plant Study
(TMP)
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Case study
Case study
Construction of a
Thermo – Mechanical Pulping Plant
(TMP)
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installed and operating cost.
Production and product quality.
Performance, energy, and efficiency.
Environmental impact.
Maintenance requirements.
Safety.
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Case study
Justification
 The price of kraft and sulfite pulp has increased
significantly in recent years.
 Environmental impact of many older kraft and
sulfite mill is now unacceptable.
 Thermo – mechanical pulping (TMP) produces a
good quality pulp at much less cost and
environmental impact.
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Case study
Objective
To study the economic feasibility of construction of
a TMP unit in a mill already in existence.
 Production (bleached pulp) 665 ton/d.
 Freeness 60 ml.
 brightness higher to 70 % ISO.
 Return of investment (ROI) 5 years (20% each
year).
 Compliance with
requirements.
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safety
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Case study
Thermo – mechanical pulping process
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Case study
Description of the TMP process
 Chips are heated with steam (before and during
refining) to soften them and preserve long fibre.
 Chips are refined
consistency.
to
obtain
pulp
at
50%
 The pulp is screened to obtain the desired fibre
length distribution.
 Rejects are refined again in the reject refining
unit, with the accepts returned to the primary
screen feed.
 The screened pulp is then bleached.
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Case study
Using Simulation in a Plant Design
A plant design requires of many combined
equipments to obtain a desire product.
Simulation is used to determine this target.
 Select equipment.
 Analyze “what if” scenarios.
 Compositions,
product
production,
characteristics.
 Improve performance.
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Case study
Choosing parameter for working scenario
 Feasible operating ranges
Are the ranges in which the plant can operate
(Temperature, Flow, Pressure, Size, etc.)
 Impact and sensitivity variables
Defines a range of parameter variation for which the
identified solution remains optimal.
 Areas of maximum economic benefit
Cost sensitivity analysis provide a useful tool to
determine the most economic operation range.
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Case study
Multi-criteria optimization
Designing a plant may have more than 1
alternative. It is hard to decide which option is
best.
Taking a decision, may involve several aspect:
 Operability.
Safety.
 Controllability.
Production.
 Economic.
Others.
Some of the goals are usually conflicting each
other, so that an optimal solution does not exist.
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Case study
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Units proposed to be studied
Heat
Recovery
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Bleaching
Effluent
Treatment
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Store, Refining and Reject
Reception and Storage
 Chips humidity 45%
 Chips between 10 and 30 mm will be
accepted.
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Store, Refining and Reject
Drum Washer
Washing Systems are an essential
prerequisite for obtaining first-class
final products.
Refiner
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Thickener
Screens
P-15
Bleaching
E-24
POM-006
Screens
P-16
POM-007
Screens
reject
DIL-001
P-34
EPA-001
RES-002
POM-010
P-32
P-36
E-23
POM-008
Paper
machine
P-35
Bleaching
E-22
E-21
White
Water
REB-002
White
Water
REB-001
POM-009
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Store, Refining and Reject
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Thickener
Drum Thickener is a simple
and
reliable
filter
for
dewatering
papermaking
stock and broke as well as for
virgin and recycled fibers in a
consistency range from 0.5%
to 5%.
Disc Filter is a vacuum filter.
The vacuum is generated by
drop legs. The stock is pumped
to the inlet box through the
feed section.
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Mass Balance
TMP plant
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Mass balance
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Mass balance
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Mass balance
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Mass balance
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Mass balance
Mass balance
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HEAT RECOVERY
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Heat recovery
Heat recovery system components
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Reboiler
Vent condenser
Feed water / condensate exchanger
White water / condensate exchanger
Feed water deaerator.
Atmospheric scrubber.
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Heat recovery
Feed (demineralized) water inlet conditions
 Flow 1484 ton/day.
 Pressure 101.3 KPa.
 Temperature 90°C.
Clean steam outlet conditions
 Flow 1484 ton/day.
 Pressure 250 KPa.
 Temperature 127.4°C.
Condensate outlet conditions
 Flow 1744 ton/day.
 Pressure 300 KPa.
 Temperature 133.5°C.
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Heat recovery
The reboiler will treat the dirty steam coming from the
refining lines to produce clean steam for the paper
machines.
Silencer
Scrubbed
Steam
Clean Steam
ATM
Scrubber
Heat recovery
system
Reboiler
Vent
Condenser
System
Vent
TMP Steam
Pressurized
Scrubber
Feed Water
Heater
Dirty Condensate
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Heat recovery
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Vapor PTM
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Heat recovery
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heat exchanger
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BLEACHING
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Bleaching
Bleaching
It is necessary to add an bleaching process to
satisfy the require brightness quality 70 %ISO.
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Second press
First press
Pulp
Water
&
Peroxide
Mixer
Pulp 675 t/d
Consistency 5%
2
Dilution
screw
13.3 t/d
NaOH Concentration 50%
SO2 2.8 t/d
Pulp 647 t/d
Consistency 10%
Bleaching
Tower
SO2
10%
Sodium
6 t/d
Silicate Concentration 28.6%
Storage
26.5 t/d
H2O2 Concentration 50%
Pulp 643 t/d
Consistency 31%
1
Dilution
Pulp 6 t/d
Consistency 0.1%
3
Dilution
White
water
Pulp 663 t/d
Consistency 3%
Paper
Machine
From Paper
Machine
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Effluent Treatment
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Effluent treatment
Effluent treatment
Main Treatment MES
 clarifier volume: 1562 m3 and height of 6.7m. The
retention time is 8.3 hrs. for 4500 m3/d.
 Mud production 28 t/d
Second Treatment RBS 22 t DBO/d
 Biologic Sequential Reactor. It consist of 4 basins
operating in automatic sequence. Replenishment,
Reaction, Sedimentation and racking.
 DBO 20 t/d
 MES 11 t/d
 Total flow 26000 m3/d.
 Mud production .06 kg/kg DBO removed.
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Effluent treatment
Effluent Treatment
Bleaching Rejects
Press
Clarifier
Biological
Reactor
Purge
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Treated water
Screw Press
Solids
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Process analysis cost
Process Analysis Cost
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Product
Product Characteristics and cost
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Product
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Operation cost
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Process analysis cost
New equipment and Installation Cost
The company 1 offers a cheaper project cost,
therefore, it is chosen as the company which provide
the equipment.
The detail description in each stage is describe
below.
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SAFETY
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Safety
Safety
The new plant must follow the rules of health and
safety. The equipment acquired uses new
technology so the risk of accident is low.
The possible danger sources must be identified
and a manual written to describe the procedure
to follow if an accident occurs.
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Conclusion
This Tier is not finished, things to point out in the
project:




What were the best solutions found.
Why were they preferable to others.
How would simulation help to find these solutions.
What are the advantages of using simulation in a
project like this, versus other approaches such as
using a standard design, adapting a plant design
from elsewhere, or building a pilot scale process.
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END
OF TIER 3
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