SQ Sec II Part 1

Nineteenth-Century Empires
Section II
13 questions – 32.5%
pp. 33-39
• The Birth of the Liberal Empire
• The Decline of the Mercantile Colonial World
External Challenges
The Antislavery Movement in Europe
The Influence of the Enlightenment
The Free-Trade Lobby
The End of European Slavery
• New Sources of Colonial Legitimacy
The Growth of the Market Economy
Enlightenment Universalism
Cultural Relativism
The Case of Captain Cook
The Civilizing Mission in India
Introduction: The old “empire”
• Europeans amassed New World empires beginning in the
16th century with the _____________________
• __________________formed the backbone to the
plantation economy that supported these
• empires
• ______________ (econ. Sys.)ruled the New World colonies
• European states engaged in trade _____________ with
their colonies
• ____________formed a moral justification for these
• _____________________saved the souls of “heathens”
Empire - version 2.0
• A ___________empire replaced the religiousmercantilist empire in the early 19th century
• Europeans expanded their influence overseas
during the first_____(fraction) of the
• This period saw very little outright European
Europeans focused on Asia and Africa
• Merchants, missionaries, entrepreneurs, and
explorers largely abandoned ______________
• European governments followed their citizens,
carving out ____________________ in Asia
and Africa
– This policy increasingly
involved Europe in
foreign politics
Europeans focused on Asia and Africa
• Europeans saw the potential of untapped
_____________ in the non-Western world
• Regions could also serve as new sources of
___________________ for the ever-growing
European industrial economy
• _____________________ and
encouraged Europeans to bring the wonders
of European civilization to new cultures
Version 3.0: “New” and improved?
• ___________________appeared in the late
19th century
• Competing European states engaged in
• Europe conquered almost the entirety of
____________ as well as most of __________
Version 3.0: “New” and improved?
• Attitudes toward colonial subjects also shifted
– __________________________and
________________________ influenced beliefs
regarding culture and race
– _______________ contributed to the
development of biological determinism
– These occurrences
--undercut the liberal aims of the early 19th
century Europeans
--raised doubts regarding the feasibility of
____________________ non-European peoples
Contradictions filled the dawn of the
20th century
• This time represented the peak of Europe’s
• Europeans also began contemplating the
scope and future of empire
The Decline of the Old Empire…Overview
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries these
forces contributed to decline:
• External forces:
– Independence movements
– Slave revolts
• Internal Forces:
– The rise of a market economy
– cultural revolution spurred by the Enlightenment
undercut the old empire’s foundations
• A. Hatian Revolution
• B. The Great Trek – Afrikaners in South
C. British abolition of slavery
D. Latin American Revolutions
E. Taiping Rebellion in China
F. British abolition of slave trade
• A. Establishment of the Indian
National Congress
B. The Berlin Conference
C. Indian Rebellion
D. Sino-Japanese War
E. Suez Canal opens
F. Darwin publishes Origin of the
• A. Fashoda Crisis
• B. Ethiopians defeat Italians at
• C. Boer War
• D. Russo-Japanese War
• E. Boxer Rebellion (China)
• ______________: runaway slave who lived in an
outlaw society in South America, the Caribbean, or
Spanish Florida
• __________________: sporadic guerilla warfare
against local plantations in the late 18th and early 19th
• Slave revolts cropped up
– from Dutch Surinam
– to British Jamaica
– in the second half of the 18th century
• ____________________________: culmination in
Saint-Domingue in 1791
Independence movements threatened
European power in the New World
• ________________________kicked off these
calls for independence
• Many European powers lost control of their
New World colonies from 1804 to 1824
• Haiti
– known as ______________________
– gained independence from France
• Portugal lost control of ______________
Latin America
• Latin America captured its freedom from ___________
• ____________
– an American-born person of European descent
– these elites led the Latin American independence movements
• Spain held on to these two countires:
– Cuba
– Puerto Rico
• Influences on Latin American independence movements
– _________________________ thought
– REVOLOUTIONS which served as examples:
• the American Revolution
• the French Revolution
Internal problems: ANTISLAVERY
• Organized in what 2 countries?
– France
– the Netherlands
• Strongest campaign where?
