Political organization of space ppt

Report
Political Organization of
Space
Chapter 8
© Robin Foster


Political Geography
is the study of the
political
organization of the
planet.
A constantly
changing collage of
countries.
Political Geography

State-people under a single government.
◦ In political geography we do NOT refer to the
50 regional governments within the USA.

Sovereignty-which means independence
from control of its internal affairs by other
states

Country an identifiable land area-country
Where are states located?
Nation-population with a single culture.
 Nation-state-single culture under a single
government.
 Stateless nation-culture group not in
political process. Example: Kurds,
gypsies, Tibetans
 Theocracy-government based on religious
law.

Key differences
The only landmass not a part of a
state?

Government refers to leadership and
institutions that make policy decisions for
a country.

Politics is basically all about power. Who
has it? How did they get it?

In the USA, who has the power?
The concept of territoriality

Territoriality refers to efforts to control
pieces of the earth’s surface for political
and social ends.

Territoriality is the key to political
geography.
Territoriality

Robert Sack used
this term.

He sees human
territoriality as a
key ingredient in
the construction of
human and political
spaces.
Human Territoriality

States vary in land
area.

Russia-6.6 million
square miles

Tonga-a microstate of
289 square miles.

Monaco-1.5 square
miles.
Various size of states
In 1930 there were 70
 In 2007 there were more than 200

States in the world

Colonialism-efforts by one country to
establish settlements and to impose its
political, economic, and cultural principals
on such territory for three basic reasons:
◦ European missionaries promote Christianity.
◦ Colonies provided resources that helped
European economies.
◦ European states considered the number of
colonies the indicator of relative power.
◦ God, gold and glory
The development of the State
concept
Look at Africa

Territorial morphology is the term that
describes the shapes, sizes and relative
locations of states.

There are six basic shapes of states:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
CompactProrupted
Elongated
Fragmented
Perforated
Bifurcated
Shapes of states
Compact-distance from center to any
boundary is about the same, giving it a
shape similar to a circle.
 Capital is usually in the center, easy to
rule.
 Compactness promotes good
communications among all regions.

Shapes of states-Compact
A compact state with a large projecting
extension.
 Exist to reach a natural resource such as
a river or ocean.

Shape of states-prorupted
Long narrow state-sometimes for either
political or economic reasons.
 Can have transportation and
communication problems between
geographic ends of the country.
 Potential for isolation.

Shape of states-elongated
Several discontinuous pieces of territory.
 Remoteness of islands can cause
problems.
 Population concentrations or lack of lead
to control problems.
 If fragments are separated by another
country problems can arise.

Shape of states-fragmented
A state that completely surrounds another
one.
 Transportation issues can be created.

Shape of states-Perforated

Has two distinct territories.
Shapes of states-bifurcated

The shape of states created by their
boundaries can create enclaves and exclaves.

Enclaves are landlocked within another
country, so that the country totally surrounds
it.

Exclaves are small bits of territory that lie
on the coasts separated from the state by the
territory of another state.
Exclaves and Enclaves
Enclaves
are
landlocked
within
another
country, so
that the
country
totally
surrounds
it.
Enclave
Exclaves are
small bits of
territory that
lie on the
coasts
separated
from the state
by the
territory of
another state.
Cabinda,
which is part
of Angola
Exclave

Landlocked states◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Lack ocean frontage
Surrounded by other states
At a disadvantage for trade
Try to arrange use of a port with another country.
There are 40 in the world.
◦ Double landlocked-must travel through two
countries to reach the ocean or water.
◦ There are two in the world.
Relative location

Frontiers rather than boundaries
separated states.

A frontier is a geographic zone where no
state exercises power.

Frontiers provide buffers between states.
Frontiers
Frontiers
Boundaries can be physical or cultural.
 Boundaries may be set by physical
features like lakes, rivers, mountains.
 Boundaries can be drawn to separate
ethnic groups from one another.
 Boundaries may be set by negotiation or
war with neighbors, which can be subject
to change in the future.

