The “Classical Era” in the West: Greek & Roman Empires During the “Classical Era,” early civilizations spread beyond river valleys. Some of these civilizations achieved enough power to conquer their neighbors and create giant empires. This was a time when civilizations also began to reflect more on morality and the meaning of life. As a result, many of the world’s major religions emerged. These same civilizations developed institutions, systems of though and cultural styles that still influence us today. Their art, music, and literature set the standards against which later works would be judged. People still admire the marble statutes of Greek sculptors and read Greek playwrights and philosophers, more than 2,000 years later. For these reason, we refer to these as the “classical” civilizations, meaning of the highest class or rank. Vocab • • • • • • • • • Persia Sparta Athens Democracy Parthenon Socrates Aristotle Alexander the Great Erasthonenes • • • • • • • • • Archimedes Rome Republic Plebians Patricians “Rule of Law” Twelve Tablets Pax Romona Christianity Aqueducts & Bridges Equality before the Law Latin Language Engineering Parthenon (Acropolis) Twelve Tables Roman Republic Patricians & Plebians Accomplish ments Architecture Arches & Domes Fall of Rome Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Archimedes Roman Empire Invaded by Barbarians. ROME Literature, History, Sculpture Eratosthenes Pax Romana Built roads Accomplish -ments Postal Service Golden Age of Greece Rise of Christianity Used Coins PERSIA Religion Alexander the Great “Classical Era” in the West Hellenistic Culture GREECE Sparta (Militaristic) CityStates Athens zoroasterism (Democracy) Unit 2 Concept Map: Essential Questions The Rise of River Civilizations • What factors caused the rise of Persia, Greece, and Rome? • What were the major accomplishments of these “classical civilizations?” • How were the classical civilizations shaped by their religious and philosophical beliefs and by the rule of law? Important Ideas The “Classical Era” in the West A. Persia grew large and powerful through military conquests, building good roads, collecting tribute, and tolerating differences among its subject peoples. B. The city-states of Greece grew prosperous through trade, Greek culture was characterized by a questioning spirit. The Greeks made major contributions to art, architecture, literature, history, drama, philosophy, mathematics. C. The city-state of Athens developed the world’s first democracy. In this system, all Athenian citizens participated in important political decisions. Not all Athenians were citizens. Women, slaves, and foreign residents could not vote. D. Rome was the heir to Greek civilization. Early Romans developed a republican form of government, based on elected representatives and the “rule of law.” E. As Rome expanded, it changed into an empire. The Roman emperor was seen as godlike. F. Christianity, a religion that arose in the Middle East, was adopted by Roman Emperor Constantine and became the religion of the Roman Empire. The religion survived Rome’s collapse. G. Under constant attack from tribes outside its borders, the Roman Empire divided into two halves. The western half, with its capital in Rome, was eventually over run by barbarian tribes and fell in 476 A.D. The eastern half survived almost another thousand years as the Byzantine Empire. The Persian Empire (2,000 B.C. – 100 B.C.) The Medes and Persians lived in the Middle East on the Iranian Plateau between the Caspian Sea and the Persian Gulf. In 550 B.C. the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great united these two peoples. He then expanded Persia’s territory westward by conquering Lydia and Babylonia and eastward by conquering territories as far as the Indus River. Building an Empire: The son of Cyrus the Great conquered Egypt. The next ruler, Darius unified the Persian Empire by building a network of public roads, introducing a uniform set of weights and measures, and establishing several capital cities. Persia was now larger than any empire up to that time. It stretched more than 3,000 miles from the Nile to the Indus River. The Persians controlled this vast empire by dividing it into provinces, each ruled by a group of local officials loyal to the Persian king. The Persians collected tribute (a payment as a sign of submission) and now taxes from these provinces. Although they paid tribute, the provinces profited from extensive trade throughout the Persian Empire. Religion At first, the Persians worshipped many gods. In 570 B.C., a new religion was introduced into the Persian Empire by the religious leader Zoroaster. Zoroastrianism taught there were only two gods: the god of truth, light, and goodness, and the god of darkness of evil. The whole universe was the battleground between these two forces. Those who led good lives would eventually go to Heaven, while those who were evil would be doomed to a fiery Hell. Persia’s Accomplishments From the Lydians, Persians learned the practice of using coins. Under the rule of Darius citizens were encouraged to use coins to purchase goods. Persians were now able to move from bartering to a “money economy.” The use of coins greatly improved trade throughout the empire. The Persians also built hundreds of miles of roads using gravel and stone. The Persian Royal Road was 1,500 miles long with more than 100 stations holding fresh horses. These roads fostered a feeling of unity within the Persian Empire. Couriers carried letters over the new roads. The Glory of Greece: Civilization gradually spread from Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia to other places in the Mediterranean region, including Phoenicia, Israel, and Greece. The Glory of Greece: Civilization gradually spread from Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia to other places in the Mediterranean region, including Phoenicia, Israel, and Greece. The Geography of Greece: Ancient Greece consisted of a large mountainous peninsula, the islands of the Aegean Sea, and the coast of present-day Turkey. Because of Greece’s hilly terrain, farming the land was quite difficult. Much of Greece is stony and suitable only for pasture. Its people came to rely on trade. Greeks produced wine, olive oil, and pottery, which they traded with other peoples of the Mediterranean. Through these contacts, the Greeks became exposed to key achievements of other ancient civilizations, such as the alphabet, a way of writing invented by the Phoenicians. In an alphabet, each sound has its own symbol or letter. APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Many of the letter in our alphabet come from Greek and Phoenician letters. How does such an alphabet differ from Egyptian hieroglyphics or Chinese characters? ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ Greek/English Early Greek Civilization: The Minoan civilization flourished on the island of Crete from 2000 B.C. to 1400 B.C. The Minoans developed their own form of writing, used copper and bronze, and were skilled at shipbuilding. The Minoan civilization mysteriously collapsed around 1400 B.C. The second ancient Greek civilization thrived around Mycenae (mainland Greece). At this time the Dorians, a group of people from northern Greece conquered the Greek mainland. The Rise of Greek City-States: Mountains and the sea caused Greek centers of population to be cut off from one another. As a result, separate city-states developed, each with its own form of government and system of laws. In Greek, the word for city-state is polis. At the same time, Greeks also shared in a common culture, based on their language, religious beliefs, traditions, and close economic ties. For example, all Greeks believed in the same gods and goddesses, including Zeus, Athena, and Apollo, who were believed to live on Mount Olympus. Their myths, such as the story of Jason and Golden Fleece, and the siege of Troy, still thrill us today. Citizens of all the Greek citystates participated every four years in Olympic games in honor of Zeus and the other Greek gods. The Greeks believed their gods were pleased by strong, graceful human bodies. The Leaders of Greece: Sparta and Athens Rivals – Enemies - Allies Military Sparta: One of the most important city-states was Sparta. Sparta is located in the southern part of Greece, called Peloponnesus. In 725 B.C., the Spartans conquered their neighbors. They forced these people, known as helots, to farm for them. The Spartans constantly had to use force to maintain control over the helots. Due to this threat, life in Sparta was organized by military needs. Individualism and new ideas were discouraged. Strict obedience and self-discipline were highly valued. For example if a newborn Spartan baby was found to be unhealthy, it was left on a hillside to die. Democratic Athens: The city-state of Athens developed a unique system of government. Every citizen could participate in government directly by voting on issues to be decided by the city-state. The main governing body of Athens was the Citizens Assembly. It was open to all citizens, but on the first 5,000 or so citizens who gathered could attend its meetings. It met regularly, at least ten times a year. The assembly directed foreign policy and made laws for Athens. Citizens who served on a council, jury, or as magistrates, were paid a reimbursement for lost earnings. This ensured that even poor citizens could participate in government. This type of government, which Athens was first to introduce is known as a democracy. In a democracy, ordinary citizens participate in government, either directly or by elected representatives. Democracy means “rule of the people” in Greek. In Athens, only a minority of city residents were actually citizens. Women, foreigners, and slaves were not citizens and could not participate in government. APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED How was Athenian democracy different from American democracy today? • ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ The Golden Age of Greek Culture: In the 5th century B.C., the Persian Empire tried to conquer the Greek city-states. Suprisingly, the Persians failed. After the war, the Greeks enjoyed a “Golden Age.” Pericles championed democracy. He collected revenues from other citystates to rebuild Athens. Art, literature, and philosophy all flourished. Philosophy Philosophy: The Greeks believed that human reason was powerful enough to understand the world and to solve its problems. A series of three philosophers – Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle asked important questions and tried to find the answers. Socrates questioned his students about the use of moral terms: What is goodness? What is morality and justice? In 399 B.C., Socrates’ enemies persuaded the Athenian Council to condemn Socrates to death for corrupting the young. In the except below, written by his most famous student Plato, Socrates tells his students why he refuses to escape from prison and death. ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN Read the following document from Plato’s Crito. Then answer the two questions that follow. “Look at it this way. Suppose that while we are preparing to run away, the laws and Constitution of Athens were to come and ask; ‘Now Socrates, what are you doing? Can you deny that by this act you are thinking of, you will have the power to destroy us, the laws, and the whole state as well? Do you imagine that a city can continue to exist and not be turned upside down, if the legal judgments pronounced have no force, and are destroyed by private person? You have 70 years in which you could have left the country if you were not satisfied with us or felt the agreements were unfair. And now, after all this, are you not going to stand by your agreement?’” ---Plato, Crito • What reasons does Socrates give to his students for his refusal to escape? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ • Would you have agreed with his reasoning? Explain your answer. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Golden Age of Greek Culture: Philosphy – cont. Plato took Socrates’ method of questioning a step further. He concluded that values like goodness, beauty, and justice actually exist as independent ideas that are more real than the changing “appearances” we see in daily life. In The Republic, Plato described an ideal city-state ruled by philosopher kings. He defined justice as the rule of reason over appetite (our desires). His most famous student Aristotle, was less concerned with abstract concepts. Aristotle collected and classified things from animals to city-state constitutions, and studied their relationships. APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Read the following document from Aristotle’s Politics. Then answer the question below. “We have next to consider how many forms of government there are, and what they are…The true forms of government are those in which the one, the few or not the many govern with a view to the common interest…Of forms of government in which one rules, we call that kingship; that in which more than one but not many rule, we call aristocracy; when citizens at large administer the state for the common interest, the government is called a democracy.” ---Aristotle, Politics What three types of government does Aristotle identify? How do they differ. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ The