Unit 7--political organization of space notes (chapter 8)

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POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY—MINICH
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: CONFLICT
• State
• Nation-State
• Perfect Examples?
• Multi-National State
• Examples: UK
• Part-Nation State
• Examples: Kurds
• Centrifugal vs.
Centripetal
• Examples?
• Shatter Belt
• Punjab
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY: CONFLICT
• Balkanization
• Centrifugal Forces
• Religion
• Catholicism, Orthodox,
Islam
• Ethnicity
• Language
• Roman vs. Cyrillic
• Centripetal Forces
• Political
• Austro-Hungarians
• Yugoslavia (1991)
• Ethnic Cleansing
• “Greater Serbia”
• Kosovo (1999)
“SYRIAN CONFLICT”
1. Explain the origin of modern Middle Eastern
borders according to Rice.
2. What does Rice mean by “sectarian allegiances?”
3. Explain where you see the concept of
Balkanization in the editorial.
4. What does she mean by the “Middle East state
system?”
5. What is the former Secretary’s proposed solution?
Why?
DEFINING A STATE
• Definition: defined territories,
permanent population, fully
independent (sovereign)
• Country=state
• History
• States have existed for
thousands of years.
• “City-States”
• Empires
• Modern concept—dates back to
Europe in the 17th-19th centuries
• As of 1950 only about 50
recognized independent
countries; now nearly 200 (and
more coming)
• Antarctica—only large piece of
land not controlled by a state
• Difficulty of Definition
Peace of Westphalia
(1648)—Thirty Years’ War
• Western Sahara, Taiwan,
Korea
DIFFICULTY OF DEFINING
STATE: TAIWAN
• State???
• Technically part of China
• Used to be called “Formosa”
• Terms:
• China = People’s Republic of
China (PRC)
• Taiwan = Republic of China
(ROC)
• 1949, non-communists
(Chiang
Kai-shek) fled to island
• Claimed independence from
China
• US supports Taiwan, but says
they are all China
• Very industrialized; GDP per
capita= 4-5x of China
DIFFICULTY OF DEFINING STATE:
NORTH AND SOUTH KOREA
History
• 1895 – 1945
• Japan
• 38th parallel
• NK = Communist (USSR)
• SK = Democracy (US)
• 1950: Korean War
• 36,500 US military killed
• Cease-fire 1953
• DMZ (Demilitarized Zone)
• 2½ miles wide
• 38,000 US personnel
NORTH KOREA
• Development:
• South Korean economy—
24x North Korean GDP
• Dynasty—
• Kim Il Sung “Great Leader”
• Kim Jong Il “Dear Leader”
• Kim Jong Un
• Atrocities: Camp 14
• “3 Generations of
punishment”
Most of the
remaining colonies
are small
islands in the
Pacific or
Caribbean.
STATE EXPANSION
• Colonization
• Causes—correlation with demographic transition model?
• Today: ie. “territories, overseas dependencies, subnational
entities, in free association, or special administrative regions”
STATE EXPANSION
• Organic Theory of States
(1901)
• Friedrich Ratzel
• German
• Lebensraum
• Heartland Theory (1904)
• Halford John Mackinder
• British
• “World Island”—Heartland
• Europe, Asia, Africa—resources
• “Offshore islands”
• British Isles, Japan
• “Outlying islands”
• North/South America, Australia
HEARTLAND VS. RIMLAND
• Nicholas Spykman
• American (1942)
• Rimland Theory
• Helped design
Containment Policy
• “Balance of power”
• Maintain a divided
rimland
HEARTLAND VS. RIMLAND
• Heartland Theory:
• Mackinder believed that a landbased power, not a seabased
power, would ultimately rule the world. He believed that Eurasia was
the most important area in the world containing a “pivot area”
extending from Eastern Europe to eastern Siberia. The “pivot area”
became known as the Heartland.
• Who rules East Europe rules the Heartland.
• Who rules the Heartland rules the World Island.
• Who rules the World Island rules the World.
• Rimland Theory:
• Spykman believed the Eurasia rim, not its heart, held the key to
global power. He parodied Mackinder:
• Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia
• Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world.
• Spykman saw a divided rimland as a key to the world’s balance of power.
Today the rimland includes Western Europe and China
SHAPES OF STATES
Think advantages,
disadvantages, and
examples…
• Micro-state
• Compact
• Elongated
• Prorupted
• Perforated
• Enclave
• Fragmented
• Exclave
• Landlocked
TYPES OF BOUNDARIES
Think advantages,
disadvantages, and
examples…
• Physical
• Water, mountains, etc.
