### pptx 921kB - jimakers.com

```1



Individually
Given your sample of M&Ms, build a
Pareto diagram by color
Before you destroy the evidence, be
sure you have an accurate count of
each color and the total number of
M&Ms.
Brown
=
Red
=
Yellow
=
Blue
=
Orange
=
Green
=
-----------------------Total =
2
V-11
30
100%
28
90%
26
24
80%
22
70%
20
18
60%
16
50%
14
12
40%
10
30%
8
6
20%
4
10%
2
3
V-11
4
V-20
5
V-20
6
V-20
A finished document (i.e., unit) contains a total of
4 critical entries (i.e., a critical entry is an
opportunity for a defect, mistake, or error). An
inspection of 3,000 documents revealed a total
of 195 errors, and 94% of the documents were
good (i.e., defect free).
Calculate the following:
dpu =
dpm =
dpmo =
Total Number of Defective Documents =
Total Number of Defect-Free Documents =
FPY =
σ capability =
7
V-56





Failure Mode – The manner in which a part or
process can fail to meet specification. It is usually
associated with a defect or nonconformance.
Effect – The impact on a customer if a failure mode is
not prevented or corrected. The customer can be an
immediate one or one downstream.
Cause – A deficiency that results in a failure mode.
Causes are sources of variability associated with key
process input variables.
A FMEA is best when a team prepares it. The team
should be made up of people from all areas impacted
by the process. The FMEA is useful in a number of
applications: in determining X’s, helping to define
process improvements and controls, and others.
Reference
◦ AIAG – Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, FMEA
◦ SAE J1739- Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in
Design (Design FMEA), Potential Failure Mode and Effects
Analysis in Manufacturing and Assembly Processes (Process
FMEA)
8
V-66




System FMEA is used to analyze
systems and subsystems in early
concept and design stages. It
focuses on potential failure modes
associated with the functions of a
system caused by design.
Design FMEA is used to analyze
products before they are release to
production.
Process FMEA is used to analyze
manufacturing, assembly, and
transactional processes.
Product FMEA is used to analyze
failure modes that could occur to
the product once it gets into the
customers hands.
FMEA: Identify ways of eliminating or reducing the specific
causes and document a plan to prevent the failures.
9
V-66
Preparation





A FMEA begins with a process map.
Identify the process and map its key
steps.
List the key process outputs to satisfy
customer requirements.
List the key process inputs for each
process step.
Define a matrix relating product
outputs to process inputs.
Rank inputs according to their
importance.
The goal in your preparation is to have a
complete understanding of the process you
are analyzing. What are its steps? What are
its inputs and outputs? How do they relate?
**Information for this section taken from: GE Six Sigma Playbook
and the AIAG Reference Manual.**
10
V-66
11
V-66

map for an accounts receivable
process:
Start
Payment
Identify
Customer
Identify
Invoice
Apply
Payment
to Invoice
End
12
V-66


For each Process Input Variable (PIV),
determine the ways in which the
input can go wrong (failure modes).
There is at least one way that each
input can fail.
Process Step
Key Process Potential Failure
Input
Mode
Checks
Delay internal mail
Identify Customer
Identify Invoice
Wire Transfer
reference line
Checks
Identify Invoice
Checks
Information not
supplied
Incorrect invoice
supplied
Invoice number not
supplied
Potential S
Failure E
Effects V
Potential
Causes
O
C
C
Current
Controls
D R
E P
T N
13
V-66


For each failure mode associated with
the inputs, determine effects.
These effects are internal
requirements for the next process as
well as customer effects.
Process Step
Identify Customer
Identify Invoice
Identify Invoice
S
Key Process Potential
Potential
E
Input
Failure Mode Failure Effects
V
Potential
Causes
O
C
C
Current
Controls
D R
E P
T N
Checks
Delay internal AR balance
mail
does not go
down
Wire Transfer Information AR balance is
reference line not supplied past due
Checks
Incorrect
Invoice shows
invoice
outstanding
supplied
(AR balance
does go down)
Checks
Invoice
number not
supplied
Invoice shows
outstanding
(AR balance
does go down)
14
V-66


Identify potential causes of each
failure mode.
In most cases, there will be more
than one cause for a failure mode.
Process Step
S
O
Key Process Potential Potential Failure
E Potential Causes C
Input
Failure Mode
Effects
V
C
Checks
Delay internal AR balance does
mail
not go down
Identify Customer
Wire Transfer Information not AR balance is past
reference line supplied
due
Customer or bank
did not include
name and/or
account info on wire
transfer
Identify Invoice
Checks
Incorrect
Invoice shows
invoice supplied outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Customer error
Identify Invoice
Checks
Invoice number Invoice shows
not supplied outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Customer error
Current Controls
D R
E P
T N
in mail room
15
V-66


List the current controls for each
cause.
For each cause, we list how we are
either preventing or detecting it. List
the document number for any SOP’s.
Process Step
Key
Process
Input
S
Potential
Potential
E
Failure Mode Failure Effects
V
O
Potential Causes C
C
Current Controls
Delay internal AR balance does
mail
not go down
in mail room
None
Identify Customer Wire
Transfer
reference
line
Information not AR balance is
supplied
past due
Customer or bank
did not include name
and/or account info
on wire transfer
Acct identifies problem
when trying to apply
payment
Identify Invoice
Checks
Incorrect
invoice
supplied
Invoice shows
outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Customer error
Customer might catch
it when reviewing the
next statement
Identify Invoice
Checks
Invoice number Invoice shows
not supplied outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Customer error
Acct identifies problem
when trying to apply
payment
This is how the FMEA identifies initial holes in the
current control plan.
