EgYptian Civilization

Report
“The Gift of the Nile”
EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION
LESSON ESSENTIAL QUESTION

What were the main features and
acheivements of Egypt’s three kingdoms?
GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
THE IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY
The Nile is the longest river in the world flowing
northward from the heart of Africa to the
Mediterranean Sea
 The Nile splits into 2 major branches before
reaching the Mediterranean, forming a triangular
territory, also known as a delta
 The Nile Delta is also called Lower Egypt



Egypt’s important cities developed
The land upstream, to the south, is called Upper
Egypt
THE IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY (CONT)

The most important feature of the Nile is its
yearly flooding
 Very
predictable
 Left mud and silt creating an area of rich soil –
“Black Land”

Served as a unifying factor in Egypt
 Fastest
way to travel
 Made transportation and communication easier
THE IMPACT OF GEOGRAPHY (CONT)

Egypt was blessed by natural barriers which
lessened the threat of invasion
Deserts to the east and west
 Red Sea to the East
 Rapids on the southern part of the Nile
 Mediterranean Sea to the North


The regularity of the floods and relative isolation of
the Egyptians created a feeling of security and
changelessness

Confidence in stability and continuity
THINK-PAIR-SHARE

Explain how flooding patterns of rivers in Egypt
and Mesopotamia caused the two civilizations
to develop differently.
 Flooding
patterns were regular in Egypt, leading to
a feeling of stability. The flooding in Mesopotamia
was unpredictable, leading to a belief that the world
was at the mercy of harsh and unreliable gods
THE IMPORTANCE OF RELIGION

Religion helped provide a sense of security


polytheistic
2 groups of gods had special importance

Sun god- Atum/Re
 Sun
was worshipped as the source of life
 Ruler was called Son of Re, the sun god in earthly from

Land Gods- Osiris and Isis
 Osiris
Led Egyptians to place dead in tombs to await rebirth
 Isis-

important role as a symbol of rebirth
symbolized new life brought by the floods each year
THE COURSE OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY

Historians have divided Egyptian history into three major
periods





Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
These periods were characterized by long-term stability
marked by strong leadership, freedom from invasion, the
building of temples and pyramids, and considerable
intellectual and cultural activity
Between these periods were intermediate periods,
periods of chaos and invasion
THE COURSE OF EGYPTIAN HISTORY (CONT)
Begins around 3100 BC
 King Menes

 United
the villages of Upper and Lower Egypt into a
single kingdom and created the first dynasty- a
family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on
within the family
THE OLD KINGDOM



2700-2200 BC
Age of prosperity and splendor
Egyptian pharaohs (rulers) possessed absolute powercomplete unlimited power to rule their people


However, did have help in ruling
Bureaucracy


Administrative organization with officials and regular
procedures
Vizier- “steward of the whole land”
Directly responsible to the pharoah
 In charge of the government bureaucracy

THE OLD KINGDOM (CONT)

Tombs were well prepared for their residents


Egyptians believed humans had two bodies, one
physical and one spiritual (ka)


Stocked with all necessities for life
Believed even though the physical body was dead, the
ka could return and continue its life as long as the
physical body was properly preserved and tomb was
furnished with objects of regular life
Mummification- slowly drying a dead body to
prevent it from rotting
THE PYRAMIDS

Building of pyramids occurred during the Old
Kingdom
 Built
as part of a larger complex of buildings
dedicated to the dead
 Large
pyramid- pharaoh’s burial
 Smaller pyramids- pharaoh’s family
 Mastabas ( rectangular structures with flat roofs)pharaoh’s officials
THE GREAT PYRAMID
Built under King Khufu at Giza around 2540 BC
 Took more than 20 years to complete
 Built with incredible precision
 “Guarded” by the Great Sphinx

 240
feet long, 66 feet high
 Face thought to be of Khafre, Khufu’s son

Largest pyramid ever built
 Could
be seen for miles and served to remind
people of the glory, might, and wealth of the ruler
THE MIDDLE KINGDOM


