Renaissance Powerpoint - Avon Grove School District

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CHAPTER 12
Recovery & Rebirth: the Age of the Renaissance
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Chapter 11/Western Civ Quiz
Primary source quiz
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What Characteristics distinguish the
Renaissance from the Middle Ages?

Jacob Burckhardt created the concept of
the Renaissance – rebirth from the
Middle Ages
 Revival
of antiquity
 Perfecting of the individual
 Secularism
: there was not a sudden or
dramatic cultural break with the Middle
Ages (1000 years between Roman
Empire and the Renaissance)
What Characteristics distinguish the
Renaissance from the Middle Ages?

Age of
century
from the horrible 14th
Black Death
 Political disorder
 Economic recession

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Rediscovery of

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Greco-Roman culture
Emphasis on
ability
Leon Battista Alberti: “Men can do all things
if they will”
 Human dignity & worth
 “L’uomo uniersale” (universal person) – well
rounded personality capable of many
achievements

What major social changes occurred
during the Renaissance?

Economic recovery
 Italian
merchants flourished in commerce
throughout the Mediterranean & North Atlantic
Seaboard
: Northern German coastal
towns formed commercial and military
association
 Commercial
bases in England, Denmark, Norway,
Sweden
 Monopoly on Northern European trade
 Timber, fish, grain, metals, honey, wines
 Bruges, Belgium became the economic crossroads of
Europe in 14th century
What major social changes occurred
during the Renaissance?

Industry
 Printing,
mining, metallurgy, textiles
flourished
 Entrepreneurs took advantage of new
machinery

The Medicis and Banking
 House
of Medici was the greatest
bank in Europe
 Venice,
Milan, Rome, Avignon, Bruges,
London, Lyons
 Principal bankers of the papacy
 Made
Florence the banking capital,
became wealthy
What major social changes occurred
during the Renaissance?

The Renaissance inherited social structures from
Middle Ages
 Three
 1st
Estates:
– clergy
 2nd – Nobility: privilege earned providing security & justice
 3rd – peasants & inhabitants of cities and towns
What major social changes occurred
during the Renaissance?

Nobility had new expectations
 Baldassare
Castiglione wrote The Book
of the Courtier
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1.
2.
3.
How to be an aristocrat
Impeccable character, grace, talents,
noble birth
Participate in military and bodily
exercises *but unlike knights of old
they also had to*
Classical education – music, drawing,
painting
Make a good impression, modest with
grace
What major social changes occurred
during the Renaissance?

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Peasants made up 85-90 % of European Population
Decline of Manorial System & Elimination of Serfdom
Introduction of a money economy in 12th century
 Less peasantry after Black Death
 Lord’s lands were worked by hired workers or rented

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Urban Society
– wealthy traders, industry, bankers
– shopkeepers, guild masters, guild members
 Property-less workers – low, low wages
 Unemployed – miserable lives (30-40%)
Note:
The Renaissance was a time of Rebirth for
the
and the
. The
third estate was too busy trying to survive
to consider new ways of thinking or
interpreting the universe
Consider foundations of Renaissance

Burkhardt’s factors
Revival of antiquity
 Perfecting of the individual
 Secularism
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Economic Revival
End of manorialism & serfdom
Industry & Banking More
Successful
Rise of individuals & Patricians
Castiglione’s rules for nobility
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Create a thesis proposing
why these factors would
lead to an intellectual and
artistic Renaissance
Should be one sentence
Create an outline showing
how you would defend the
thesis in three body
paragraphs (don’t write the
paragraphs – just bullet,
letters, numbers, etc)
Italian States

Northern Italy divided between
the duchy of Milan and the
Republic of Venice
 Francesco
Sforza a
(mercenary soldier) conquered
Milan and became its duke
 Trade in Venice made it rich and
powerful