• Cultural
•
•
•
•
Geometric
Religious
Linguistic
Others…
•
•
•
•
Antecedent
Super-imposed boundary
Satellite states
Relict
INTERNAL POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
Geographic power distribution: Think
advantages, disadvantages, and examples…
• Unitary- central government makes laws for the entire
nation and gives local governments only limited
power and authority
►Great Britain, Japan and France
• Federal System- gives the national government
certain powers and reserves others for the states
►United States, India, Mexico, Russia
• Confederation- smaller political units keep their
sovereignty and give the central government very
limited powers
►Articles of Confederation, United Nations, European Union
ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY
• Census
• Apportionment
• At-large
• 435 members of
Congress (1911)
• 1:647,000 people (2000
Census)
• Redistricting
(Responsibility of state
legislatures)
• Compact, Contiguous,
Congruent, Equity
16
ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY
• Malapportionment (refusal
to redistrict)
• UK— Rotten/pocket borough
• Reform Act of 1832
• US—
• Baker v. Carr (TN,1962),
urbanization
• Wesberry v. Sanders (GA,1964),
“one man one vote”
• Gerrymandering
(manipulating district lines)
• Wasted vote, excess vote,
stacked vote
• Partisan, Racial
ELECTORAL GEOGRAPHY
2000 Census
2010 Census
U.S. congressional districts covering Travis County Texas
(outlined in red) In 2003, Republicans in the Texas
legislature redistricted the state, diluting the voting
power of the heavily Democratic county.
19
The unusual "earmuff" shape of the 4th
Congressional District of Illinois connects two
Hispanic neighborhoods while remaining
narrowly tracing Interstate 294.
20
SUPRANATIONALISM
• Why do IGO’s (Intergovernmental Organizations) exist?
• Not new…Delian League (478 BCE), Hanseatic League (13th Cent.)
• Global vs. Regional
• Economic
• NAFTA, OPEC, World Trade Organization
• Political
• Organization of American States, the Organization of African Unity,
British Commonwealth of Nations, Arab League
• Military
• NATO, Warsaw Pact, Rome-Berlin Axis
• Nongovernmental Organizations (NGO’s)
• International Red Cross/Crescent, Green Peace, Doctors Without
Borders
OPEC
NATO
IGO RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Global or Regional
2. What is the purpose of the organization?
• Type: Economic, Political, Military
3. What states are members?
4. What areas of sovereignty do member states
sacrifice in return for membership?
5. What role do you see this IGO playing in the
future? How do you think this IGO will change the
nature of member/nonmember states?
ORIGIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS
• Where did the idea for
the UN come from?
• 1945
• What was its original
purpose?
• What was the League
of Nations?
• How did it form the
foundation of the United
Nations?
• What are the
differences?
UNITED NATIONS MEMBERS
UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY
• Who belongs?
• 192 Members
• 2/3’s required to make
decisions
• What Powers?
• Discuss
issues/problems
• Pass resolutions
• Votes for membership
election,
suspend/admit
members, budgetary
matters
UN SECURITY COUNCIL
• Who belongs?
• 15 members (9 out of 15
required to pass
resolutions)
• 5 Permanent Veto Nations
(US, Russia, UK, France and
China)
• 10 Non-permanent
elected
• What Powers?
• Investigates disputes, pass
resolutions, can call for
economic or military
action
UN SECRETARIAT
• Secretariat
• day to day operations,
taking orders from the UN
members
• Secretary General
• Ban Ki-moon
• Continent Rotation
• Peacekeepers
DESCRIBE THE BASIC ORGANIZATION
• International Court of
Justice (ICJ)
• Settles legal disputes between
countries, ruling is binding
• Economic and Social
Council (ECOSOC)
• Intended to improve living
standards
• UNESCO, ILO, FAO, WHO,
World Bank
• UN Declarations:
• Human Rights, Genocide
Convention, Law of the Seas,
Earth Summit
EUROPEAN UNION
EU Embassy
(Washington, DC)
Parliament (Brussels)
WHAT IS THE EUROPEAN UNION (EU)?
• 1951—Sought economic cooperation to prevent a
repeat of a conflict like World War II (European Coal
and Steel Community—Belgium, France, Italy,
Luxembourg, Netherlands, and West Germany)
• 1967—European Community (EC) promoted further
economic cooperation (12 members), also
managed nuclear energy production
• 1993—Maastricht Treaty the EU has been expanding
into other policy areas such as the environment,
education, security, foreign policy, immigration and
crime
EUROPEAN UNION:
MEMBER STATES (27)
Austria (1995)
Belgium (1952)
Bulgaria (2007)
Cyprus (2004)
Czech Republic (2004)
Denmark (1973)
Estonia (2004)
Finland (1995)
France (1952)
Germany (1952)
Greece (1981)
Hungary (2004)
Ireland (1973)
Italy (1952)
Latvia (2004)
Lithuania (2004)
Luxembourg (1952)
Malta (2004)
Netherlands (1952)
Poland (2004)
Portugal (1986)
Romania (2007)
Slovakia (2004)
Slovenia (2004)
Spain (1986)
Sweden (1995)
United Kingdom (1973)
WHO CAN JOIN THE EU?
• To join a country must
meet a list of criteria:
• Stable democratic
government
• Good human rights
record
• Sound economic policy
• Willing to adopt all EU
regulations and laws
Acceding country
Croatia
Candidate Countries
Iceland
Montenegro
Serbia
FYR of Macedonia
Turkey
Potential Candidates
Albania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Kosovo
EURO
EU: BASIC FACTS
• Capital: Brussels
• Area: 4.3 million sq km (US: 9.8 million sq km)
• France, Spain, UK, Germany
• Population: 504 million (US: 314 million)
• Germany, France, Italy, UK
• GDP $15.48 trillion (US: $15.08 trillion)
• Per capita GDP $34,100 (US: $48,300)
• Life Expectancy 79.76 years (US: 78.49 years)

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