– Britain
• RELIGIOUS SENTIMENT accelerated influence
– Newer forms of _______________________in the 18th century
condemned slavery as a sin
• _____________________
• Religious zealots argued that slavery ran counter to
– brotherly love
– Spiritual equality
• Abolitionism spread to the RELIGIOUS MAINSTREAM
EX.: group; notable parliamentary leader who joined =
– Evangelicals
– Parliamentary member William Wilberforce joined
The Enlightenment contributed to the
fall of the old empire
• Philosophers previously justified slavery as a
– rational
– efficient
social and economic system
• ________________INTELLECTUAL CULTURE
– John Locke condoned slavery in his
17th century arguments
• critiqued arbitrary power,
• appealed to rule by reason, and
• championed natural and universal human rights
– 18th and 19th century extensions
by French jurist:
• Baron Montesquieu
Enlightenment universalism
destabilized the acceptance of slavery
• basic sameness of all humans
• Compared oppressed Africans with
– Disenfranchised Europeans
• emphasis on the inner good undermined the European need to civilize
enslaved peoples
– Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s CULT OF ….
– This work contrasted
• the moral flaws of civilized Europeans with
• the virtues of
• Slavery clashed with Enlightenment ideas such as the belief in the (3):
– individual’s natural right to freedom,
– equality before the law, and
– ownership of one’s self and one’s labor
ROMANTICISM in the late 18th Century
_______________________oriented popular culture
Antislavery = fashionable among the European elite esp.
– wealthy women
• Religious emphasis on the goodness of humans
– idea of a slave
• as an innocent victim
– the European
• as a heroic savior
Popular primitivism raised the status
of the slave in the public eye
Romantic poets attacked slavery and tyranny
– Percy Bysshe Shelley
– Robert Burns
– William Wordsworth
– joined abolitionist groups in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
– signed antislavery petitions and
– circulated images that exposed the cruelty of slavery
The economic rationale
• Merchants and industrialists reinforced anti-slavery
– wanted to replace mercantile colonialism with
_____________ ; eliminate ___________________between
• mother countries
• their colonies
• early 19th century, European manufacturers objected to
– European protective tariffs on foreign imports
Barriers prevented domestic manufacturers from buying
cheaper foreign goods
• Consumers and manufacturers had to buy from either
____________ or ______________________
– British _________ refiners felt exploited for being forced to
buy high-priced Jamaican raw _________(same)
Tariffs shielded the Jamaican _______ (same) producers from
• Spanish producers in Cuba or
• French producers in Saint-Domingue
Enlightenment classical economists critiqued
– the slave-based economy and
– mercantilism as a whole
MERCANTILISM (according to Smith and Ricardo)
• irrational and inefficient system
• prevented people from pursuing their economic SELF-INTEREST
– both rational and natural
– Individuals received economic liberty and
– the majority benefited from overall lower prices
Adam Smith rebuked
– the inherent inefficiency of slave labor
– lacked incentive to work hard and
– could not be laid off in an economic slump
– at the end of the 18th century: 2 col. = real-world evidence
– Economic troubles in the West Indies in the early 19th century made the free trade claims
– Merchant and industrial capitalists also experienced growing wealth and influence during this
time period
The end of European slavery
• The combination of
– religious fervor,
– humanitarian sentiment, and
– economic support for free markets
led to the abolition of the European slave_________________
• ________________ first outlawed the slave trade in 1803
• _______________and _______________followed suit in 1807
– Britain embarked on an enthusiastic antislavery mission
• searching ships suspected of carrying slave cargo as well as
• saving slaves along the West African coast
• These 4 countries agreed to abolish the slave trade in 1815
the Netherlands
• But they did little to eliminate it in practice
• ____________
– The British transported rescued slaves here
– Freed American slaves helped to create this African settlement in 1821
1st European Country to
• _________: abolished slavery in 1834
– emancipated _____________ slaves in the
West Indies
– government paid ____________to slave
owners to compensate for the lost property
Art Celebrates Abolition of Slavery in
British Empire
• Engraving by
• Patterned after painting by
• Titled
End of Slavery: Europe & New World
• 1848: slavery abolished in these 2 countries:
– France
– Denmark
• European slave trade essentially ended by
– 1850
• Slavery persisted in the New World through the late 19th century
– The Dutch New World :
– the United States:
– Spanish Cuba:
– Brazil:
• BUT…Freed slaves sometimes did not receive their due freedom
until decades after emancipation
The Rise of New Liberal Empire
• The growth of
– industrial capitalism
– the market economy
ushered in new ___________________rationale for empire
• early 19th century - free-trade advocates
– Wealth
– influence
• By the 1830s, the belief in
– the individual pursuit of wealth
– in a free, self-regulating market as natural and efficient
became part of common sense
• Economic practices occasionally contradicted this imperial __________
– 1830 to 1870, European powers competed for spheres of economic influence
• This era constituted the peak era for economic liberalism
– BUT…
Europeans quickly abandoned _______________________when indigenous
peoples and other Europeans threatened their own economic interests
• `
Enlightenment universalism
• The application of _________to social reform
was believed to cause human improvement
• Ideas included the human biological and
cultural ______________
– Pre-Enlightenment Europeans had emphasized the
permanent between Europeans and Africans or
– 18th century philosophers preached the
similarities among human societies
Enlightenment Science
• Enlightenment scientists assumed that the races of
man belonged to a single _________
attempted to classify the variety of human physical types
Enlightenment Science
• Enlightened Europeans created the idea of a
common developmental path for all societies
– While some societies achieved a higher level of
civilization than others, all societies occupied a
position on this path
– This belief encouraged the idea that societal
change could not only occur but could be
accelerated and guided through
Cultural relativism
• 19th century Europeans = more skeptical of their supposed cultural superiority
• A cultural relativism recognized the value of other societies
– French Philosophe _________________
• admired ancient Chinese and Islamic civ.