Boundaries

Boundaries mark limits of
state jurisdiction, serve as
symbols of sovereignty or
the ability to carry our
actions or police actions.

Modern nationalism is a
sense of unity with fellow
citizens and loyalty to the
state to promote its
interests over those of
others.
Functions of boundaries

Boundaries are
invisible lines that
mark the extent of
a state’s territory
and the control its
leaders have.
Boundaries
Boundaries

Boundaries mark
the place where two
or more states
come into direct
contact.

They have the
potential to create
conflicts among
them.

Boundaries are a
vertical plane that
cuts through the
subsoil.

Resources
underground are
split between
countries.
Boundaries

Boundaries also
include the airspace
that is above the
country.

Definition-treaty-like document where
boundary is described.

Delimitation-Cartographers put the
boundary on the map.

Demarcation-The boundary is marked on
the ground by concrete posts or steel
pillars, fencing or other visible means.
Evolution of Boundaries
1. Geometric-straight-line boundaries.
◦ USA /Canada West of the Great Lakes.
2. Physical/Political or Natural Political
BoundariesoConform to physical features-Rio Grande River
oMay follow old trespass lines.
oMountains, water or desert
Types of Boundaries
3. Cultural Political BoundariesBoundary between Christian Armenia and
Muslim Azerbaijan.
These can shift over time.
Can also be religious, language based or
“Green Line’ (the buffer zone on Cypress).
Types of Boundaries
Certain boundaries were defined and delimited
before the present day human landscape
developed.
1. Antecedent boundary-the border passes
through sparsely populated areas.
Example: Indonesia and Malaysia.
2.
Subsequent boundary-China/Vietnamborder is the result of long term process of
adjustment and modification
Genesis/Genetic Boundaries
3. Superimposed boundary-forcibly
drawn across a unified landscape.
Indonesia/New Guinea
4. Relict boundary-the border has ceased
to function but the imprints are still
evident on the cultural landscape. N/S.
Vietnam, E/W. Germany/Berlin
Genetic Boundaries

Bad planning
Borders gone wrong
In the Convention on the Law of the Seas
(UNCOLS)
the UN generally paved the following
guidelines:
1. Coastal states can lay claims to the sea
up to 12 nautical miles from the shoreline.
Ships from other countries have the right
to pass through these waters.

Ocean Boundaries
2.
3.
A coastal state can claim up to 200 nautical
miles of territory beyond its coastline as an
exclusive economic zone, over which it has
economic control and can explore and mine
natural resources in the waters.
When there is not enough water for each
country on opposite sides of the sea to have
200 nautical miles of exclusive economic
zone, the two countries will divide the water
evenly under the medial line principal.
Ocean Boundaries
Buffer Zone


Zone of separation,
cushion that keeps
rivals apart.
DMZ in Korea
Shatterbelt

A region caught
between stronger
colliding external
cultural/political forces.
Israel
 Kashmir
 E. Europe during Cold
War

Boundaries
World Map



Mark limits of state
jurisdiction.
Symbols of
sovereignty.
Foster nationalism
Functions of Boundaries





Canada10 provinces
2 territories
1 self-governing
homeland-Nunavut
Internal boundaries
represent more
cultural variation
Internal Boundaries





Locational/Positional/definitional boundary disputecenter on delimitation and demarcation of the boundary.
Operational/functional boundary dispute-involve
neighbors who differ over the way their boundary should
function.
Definitional-focus on legal language. Ex. Median line of
river as river may change.
Resource/Allocational boundary dispute-involve
resources like oil/natural gas, and now water rights.
Territorial disputes-ownership of a region.
◦ Irredentism-Citizens of the US settled in Texas which
was controlled by Mexico. The USA wanted to annex the
territory.
Boundary Disputes
Gerrymandering-used to disperse or
concentrate groups for political
purposes

Unitary System-concentrates all policymaking
powers into one central geographic place.

Confederate System-spreads the power
among many sub-units with a weak central
government.