Republic of Florence
 Ruled
by the Medici Family –
Cosimo, then Lorenzo the
Magnificent (republic in image
only)
A few notes about your Elizabeth
Essays
1.
2.
3.
“Unifying” thesis – outlines rest of paper
Watch “catholic” versus “Catholic”
Formal speech
1.
2.
4.
No use of 1st person
No slang or vernacular
Introductions and Conclusions
Italian States

Papal States
Central Italy
 Under the political control of the
popes
 Great Schism enabled individual cities
to become independent

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Kingdom of Naples
Most of southern Italy, island of Sicily
 Fought over by the French and the
Aragonese
 Backward monarchy, poverty stricken
peasants

Italian States

Independent City States
 Led

by powerful families
Urbino
 Federigo
da Montefeltro
 Clasical
education, humanist
 Skilled at fighting
 Reliable and honest
 Great
 Married to Battista Sforza
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
Niece of Duke of Milan
Governed while Federigo away
Italian State

Isabella d’Este
 Daughter
of duke of Ferrara
 Known for her intelligence and
political wisdom
 “first lady of the world”
 Attracted artists & intellectuals
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Preventing the growth of any one
state at the expense of others
Peace of Lodi: ended halfcentury of war and created a 40
year peace
 Alliance
system:
 Milan,
Florence, Naples vs. Venice &
Papacy

Ludovico Sforza (Duke of Milan)
invited French to get involved in
Italian politics
 Chalres
VIII occupied Naples
Warfare in Italy
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Italian states invited Ferdinand of Aragon for help
15 years: French and Spanish fought over Italy
Continued through next series of kings
Italians never considered uniting – fiercely loyal to
own states
Italians began to send diplomats to find out
information about their enemies
 Birth
of modern diplomacy
Machiavelli

Niccolo Machiavelli
 Secretary
to the Florentine Council
of Ten
 Made many diplomatic missions
 1512: French defeated Spanish
and reestablished Medici Power –
Machiavelli expelled
 Wrote The Prince (1513)
The Prince
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Acquisition and expansion of political power
to maintain order
Late medieval scholars believed power
should be exerted only if it was for the good
of the People
Machiavelli said a Prince’s attitude toward
power must be based on understanding
human nature
 Political
activity could not be restricted by
moral considerations
 Prince must act on behalf of the state and let
his conscience sleep
Who did Machiavelli find a good
example for his theories?

Cesare Borgia – son of Pope Alexander VI
 Used
ruthless measures to achieve control
 “anyone who decides that the policy to follow when one
has newly acquired power is to destroy one’s enemies,
to secure some allies, to win wars, whether by force or
by fraud, to make oneself both loved and feared by
one’s subjects…cannot hope to find, in the recent past,
a better model to imitate than Cesare Borgia.”
Does it? – Give an Example
Machiavelli Debate – 2 groups
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One group will represent PRO to Machiavelli’s Prince
One will be CON to Machiavelli’s theories
Each group must think of 5 scenarios to defend their
opinion
 AT
LEAST Three historical
 2 may be hypothetical
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Consider the positions the opposite side will present –
create rebuttals and responses to these
Tomorrow we will debate where one or more
representatives will speak
Machiavelli Debate - Timeline
4 min, Pro Position Presentation
4 min. Con Position Presentation
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3 minute Work Period
3 minute Rebuttal - Pro
3 minute Rebuttal - Con

2 minute Work Period
2 minute Response - Pro
2 minute Response - Con

1 minute Work Period
2 minute Position Summary Pro or Con
2 minute Position Summary Pro or Con
5 minutes Tallying of scores,
declaration of “winner”
Intellectual Renaissance

2 characteristics of Renaissance
emphasis on the interest in unique
traits of each person
– focus on worldly things as opposed to
religious things
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Most noticeable in intellectual & artistic realms
Italy was cultural leader in Europe thanks to wealthy
urban lay society
Intellectual Renaissance
– intellectual movement based on study of
Greek and Roman classics from secular perspective
 Studied liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, ethics,
history)
 All based on Greek & Roman writings
 Studies we call “humanities”

Petrarch – “father of Italian Renaissance Humanism”
 didn’t
become lawyer – writer instead
 Characterized Middle Ages as period of “darkness”
 Emphasized use of “pure Latin” like Cicero
What effect did Humanism have on
philosophy, education, politics, writing?
– using Cicero as a guide, it is
the duty of an intellectual to live an active life for
one’s state
 Study
of humanities should be put to service of the
state
– Marsilio Ficino - resurgence in
study of Plato, synthesized Christianity and
Platonism in a single system
 Chain
of being from lowest to purest (plants  God)
What effect did Humanism have on
philosophy, education, politics, writing?
– from Corpus
Hermeticum, stressed the occult
sciences, astrology, alchemy, magic;
philosophical beliefs
– seeing divinity
embodied in all aspects of nature and
in the heavenly bodies
 Giordano Bruno – “God as a whole is
in all things”
 a new view of humankind
 Human beings were created as divine
beings endowed with creative power That which is above
is also below
Renaissance Art
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Mathematical
Laws of perspective
 Organization of outdoor space and light with geometry
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Movement and anatomical structure
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Greek & Roman Influence
Advances in sculpture and architecture
Human individuality

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Realistic portrayal of human nude became mission of
Renaissance artists
Portraits & tombs
Neoplatonic ideal of Human grandeur
The Renaissance Artist
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Began career as an apprentice to masters in their
craft guild
Depended on Patrons for commissions
 Newly
wealthy and powerful families (like the Medicis)
would hire artists to paint their portraits, decorate their
homes, or sculpt their tombs

During the Renaissance artists’ social status shifted
from “lowly artisans who work with their hands” to
celebrity status
Early to Mid Renaissance Artists
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Boticelli
Donatello
Brunelleschi
Sandro Boticelli (1445- 1510) Primavera
Cupid
Zephyrus
Mercury
Three
Graces
Venus,
Goddess
of love
Flora,
Goddess
Of Spring
Chloris,
nymph
Donato di Donatello (1386-1466) David
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446) Dome
of the Duomo, Florence
High Renaissance
(1480-1520) final stage of
Renaissance art which flourished
 marked
by increasing importance of Rome as the cultural
center

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
 Moved
from realism to idealization of nature (showed
psychological dimensions)
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Raphael (1483 – 1520)
 Madonnas
surpassed human beauty, balance, harmony & order
(Greco-Roman ideals)
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Michelangelo (1475-1564)
 Believed
in Neoplatonism- Sistine Chapel shows divine humans
Leonardo (1452-1519)– The Last Supper
Raphael (1483-1520) School of Athens
Raphael, Small Cowper Madonna, 1505
Michelangelo (1475-1564) David
Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, 1508-1512
Titian (1485-1576), Venus of Urbino
Remember Me!
I’ll be important
in 300 years!
Human Form
Individual Grandeur
Perspective
Wealth of Patrons
Greek Reference
Northern Renaissance

Different approach from Italian Renaissance
 Italy-
human form, frescoes in churches
 North – stained-glass windows in Gothic churches
resulted in “Illuminated” manuscripts and wooden panel
paintings for altarpieces
 North ignored perspective to gain mastery of detail in
nature

Jan van Eyck (1390-1441)
1st to use oil paint
 Striking details
 Among
Jan van Eyck- Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
Was van Eyck
hinting at
something ELSE in
this painting?
Recreate & Create a “Renaissance” work
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You may work in partners, groups, or individually
You may also have “guest subjects” to play roles, if
needed
Choose a Renaissance work and recreate it in
photography
 Use
costumes, props, and backgrounds to fit with the
original image
 Consider what makes the Renaissance work typical for
the period
New Monarchies

In the second half of the 15th century monarchies
tried to reestablish centralized power
monarchs taking back
centralized power in the late 15th century
 Also
called “
”
Growth of French Monarchy

