Structure

Report
Structure
In all but the most ephemeral
groups, members are distributed
into different roles, and their
behavior when in these roles is
regulated by norms that dictate what
is and what is not proper conduct.
The group structure also includes
the relationships that join members
to one another in an integrated
network that regulates
interdependencies and increases the
group’s unity and durability.
 What is group structure?
 What are norms, how do they
develop, and how do they work
to regulate behavior?
 What kinds of roles are
common in groups and how do
they influence members?
 How do social networks shape
status, attraction, and
communication processes in
groups?
Norms
Roles
The Nature Of
Social Norms
The Nature of
Social Roles
Social Network
Analysis
The Importance
of Norms
Role Theories
Network
Dynamics
Group
Socialization
Application:
SYMLOG
Role Stress
Relations
The nature of social
norms
Norms are
consensual and
often implicit
standards that
describe what
behaviors should
and should not be
performed in a
given context.
■
 Norms are group
standards.
 Provide direction and
motivation
 Organize social
interactions
 Make others’ responses
predictable
 Folkways are ubiquitous
social standards
 Mores are more strictly
enforced moral rules
The nature of social
norms
Development of Norms
Sherif's (1936) autokinetic effect studies
Participants just judged the distance a dot of light moved in a darkened room
Autokinetic Effect
It moved about
3.5 inches
But, unbeknown to the participants, a
stationary dot of light will seem to move
What if people make their judgments
with others, and state estimates aloud?
Looks like 1 inch
I’d say 2 inches
7.5 inches
Initially, they differ; but
over trials, they converge
The creation of a norm
Average distance
estimates
Person A
Convergence
Person B
Person C
Alone
Group
Session 1
Group
Session 2
Group
Session 3
When Sherif put in a confederate in some groups who made
exaggerated distance judgments others (B, C) conformed
Average distance
estimates
Confederate
Person B
Person C
New Member,Alone
Person D
Group
Session 1
Group
Session 2
Group
Session 3
Even when the confederate was
replaced, the norm remained
Person B
New
member
Average distance
estimates
Person C
Person D
Group
Session 4
Group
Session 1
Group
Session 2
Group
Session 3
The exaggerated norm lasted
for many “generations” of
replacements
Average distance estimates
Group Judgment
33
44
5
6
Generations
7
8
9
The Importance of
Norms
Internalization
of norms
• Individuals
experience
discomfort when
the realize they
are acting
contrary to a
norm—
especially, an
injunctive one.
(Milgram’s
norm-violation
demonstration).
Health and
normative
influence
Pluralistic
ignorance
• Norms support
positive, health
promoting
actions, but also
negative ones,
including eating
disorders and
excessive alcohol
consumption.
• Members may
privately
disagree with the
norm, but they
assume they are
the only ones
who do, and so
the norm
remains in place.
The Importance of
Norms
Examples
• Laptops in
classrooms
• Alcohol use on
campuses
• Recycling and
waste
• Thin-body norms
• Pop music
• Common
courtesy
• Online “behavior”
Facebook Norms
• I should not say anything
disrespectful about this person on
Facebook.
• I should consider how a post might
negatively impact this person’s
relationships.
• If I post something that this person
deletes, I should not repost it.
• I should NOT post information on
Facebook that this person could
later use against me.
Norms
Roles
Relations
The nature of social
roles
Roles: The types of behaviors
expected of individuals who
Role theories
occupy
particular positions
within the group (e.g., roles in a
play)
Group socialization
Independent of individuals
Flexible, to an extent
Role stress
Structure interaction, create
patterns of action, define
responsibilities
The Nature of
Social Roles
Role differentiation: An increase in the number
of roles in a group, accompanied by a decrease in
the scope of those roles as each one becomes more
narrowly defined and specialized
Relationship
Role
Task Role
Two types of roles emerge with great regularity in groups:
Task roles (performance and initiating structure and
Relationship roles (strength of bonds among members).
Role Theories
Benne and Sheats (1948) developed their
well-known functional theory of roles
by observing the interactions of
groups at the National Training
Laboratories (NTL), an
They identified
organization devoted to the
three types of
improvement of groups.