– English historian __________________
• respected Islam
– Evangelical missionaries
• preached Christian brotherhood
– Jean-Jacques Rousseau
• New World societies as models
of virtue and freedom (cult of the NOBLE SAVAGE)
• Many European cultural relativists
– retained the idea of their own ________________
– recognized the accomplishments of other societies
Captain James Cook’s South Pacific Expeditions
• Illustrate the ideology of
– the new liberal empire
• Cook’s motives (2)
– commercial
– scientific
• European
– exploration
– expansion
Captain James Cook’s South Pacific Expeditions
• ______________: the last frontier for
• More than 20 (4 types of specialists)
– botanists,
– geographers,
– ethnographers, and
– scientific experts
accompanied Cook
• sought to the missing continent Europeans
referred to as________________
Morality of Liberal Empire Emerged in
Cook’s Voyages
• Justification for expansionism (2)
– advancing science
– further spreading civilization
• Natives gained inherent rights through
– _________________ DOCRTRINE
• Cultural relativism made European explorers see the value
in other societies
• What respected BRIT. INSTITUTION
The Royal Scientific Society
– partially sponsored Cook’s South Seas voyage
– cautioned Cook to treat local cultures with respect and dignity
• ________________authorized Cook to
– establish British authority in ___________in 1779
– do so only with the explicit consent of natives
• 2 main goals of colonizers
in late 18th century
– legitimize their claim as civilizers
– reinforced their own identities,
separating themselves from previous colonial brutality
• Britain used ___________ as the testing ground for civilizing experiments
in the early 19th century
• Evangelical missionaries sought to eliminate Indian “_______________”
and bring about religious enlightenment . NAME 2!
Charles Grant
William Wilberforce
• 4 Secular liberal reformers sought to eliminate “________________” Indian laws and customs
– James Mill
– John Stuart Mill
– Thomas Macaulay
– Jeremy Bentham
wanted to rid India of ….
Oriental despotism
wanted to introduce…
British-style education
John Stuart Mill on FREE SPEECH
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
• Macaulay claimed that
“a single shelf of a good _______________ library”
trumped “the entire native literature of [2 countries]
• British education would cause Indians to have English (4)
• Reformers held that the careful application of (3)
– free trade,
– education, and
– law
could bring Indians into the modern world
Brits banned _____
• custom of widow burning herself on the funeral pyre
of her husband
• British viewed custom as representative of 2 things:
– Indian backwardness
– the moral weakness of Indian men; supposedly degraded
their women instead of protecting them
The Civilizing
• Title of engraving:
– “The Burning System”
• Date:
– 1815
• One side:
– Englishmen debating SATI
• Other side:
– musicians present for the funeral
• served as a key point in the public
______________reform campaign
• Only certain groups of _______________
Hindus actually engaged in the practice
The End of the Civilizing Mission
• When?
– 1857
• What?
– The Indian Rebellion (Sepoy Rebellion)
• Why?
– Officials saw interference in Indian religion as
one of the causes of the rebellion
• Task of reform ceded to whom?