Hundred Years War (with England…remember Joan of
Arc?) left France ruined

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Strong Nationalism
Charles VII crowned king at Reims
Established a royal army with cavalry and archers
 Right to levy
– yearly, direct tax on land


Louis XI “the spider”
Devious
 Retained tailles as permanent tax
 Expanded territory to Burgundy, Anjou, Provence

England: Civil War and New Monarchy

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Hundred Years War (England trying to take
French Crown) ruined England economically
War of the Roses (1450s)
 Civil
War
 House of Lancaster (Red Rose)
 Led
by Henry Tudor
 House
 Led
of York (White Rose)
by Edward, then Richard York
 Henry
Tudor defeated Richard at Bosworth Field
England: New Monarchy

Henry VII (1485-1509)
Worked to strengthen monarchial
government
 Makes sense…just won a CIVIL war
 Established Court of Star Chamber

No juries
 Allowed torture

Financial reform, fiscally
conservative
 Diplomatic – avoided wars
 Left England stable and prosperous

Unification of Spain


Reconquista: taking Spain back
from Muslims
In Middle Ages Spain consisted of
several independent Christian
kingdoms
Aragon & Castile were strongest
 Navarre – small kingdom in north
 Granada – last Muslim kingdom in
south


Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand
of Aragon married in 1469
Maintained separate kingdoms
 Worked to strengthen royal control

Unification of Spain

Ferdinand & Isabella
 Reorganized
military
 Developed strong infantry force- best in Europe
 Strict religious uniformity
 Spanish
 1492:
Inquisition: persecuted Jews and Muslims
took back Granada, kicked out Muslims
 Expelled
all Jews from Spain
 1502: expelled all Muslims
Holy Roman Empire

Controlled by the Hapsburg
Family
 Did
not have strong centralized
authority


Didn’t fight wars, formed
alliances through marriage
Emperor Maximilian I
 Son
Philip married Joana
(daughter to Ferdinand & Isabella)
 Son
Charles would become heir to
the Hapsburgs, the Burgundian, and
the Spanish
Eastern Europe
Population mostly Slavic,
Poland
Religious
conflicts
Aristocrats
established
between
Roman
right to elect
kings
Catholics,
Greek
Polish Kings
couldn’t
Orthodox,
and pagans
establish strong
authority
Bohemia
Under Holy Roman Empire but the Czechs allied with Poles
and Slavs
Russia – Ivan III freed Moscow from Mongols

Ottoman Turks and End of Byzantine
Empire


Byzantine Empire had been the buffer between the
Ottoman Turks and Europe
1453: Ottomans ended the Byzantine empire
 Mehmet
II laid siege to Constantinople
 Cannons breached the walls

End of the fifteenth century Turks were threatening
Europe
The Church & Renaissance

John Wyclif (1328-1384)
 Englishman
 Attacked
papal authority
 No biblical basis for popes
 Bibles should be in vernacular so everyone can read it
 Rejected everything not in the bible
 Pilgrimages
 Saints
 Ritual
: Wyclif’s followers
The Church & the Renaissance

Lollards spread to Bohemia
 Czech
reformers led by John Hus
 Native Czechs embraced Hus’s teachings
 Attempted
to deal with heresy, summoned Hus
 Hus condemned and burned at stake in 1415

Bohemia responded with upheaval
raged in HRE until 1436, ended with truce
The Church & the Renaissance

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Reforms were issued to little avail
By mid-fifteenth century popes reestablished authority
 Moral
leadership declined
 Pope Alexander VI – led debauchery and criminal acts
 Had
children with mistresses
 Encouraged son Cesare (inspiration for The Prince) to take a state
from Papal states (Urbino)

Pope Leo X (son of Lorenzo de’Medici) major patron of
arts
 Commissioned
Raphael to paint portrait and other works
 Helped Rome become the artistic center of the Renaissance

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