Population of the Earth: 1450-1750

Report
Population of the Earth:
1450-1750
Growth, Decimation, and Relocation
From Experiencing World History (Ch. 14) by
Adams et. al.
Introduction
2


phenomena:
increase in Eurasian population
expansion across world oceans
 Population



expansion in
Eurasia
China
Russia
 Old
World diseases travel to New World
 How do we know?
The Atlantic Crossings:
Frontiers by Sea
First population change came from
commercial goals that spread
diseases
 Small group of investors sent small
# of sailors
 Gaunche of the Canary Islands
 Virgin soil epidemics
 African slave trade

The Columbian Exchange
 Columbus’
voyage - - > biological
invasion
 90% of native Americans died during
1st century of contact with Europeans &
Africans


No crowd diseases
No animal diseases
The Columbian Exchange

Columbian Exchange: concept historians use
to explain what happened when Western civ.
reached into the Atlantic and the Americas





Plants, animals, diseases, insects, pests,
weeds, people
Transform society and ecosystem of the
Americas
1493 influenza
Brutal Spanish men
1518 Smallpox (brought by West African
slaves; spread from Newfoundland to Brazil)
Plantation Complex


1550 - plantations were in operation
Many killed by








Disease
Violence
Slavery
Reduced fertility
Increase in suicides, infanticides
Overgrazing
Demographic void by natives filled by
Africans
African diseases: yellow fever, deadly
malaria
African Migration
 In
1600, the Caribbean had @ 80,000
persons compares to 6,000,000 in 1492
 High African/European/Native American
mortality
 Mixed-parentage descendents became
acclimated to the conditions (mestizos)
 95 % of Africans go to the Caribbean &
South America; 5% go to North America
Other Population Retreats
 Sub-Saharan
Africa - - > new crops increased
population; slave trade decreased population
(slave ships, warfare) = no population growth
 Australia/Pacific Oceania - - > late 1700s;
decimated by disease
 Asians exported as indentured servants
Population Revolutions:
Impacts on China

China





Population gains - - > inadequate food supply
16th C. epidemics
Ming unity and peace - - > population increase
New American foods (maize, peanut, sweet potato)
E. 1600s 1/3 of population lost



Climate change
Political disintegration
1700 population triples





Early marriage
Reduction in death rates
Climate shifts
Improved hygiene
Use of herbal drugs
Population Revolutions:
Impacts on Europe


Population stability in 1650s
Unlike China








Family system – late marriages
Resisted introduction on American foods
1475-1620 - - > 50% population gain
Urbanization
Agricultural Revolution - - > more livestock
feed; increased soil fertility; cultivation
Increased need to agriculture labor
Introduction of corn & potatoes
Lower infant death rate
Asia

India:




Southeast Asia




cooling trend - - > reduced
participation
Diseases
Agriculture and trade
Comparatively low growth b/c of
fertility
Women restricted third children
Warfare
Japan


Cooling trend
Decreased warfare

similar documents