– Indian social reformers
Thomas Macaulay
• Served as
– a Law Member of the Governor General’s Council
• The Briton lived from
– 1800 to 1859
• Macaulay represents what voice?
– the British liberal voice in India
• Macaulay professed his belief that these 3 things
– law,
– free trade,
– and education
could transform “backward” societies such as India
Orientalist Scholars & Administrators
• early 19th century
• opposed Macaulay’s ideas
• believed that India should have been ruled
– by its own ________________
– in its ______________________
Macaulay’s Minute on Indian
• 1835 debate
– Macaulay advocated teaching ___________
instead of Arabic or Sanskrit
• ostensibly disseminated __________________and
• strengthened ______________________in India
• English became the language of education in
secondary schools across India
Let’s Review:
2.01 JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 1. In the nineteenth century, Europeans lost
their Atlantic empires and built new ones
• 1. Where were Asia and Africa?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 2. The imperialist expansion of the nineteenth
century was rooted economically in capitalism
and philosophically in this school of thought.
• 2. What is Enlightenment?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 3. France lost control here in 1804.
• 3. Where is Haiti?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 4. American-born people of Europeans
descent who led the revolutions in Latin
America were called this.
• 4. What are Creoles?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 5. These two revolutions served as examples
to later revolutions in Haiti, Brazil, and other
parts of Latin America.
• 5. What are the French and American
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 6. Runaway slaves were called this.
• 6. What are maroons?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 7. Abolitionist campaigns were waged in
places like the Netherlands and France but the
most effective was held here.
• 7. Where is Britain?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 8. Some of the strongest opponents to slavery
were Protestants, especially from newer forms
of Protestantism like this one.
• 8. What is Quakerism?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 9. This Enlightenment writer wrote of natural
and human universal rights but did condone
• 9. Who was John Locke?
JEOPARDY (pp. 33-35)
• 10. This Enlightenment philosopher wrote of
the noble savage, highlighting the virtues of
the “savage” and the lack of morality found in
civil society.
• 10. Who is Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
2.02 COMMONALITIES (PP. 33-35)
• William Wordsworth
• Percy Shelley
• Robert Burns
2.02 COMMONALITIES (PP. 33-35)
• Adam Smith
• David Ricardo
• Enlightenment Classical
2.02 COMMONALITIES (PP. 33-35)
• Being anti-slavery became fashionable
• Enlightenment ideas like natural rights
• Merchants sought t replace
mercantilist colonial system
• Factors contributing to the
2.02 COMMONALITIES (PP. 33-35)
• Carolus Linnaeus
• Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon
• Natural Scientists
2.02 COMMONALITIES (PP. 33-35)
• William Wilberforce
• Charles Grant
• Anti-slavery evangelical
2.02 COMMONALITIES (PP. 33-35)
Dennis Diderot
John Locke
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
• Enlightenment writers
2.02 COMMONALITIES (PP. 33-35)
Jeremy Bentham
John Mill
John Stuart Mill
Thomas Macaulay
• Secular liberal reformers
Fill-ins, pp. 37-38
• 1. Thomas Macaulay was the Law Member of the
_______________ General’s _______________ and
an important example of the British
___________________voice in India.
Fill-ins, pp. 37-38
• 2. Macaulay believed that the way to civilize and
transform a “________________” culture like India’s
was through education, specifically the introduction
of ___________, ______________, and__________.
• He saw this as necessary to disseminate
_______________ values as well as maintain and
strengthen British __________ in India.
Fill-ins, pp. 37-38
• 3. ________________ scholars disagreed with liberals
like Macaulay and thought that India should be ruled
by its own laws and through indigenous
_______________ and languages.
Fill-ins, pp. 37-38
• 4. Macaulay writes that Indians should be taught
English because it “stands ______________________
even among the languages of the west” and because
“it abounds with works of ____________________.”
Fill-ins, pp. 37-38
• 5. According to Macaulay, the __________________
compositions written in English have “seldom been
surpassed” as ______________ and “never been
equaled” as “vehicles of ____________________ and
political instruction.”
Fill-ins, pp. 37-38
• 6. Macaulay points out in his article that even in India
the language of the ____________________ class is
Fill-ins, pp. 37-38
• 7. Macaulay argues that, since the British can’t educate all
Indians, the goals should be to educate a class of people
who would “be __________________ between [the
British] and the millions” of Indians they govern. The
class would be “Indian in ___________ and colour, but
English in _______________, in opinion, in morals, and in

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