Chapter 3 Determining Feasibility and Managing Analysis and

Report
Chapter 3
Determining Feasibility and
Managing Analysis and Design
Activities
Systems Analysis and Design
Kendall and Kendall
Fifth Edition
Major Topics
Project initiation
Determining project feasibility
Project scheduling
Managing project activities
Manage systems analysis team
members
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Project Initiation
Projects are initiated for two broad
reasons:
Problems that lend themselves to systems
solutions
Opportunities for improvement through
Upgrading systems
Altering systems
Installing new systems
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Organizational Problems
 Identify problems by
 Check output against performance criteria
 Too many errors
 Work completed slowly
 Work done incorrectly
 Work done incompletely
 Work not done at all
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Organizational Problems
Observe behavior of employees
High absenteeism
High job dissatisfaction
High job turnover
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Organizational Problems
Listen to feedback from vendors,
customers, and suppliers
Complaints
Suggestions for improvement
Loss of sales
Lower sales
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Project Selection
Five specific criteria for project selection
Backed by management
Timed appropriately for commitment of
resources
It moves the business toward attainment
of its goals
Practicable
Important enough to be considered over
other projects
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Possibilities for Improvement
Many possible objectives exist including
Speeding up a process
Streamlining a process
Combining processes
Reducing errors in input
Reducing redundant storage
Reducing redundant output
Improving system and subsystem
integration
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Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG)
A feasibility impact grid (FIG) is used to
assess the impact of any improvements
to the existing system
Can increase awareness of the impacts
made on the achievement of corporate
objectives
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Feasibility Impact Grid (FIG)
Current or proposed systems are listed
on the left
Objectives are listed on the top
Red arrows indicate a positive impact
Green arrows indicate implementation
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Feasibility
A feasibility study assesses the
operational, technical, and economic
merits of the proposed project
There are three types of feasibility:
Technical feasibility
Economic feasibility
Operational feasibility
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Technical Feasibility
Technical feasibility assesses whether
the current technical resources are
sufficient for the new system
If they are not available, can they be
upgraded to provide the level of
technology necessary for the new
system
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Economic Feasibility
Economic feasibility determines whether
the time and money are available to
develop the system
Includes the purchase of
New equipment
Hardware
Software
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Operational Feasibility
Operational feasibility determines if the
human resources are available to
operate the system once it has been
installed
Users that do not want a new system
may prevent it from becoming
operationally feasible
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Activity Planning
Activity planning includes
Selecting a systems analysis team
Estimating time required to complete each
task
Scheduling the project
Two tools for project planning and
control are Gantt charts and PERT
diagrams
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Estimating Time
Project is broken down into phases
Further broken down into tasks or
activities
Finally broken down into steps or even
smaller units
Estimate time for each task or activity
May use a most likely, pessimistic, and
optimistic estimates for time
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Gantt Charts
Easy to construct and use
Shows activities over a period of time
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Gantt Chart Example
C o n d u c t In te rv ie w s
Q u e s tio n n a ire s
R e a d R e p o rts
A n a ly ze D a ta F lo w s
In tr o d u ce P r o to ty p e s
O b s e rv e R e a c tio n s
P e r fo r m C o s t/B e n e fit
P r e p a re P r o p o s a l
P r e s e n t P ro p o s a l
1
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10

C urrent W eek
15
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W eeks
3-18
PERT Diagram
PERT - Program Evaluation and Review
Technique
PERT diagrams show precedence, activities
that must be completed before the next
activities may be started
Used to calculate the critical path, the
longest path through the activities
This is the shortest time to complete the
project
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PERT Diagram Example
A
C o n d u c t In te rv ie w s
None
3
B
Q u e s tio n n a ire s
A
4
C
R e a d R e p o rts
None
4
D
A n a ly ze D a ta F lo w s
B, C
8
E
In tr o d u ce P r o to typ e s
B, C
5
F
O b s e rv e R e a c tio n s
E
3
G
P e r fo r m C o s t/B e n e fit
D
3
H
P r e p a re P r o p o s a l
G
2
I
P r e s e n t P ro p o s a l
H
2
20
B, 4
A, 3
10
C, 4
D, 8
30
50
E, 5
G, 3
60
H, 2
70
I, 2
80
F, 3
40
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PERT Diagram Advantages
Easy identification of the order of
precedence
Easy identification of the critical path
and thus critical activities
Easy determination of slack time, the
leeway to fall behind on noncritical
paths
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Timeboxing
Timeboxing sets an absolute due date
for project delivery
The most critical features are developed
first and implemented by the due date
Other features are added later
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Personal Information Manager
Software
Personal information manager (PIM)
software is useful for scheduling
activities and includes features such as:
Telephone and fax number lists
To-do lists
Online calendars
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Team Management
Teams often have two leaders:
One who leads members to accomplish
tasks
One concerned with social relationships
The systems analyst must manage
Team members
Their activities
Their time, and resources
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Goal Setting
Successful projects require that
reasonable productivity goals for
tangible outputs and process activities
be set
Goal setting helps to motivate team
members
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Ecommerce Project
Management
Ecommerce and traditional software
project management differences:
The data used by ecommerce systems is
scattered across the organization
Ecommerce systems need a staff with a
wide variety of skills
Partnerships must be built externally and
internally well ahead of implementation
Security is of utmost importance
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Project Failures
Project failures may be prevented by
Training
Experience
Learning why other projects have failed
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