D
E
T
R
P
N
16
V-66

The risk priority number (RPN) is
the product of the rankings for:
◦ Severity (SEV)
◦ Probability of Occurrence (OCC)
◦ Difficulty to Detect (DET)


High RPN’s are flags to take
effort to reduce the calculated
risk
Regardless of RPN, high severity
scores (9-10) must be given
special attention
RPN =
SEV
Effects
x
OCC
Causes
x
DET
Control
s
17
V-66
Create a rating system that
makes sense for your project, the
process, and the defects you’re
trying to prevent.
18
V-66


Assign severity, occurrence and detection
ratings to each cause.
We are now ready to assign appropriate
criteria. The team then starts scoring each
cause to compute a risk priority number
(RPN).
Process Step
S
O
Key Process Potential Failure Potential Failure
E Potential Causes C
Input
Mode
Effects
V
C
Checks
Delay internal
mail
AR balance does
not go down
mail room
7
Identify Customer
Wire Transfer
reference line
Information not
supplied
Identify Invoice
Checks
Incorrect invoice Invoice shows
supplied
outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Identify Invoice
Checks
AR balance is past
due
Invoice number Invoice shows
not supplied
outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Current Controls
D R
E P
T N
None
7
10 490
Customer or bank did Acct identifies problem when
not include name
trying to apply payment
10 and/or account info 5
5 250
on wire transfer
Customer error
5
Customer might catch it
when reviewing the next
5 statement
Customer error
5
10
Acct identifies problem when
trying to apply payment
10 250
5 250
19
V-66



Calculate the RPN’s and determine
recommended actions to reduce high RPN’s.
High severity scores (9-10) must be given
special attention.
Which issues may we want to address first?
Process Step
S
O
Key Process Potential Failure Potential Failure
E Potential Causes C
Input
Mode
Effects
V
C
Checks
Delay internal
mail
AR balance does
not go down
mail room
7
Identify Customer
Wire Transfer
reference line
Information not
supplied
Identify Invoice
Checks
Incorrect invoice Invoice shows
supplied
outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Identify Invoice
Checks
AR balance is past
due
Invoice number Invoice shows
not supplied
outstanding (AR
balance does go
down)
Current Controls
D R
E P
T N
None
7
10 490
Customer or bank did Acct identifies problem when
not include name
trying to apply payment
10 and/or account info 5
5 250
on wire transfer
Customer error
5
Customer might catch it
when reviewing the next
5 statement
Customer error
5
10
Acct identifies problem when
trying to apply payment
10 250
5 250
20
V-66



Determine recommended actions to reduce
high RPN’s.
Now fill in recommended actions for high
RPN’s.
Ease of Completion (EOC) for each action is
optional.
Process Step
Payment
Identify
Customer
Key
Process
Input
Checks
Wire
Transfer
reference
line
S
O
Potential
Potential
E Potential Causes C
Failure Mode Failure Effects
V
C
Delay internal AR balance does
mail
not go down
Information not AR balance is
supplied
past due
staffing in mail
7 room
Current Controls
D R E
E P O
T N C
None
7
10 490
Customer or bank
Acct identifies problem
did not include
when trying to apply
name and/or
payment
10 account info on
5
5 250
wire transfer
Actions
Recommended
Investigate mail room
staffing and associated
processes
Poka-Yoke wire transer
process
Identify Invoice Checks
Incorrect
invoice
supplied
Invoice shows
Customer error
outstanding (AR
balance does go 5
down)
Customer might catch
it when reviewing the
5 next statement
10 250
Provide payment stub
with statement for each
invoice
Identify Invoice Checks
Invoice number Invoice shows
Customer error
not supplied outstanding (AR
balance does go 5
down)
Acct identifies problem
when trying to apply
10 payment
5 250
Provide payment stub
with statement for each
invoice
21
V-66

Person or group responsible should
take on the Actions Recommended
and document those actions. Now
Key
S
O
Potential
Potential
Process Step Process
E Potential Causes C Current Controls
Failure Mode Failure Effects
Input
V
C
Payment
Identify
Customer
Checks
Delay internal AR balance does
mail
not go down
Wire
Information not AR balance is
Transfer supplied
past due
reference
line
Identify Invoice Checks
Identify Invoice Checks
Incorrect
invoice
supplied
staffing in mail
7 room
D R E
E P O
T N C
None
7
10 490
Customer or bank Acct identifies problem
did not include
when trying to apply
name and/or
payment
10 account info on 5
5 250
wire transfer
Actions
Recommended
Resp.
Actions Taken
S O D R
E C E P
V C T N
Investigate mail room G. Lee
staffing and associated
processes
schedule.
Poka-Yoke wire transer N. Peart
process
Contacted banks and
established wire
transfer procedure (DI
10 1 3 30
2112)
7 1 10 70
Invoice shows
Customer error
outstanding (AR
balance does go 5
down)
Customer might catch
it when reviewing the
5 next statement
10 250
Provide payment stub A. Lifeson Revised statement to
with statement for each
include payment stub
invoice
with each invoice.
5 1 5 25
Invoice number Invoice shows
Customer error
not supplied outstanding (AR
balance does go 5
down)
Acct identifies problem
when trying to apply
10 payment
5 250
Provide payment stub S. Hagar Revised statement to
with statement for each
include payment stub
invoice
with each invoice.
5 1 5 25
22
V-66




Collaborative effort: Do not try
alone, perform in a group.
Action items are required for
completion.
Train team ahead of time by
explaining scoring criteria.
Summarize often: FMEA is a
living document.
23
V-66
```