Federal System-divides the power between
the central government and sub-units.
States and distribution of power
Unitary System
Concentrated Power
Confederate System
Dispersed Power
Federal System
Divided Power
Most countries are unitary and are facing:
Devolution-transfer of some important powers
from the central government to subgovernments.
States and Distribution of power



Government based
on religious law.
Law based on
religious text.
Rulers are normally
religious leaders.
Theocracy
 Dictatorship-one
person takes power by
force--Cuba
 Communism- a group of people in charge.
 Monarchy-a king or queen rules by divine
right.
 Constitutional/Parliamentary Democracy-A
king or queen exist, but an elected
government run the country.
Other kinds Governments





Captialism, Free-Market, Market Economyeconomic decisions based on supply and
demand. Consumer purchases tell companies
what to produce.
Socialism-decisions made by government and
people.
Mixed Economy-a combination of Capitalism
and Socialism
Command Economy-Government makes all
economic decisions
Traditional Economy-Family makes decisions
based on tradition.
Economic systems of Countries






Unify people
Bind together the
people of a state
Gives state strength
Nationalismallegiance to a
country, promotes
loyalty and
commitment.
Schools, armed
forces, flags, religion.
Pledge of Allegiance
Centripetal Forces
Tend to fragment
Destabilize the
government
 Encourage a country
to fall apart.
 Separatist
movements in a
region
 Devolution
 Deep religious
conflicts
 Internal boundary
conflicts.


Centrifugal Forces

Can divide and destabilize the
government. These forces can be divided
into three basic types:
Ethnic forces
ethnonationalism-tendency for an ethnic
group to see itself as a distinct nation
with a right to autonomy
Example-Quebec, the former Yugoslavia
1.
Devolution
2. Economic Forces-economic inequality, especially
if regional.
Example: Italy-Ancona Line-the north
(industrialized) is clearly more prosperous than
the south (rural).
3. Spatial Forces-Distance, remoteness, landforms
Example: Puerto Rico
4. Balkanization-fragmentation or break-up of a
region into smaller regions or countries.
Devolution

Two important
geographic clues to
understanding how
states are organized
are it’s core area(s)
and functions of its
capital city.
Organization of States



Nation-states grew
outward from a core
area and expanding
outward along their
frontiers.
Many states have an
identified core area.
Multi core states may
have problems, if the
areas are ethnically
diverse, like Nigeria.
Core Areas


The capital city is the primate city.
Forward capital-a capital serving as a
model for national objectives, especially
economic development and future hopes.


Japan moved it’s capital from Kyoto to Tokyo
Czar Peter moved the capital of Russia to St.
Petersburg from Moscow.
Brazil built Brasilia a to encourage interior
development of the country.

Capital City
Forward Capitals
Geopolitics
Fredrich Ratzel, in the 19th Century
compared a state to a biological
organism.
 There is a life cycle from birth to death,
with a predictable rise and fall of power.


Hitler used this theory to justify the
growth of the German state.
Geopolitics


Many countries are
poor today because
of their colonization
by European powers.
Continued economic
dependence of new
states on their former
colonial masters is
called neocolonialism
or postcolonial
dependency
Dependency theory
Sir Halford Mackinder looked at power
relationships surrounding Britain’s global
empire.
 Sea power was ending and land power
would be the key to power.
 Eurasia was the world island, and key to
dominating the world.
 Ruling the world island necessitated
controlling eastern Europe.

Heartland Theory
Heartland Theory


Nicholas Spykman built off Mackinder’s
theory.
He wrote of rimland, all of Eurasia’s
periphery, not its core of Russia and central
Asia.

It was important to balance power in the
rimland to prevent a global power from
emerging.

His theory is linked to the Vietnam and
Korean wars.
Rimland Theory
World System Analysis

Looks at the world as a capitalist system of
interlocking states. Social change in
developing world is linked to economic
activity in developed world.

