Participatory visual methods: tools for engagement and learning with women subsistence farmers in Papua New Guinea Associate Professor Katja Mikhailovich University of Canberra, Australia Funded by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Project website: http://pngwomen.estem-uc.edu.au/ Papua New Guinea • Melanesia/ PNG • 800 languages • Strong cultural identity and practices • Challengesinfrastructure/ safety/ literacy/ education/ rural poverty/ gender inequality Examining women’s business acumen in PNG: Working with women smallholders in horticulture • Participatory action research • Ethnography • Methods – – – – – Participant observation Workshops Interviews Survey VISUAL METHODS Visual research methods Images and technologies such as photography, film, art, drawing, sculpture that are incorporated into into qualitative social research Realist observational approach • Visual documentation of events and processes • Aid memoir • Formal reporting Reflexive approach • Constructedness of images and knowledge • Representation • Subjectivity of the photographer and viewer • Dual perspective – Content – Meaning • Meaning making of representation Drawing in development research 10 seeds technique Jayakaran, Ravi. The Ten Seed Technique. Hong Kong: World Vision China, 2002. http://www.fao.org/participation/Ten-Seed%20techniquerevised.PDF Photovoice BASIC STEPS Pose a question Provide cameras and training Selection and printing of images Group discussion Public exhibition Our photovoice focus To gain a understanding of the experiences of young subsistence farmers in PNG Explore young people’s strengths as young smallholders Identify the challenges they face, what are the problems they encounter as growers. Explore their perceptions of their future in growing/ farming and business? . Photographic themes Stregths and challenges of VM Strengths • Facilitate participation • Increased self- competence through learning new skills • Opportunity for creative production • Working together in new ways • Emerging critical conscousness of ones environment/ lived experience • Gives voice to marginalised Challenges • Inadeqaute time limits dialogue • Logistics • Lost in translation- language barriers Power and empowerment • Fosters researcher- participant relationship • Unequal relations of power- impact on communication and dialogue – Gender – Age – Religion – Custom – Education/ literacy Dialogue, reflection and agency • Did we achieve genuine dialogue? • What learning resulted from reflection? • Are visual processes in research agentic activities? References Catalani, C., & Minkler, M. (2010). Photovoice: A review of the literature in Health and Public Health. Health education and Behavior, 37, 424. doi: DOI: 10.1177/1090198109342084 Clover, D.E. (2006). Out of the Darkroom: Participatory Photography as a critical, imaginative, and Public Aesthetic Practice of Transformative Education. Journal of Transformative Education, 4(6), 275-290. doi: DOI: 10.1177/1541344606287782 Drew, Sarah E., Duncan, Rony E., & Sawyer, Susan M. (2010). Visual Storytelling: A Beneficial But Challenging Method for Health Research With Young People. Qual Health Res, 20(12), 1677-1688. doi: 10.1177/1049732310377455 Gervais, Myriam, & Rivard, L. (2013). "SMART" Photovoice agricultural consultation: increasing Rwandan women farmers' active participation in development. Development in Practice, 23(4), 496-510. doi: 10.1080/09614524.2013.790942 References (continued) Hinthorne, L. L. (2013). Visual research and Communication techniques: A 'Tasting Menu' for Development Practitioners Working Parer 1: Centre for Communication & Social Change, University of Queensland, Australia. Hinthorne, L. L. (2013 ). Evidencing Engagement: Evaluating visual methods for participatory development communication in rural Papua New Guinea. Paper presented at the IAMCR Conference: Crises, Creative Destruction and the Global power of Communication, Dublin. Jayakaran, R. (2002). The 10 Seed Technique. Peoples Republic of China: World Vision. Kindon, S., Pain, R., & Kesby, M. (Eds.), . (2007). Participatory Action Research: Connecting People, Participation and Place. . London: Routledge. Margolis, E. and Pauwels, L . , (Eds). (2011). The Sage Handbook of Visual Research Methods. London: Sage Publications. Mitchell, C. (2008). Getting the picture and changing the picture: visual methodologies and educational research in South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 28, 365-383. References (continued) Pink, S.A. (2010). Doing Visual Ethnography. London: Sage. Pink, S.A. (2012). Advances in Visual Methodology. London: Sage. Prins, E. (2010). Participatory Photography: A tool for empowerment or surveilance? Action Research, 8(426), 426-443. Ramos, F.S. (2007). Imaginary pictures, real life stories: the FotoDialogo method. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 20(2), 191-224. doi: 10.1080/09518390600924337 Riviera, D. (2010). Picture This: A Review of Doing Visual Ethnography: Images, Media, and Representation in Research by Sarah Pink. The Qualitative Report, 15(4), 988-991. SAGE Publications, Inc. Visual Research Methods. SAGE Publications, Inc. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Strack, R.W., Magill, C., & McDonagh, K. Engaging Youth through Photovoice. Health Promot Pract, 5(1), 49-58. Theron, L., Mitchell, C., Smith, A., & Stuart, J. (Eds.). (2011). Picturing Research: Drawing as Visual Methodology. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. References (continued) Thomas, V., Papoutsaki, E., & Eggins, J. (2010). Visual Dialogues, Community Action and Social Change: A South Pacific Islands HIV/AIDS project application. Paper presented at the AMIC 19th Annual Conference. Technology and Culture: Communication Connectors and Dividers, Singapore. University of Surrey. (2003). Photo-Interviewing for research. Social Research Update. Vaughn, C.M. (2011). A Picture of Health: Participation, Photovoice and Preventing HIV among Papua New Guinean Youth. Walsh, S. (2012). "We grew as we grew": Visual methods, social change and collective learning over time. South African Journal of Education, 32(4), 406- 415. References (continued) Wang, C., & Burris, M. A. (1997). Photovoice: Concept, Methodology, and use for participatory needs assessment. Health Education Behavior, 24, 396-387. doi: DOI: 10.1177/109019819702400309 Yang, Kyung-Hwa. (2013). Particiaptory Photography: can it help adult learners develop agency. International Journal of Lifelong Learning. doi:10.1080/02601370.2013.852143 Young, L. and Barrett, H. (2001). Adapting visual methods: action research with Kampala street children. Area, 33(2), 141-152.