2050-1652
Egypt began a period of expansion



Conquered Nubia; Sent armies to Palestine and Syria
Sent traders to Kush, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Crete
New concern of the pharaohs for the people

Pharaohs portrayed as the shepherd of his people


Expected to build public works and provide for the public welfare
Pharaohs undertook many helpful projects

Drained swampland in Nile Delta


Provided thousands of acres of new farmland
Dug canal linking Nile River to Red Sea

Aided transportation and trade
THE MIDDLE KINGDOM (CONT)

The Middle Kingdom ended around 1652 BC,
when it was invaded by the Hyskos
Western Asia
 Used horse-drawn war chariots

 Egyptians

fought from donkey cart
Egyptians learned a great deal from the Hyskos
Learned to use bronze in making farm tools and
weapons
 Mastered many of the military skills of the Hyskos

 Horse-drawn
chariots
THE NEW KINGDOM
1567-1085 BC
 Egypt created an empire and became the most
powerful state in Southwest Asia
 Massive wealth boosted the power of the New
Kingdom Pharaohs

 Showed
wealth by building new temples
 Hatshepsut-first woman pharaoh
THE NEW KINGDOM (CONT)

Amenhotep IV introduced the worship of Aton,
god of the sun disk as the sole god
 Changed
his name to Akhenaton (“it is well with
Aton)
 Closed temples of other gods

Tutankhamen (Akhenaton’s son) restored the
old gods
 Become
pharaoh at age of 9 and ruled for 10 years
before his death
THE NEW KINGDOM (CONT)
Akhenaton’s religious revolution caused upheavals
that led to a loss of Egypt’s empire
 Under Ramses II (1279-1213 BC), the Egyptians
regained control of Palestine but were unable to
reestablish the borders of their earlier empire
 New invasions in the thirteenth century BC by the
“Sea People” drove the Egyptians back within their
old frontier, and ended the Egyptian Empire
 The New Kingdom collapsed in 1085 BC


Egypt was dominated by Libyans, Nubians, Persians,
and Macedonians for the next 1000 years
THINK-PAIR-SHARE

What were the major differences between the
Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the
New Kingdom?
 Old-
divine rulers, built pyramids
 Middle- pharaohs concerned about people,
expanded
 New- militaristic, created an empire, religious
upheavals
READING ACTIVITY
Read the Section titled Society in Ancient
Egypt.
 After reading make a graphic organizer to list
the different social classes and the
contributions each made to society.

DAILY LIFE IN ANCIENT EGYPT
Very positive attitude
 Married young and monogamous (one wife)

 Arranged
marriages
 Purpose was to produce children, especially sons
The husband was master of the house
 Wives were respected, in charge of the
household and the education of the children
 Marriages could end in divorce

 Compensation
for the wife
WRITING AND EDUCATION
Writing emerged around 3000BC
 Hieroglyphics- “priest-carvings” or “sacred
writings”



Used for painting on temple walls and in tombs
Very complex
Used both pictures and abstract forms
 Took much time to learn


Hieratic script- a highly simplified form used fro
business transactions, record keeping, and
general needs of daily life
WRITING AND EDUCATION
Hieroglyphs were first carved in stone
 Hieratic script was written on papyrus
 Scribes-masters of the art of writing

 Taught

reading and writing
At age of 10, boys in upper classes went to
schools run by scribes
 Took
many years to become a scribe
 Learned to read and write by copying texts
ACHEIVEMENTS IN ARTS AND SCIENCES


Pyramids, temples, and other monuments are some of the
artistic achievements of the Egyptians
Also made advances in mathematics



Developed an accurate 365 day calendar


Helped in building massive monuments
Able to calculate area and volume and used geometry to calculate
flooded area
Based on movement of the moon, as well as the bright star Sirius,
which rises in the sky just before annual flooding of the Nile
Medical advancements


Embalming
Directions for using splints, bandages, and compresses for
treating fractures, wounds, and disease
EXIT TICKET

Using your notes and the book, answer the
following question.
 What
were the main features and
achievements of Egypt’s three
kingdoms?

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