Global economic core-industrialized,
developed countries that drive the global
economy.
Periphery-countries that are underdeveloped
and were, usually, once the core’s colonies
Semiperiphery-countries between core and
periphery


World Systems Theory
Cooperating groups of
nations that operate
either on a regional or
international level for
decisions and rules.
Ex. United Nations, Geneva
Conventions or Law of the
Sea
Supranationalistic Organizations
The United Nations (UN)
is an international
organization whose
stated aims are
facilitating cooperation
in international law,
international security,
economic development,
social progress, human
rights, and the
achieving of world
peace.
UN was founded in
1945 after World War
II.
 There are currently 192
member states,
including nearly every
sovereign state in the
world.

Super nationalistic Organizations
1993-NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement
Bill Clinton signed the agreement between
the US, Canada and Mexico.
Reduced tariffs, opened up more trade.
Trade Agreements
1993-European Union (EU)
Trade bloc to abolish tariffs and quotas for
members.
Common import rules
Euro is the common currency.
England will not join, as other countries are
added incrementally.
Trade Agreements

OPEC-Organization
of Petroleum
Exporting countries.



Formed to
coordinate policies
to secure fair and
stable prices for
petroleum product
producers.

North Atlantic
Treaty
Organizataion-NATO
A military alliance
of Western
democracies begun
in 1949.
Agree to mutual
defense
Hegemonic Power

Three trends are seen in the ever
changing world order:
Democratization
2. Movement toward market economies
3. Revival of ethnic or cultural politics
1.
Forces of change, a multipolar
world?
More nations moving to a form of popular
government
 The modern world is in a third wave of
democratization. Why?
1. Loss of legitimacy of authoritarian regimes.
2. Expansion of urban middle class
3. New emphasis on human rights
4. Snowball effect
5. Internet, satellite TV, and seeing what
others have.

Democratization

Market or Mixed economies are replacing
command economies.

Marketization-state’s re-creation of a
market in which property, labor , goods
and services can function in a competitive
environment.

Privatization-transfer of state-owned
property to private ownership
Movement toward market
economies

Fragmentation-divisions based on ethnic
or cultural identity are becoming
important in world politics.

Politicization of religion has dominated
world politics in the early 21st century.
Revival of Ethnic or Cultural
Politics

International relations no longer driven by
the communist/anticommunist groups.

International relations are multilayered
and complex.
Challenges of terrorism and other types of
warfare.
 Post Cold War time period

New World Order

A multipolar world is emerging in which the
heartland and rimland are represented by
power cores.

Four potential world Superpowers on the
World Island:
Russia, Europe, China and the United States
An unstable multipolar conflict with potential
for conflict.
Multipolar World
Development

We will look at the following:
Human Development
 Development indicators
 Development through trade


Differences between MDC and LDC
Development
Human Development
Index HDI
-Developed by the UN
Measured:
GDP Per CapitaEconomic
Literacy Rate and
Education-Social
Life ExpectancyDemographic
The closer to 1 or
100% the better.



Gender Related
Development Index
GDI
Compares the level of
development of
women to both
sexes.
Human Development


Combines income
and professional
jobs
And two indicators
of political powermanagerial and
elected jobs.
Gender Empowerment Measure
Per capita income-divide GDP/total pop
 Economic structure-number of people
employed in primary, secondary and
tertiary economic activity
 Productivity-LDC workers more
productive, why? Less machinery and
equipment
 Consumer goods-MDC more wealth to
purchase consumer goods

Economic indicators of
development





Education and literacy
Life expectancy
Infant mortality
Natural increase in population
Crude birth rates
Social Indicators
Nutrition-how is your diet?
 Health care—MDC more access to health
care

Health indicators

LDC’s must promote development:
1. Become self sufficient—create
businesses and jobs
 2. Develop international trade-develop
resources the rest of the world wants.

Money is available through investment, loans
from the world bank and international monetary
fund
Paths to Development

Products are made and traded according
to standards that protect workers and
small businesses.

A higher percentage of the sale price goes
back to the producers
Fair Trade

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