roles: task,
relational, and
individualistic
Functional Role
Theory
Functional Role
Theory
Functional Role
Theory
Interactionist
Role Theory
Group members share a basic sense of the
requirements of the roles that are
common in most group settings,
• Role sending
but they work out the details of
• Role taking
their roles and their demands as
• Role
they interact with one another
enactment
Example: Bechky’s analysis of
production teams
Rooted in a selfpresentational
perspective
Example: Bechky’s analysis
of production teams
Deep Role Theory
A Psychodynamic
Perspective on Roles
Example: Moxnes “Deep Roles”
Theory
Group
Socialization
Group Socialization
Over time
members
transition
from new
member to
full
member
Resocialization
As
newcomers
learn their
roles they
become more
committed to
the group
Role transitions
Role socialization
Moreland and Levine's group socialization theory
The process is
mutual:
members and
the group
adapt to each
other
(assimilation/
accomodation)
Stages
Transitions
Types
Processes
Group Socialization: Moreland & Levine
Different individuals take different paths through
this process: Three examples are shown
Member B
Member A
Member C
Role Stress
Roles create stable group
relations, but they can also
be the source of group
conflict and personal
stress
Roles stress
may vary
from one
country and
culture to
another
Norms
Roles
The Nature Of
Social Norms
The Nature of
Social Roles
Social Network
Analysis
The Importance
of Norms
Role Theories
Network
Dynamics
Group
Socialization
Application:
SYMLOG
Role Stress
Relations
Social Network
Analysis
Creating spatial maps of groups
based on structure
Who is connected to
whom?
A relatively “flat” group
What if these
ties are
removed?
Social Network
Analysis
Clique 2
Clique 1
A group with 2 subgroups
Centralized and decentralized
subgroups
Social Network
Analysis
4
Subgroup A
5
8
6
9
3
7
Subgroup B
10
2
11
1
Key Terms
N = 13, possible ties = n(n-1) = 156
Nodes
Ties (directed)
Density
Fernandez
(29/156) = .19
Degree centrality
• Outdegree
• Indegree
Betweenness Zerbino
Closeness
Holes
E.
Strauch
F.
Strauch
Turcatti
Vizintin
Algorta
Paez
Canessa
Methol
Delgado
Mangino
Parrado
http://content.nejm.org/content/vol357/issue4/images/data/370/DC2/NEJM_Christakis_370v1.swf
Network
Dynamics
Status networks: Stable pattern of
variations in authority and power
The Strauchs &
Fernandez
Zerbino, Paez, Algorta
Expeditionaries
Disabled and
injured
Parrado
Younger
Members
Vizintin
Francois
Methol
Harley
Canessa
Jabella
Inciarte
Delgado
Turcatti
Mangino
Nogueira
Echauarren
Malingerers
The informal (actual) status structure does not always
match the group’s mandated (formal) structure
Attraction network (sociometric structure): Stable
patterns of liking-disliking
1
7
1
7
3
3
2
6
5
4
4
6
5
2
Status
Attraction
Heider's balance theory: likes and
dislikes are balanced
A
A
+
B
-
+
+
C
B
A
+
+
+
C
B
-
C
Communication network: formal and informal
paths that define who speaks to whom most
frequently
1
7
1
7
3
2
3
2
4
6
5
Attraction
4
6
5
Communication
Communication networks differ in degree of centralization
1
7
7
3
1
2
3
2
4
6
5
Centralized
4
6
5
De-centralized
Communication networks differ in degree of centralization
Network Structure and Performance
Different types of network structures
are more effective than others,
depending on the type of task being
attempted
• Information saturation: centralized networks
are most efficient unless information overload
• Influence and satisfaction: members who
occupy more central positions are more
influential and satisfied
• Hierarchical networks and information flow:
More information flows downward and
unrealistically positive information flows
upward
Application:
SYMLOG
Observation and
coding system
developed by Robert
Freed Bales
Trait
(Direction)
Sociable (UP)
General Behaviors
Individual and
Organizational Values
Outgoing, sociable,
Popularity and social success,
extroverted
being liked and admired
Persuasive (UPF) Persuasive, convincing,
Active teamwork toward
shows task leadership
common goals, organizational
unity
Warm (UPB)
Protects others, sympathetic, Protecting less able members,
nurturant
providing help when needed
Equalitarian (P)
Friendly, democratic, group- Equality, democratic
oriented
participation in decision making
Cooperative (PF) Cooperative, reasonable,
Responsible idealism,
constructive
collaborative work
Task-oriented(F) Serious, logical, objective
Conservative, established,
“correct” ways of doing things
Responsible (DPF) Modest, respectful,
Dedication, faithfulness, loyalty
dedicated
to the organization
Contented (DPB) Quietly contented, satisfied, Quiet contentment, taking it
unconcerned
easy
Silent (D)
Silent, passive, uninvolved
Giving up personal needs and
desires, passivity
Example Items from SYMLOG Used with Permission. Copyright © 1983, 1985, 1998
SYMLOG Consulting Group.
Application:
SYMLOG
Example SYMLOG
Norms
Roles
The Nature Of
Social Norms
The Nature of
Social Roles
Social Network
Analysis
The Importance
of Norms
Role Theories
Network
Dynamics
Group
Socialization
Application:
SYMLOG
Role Stress
Relations

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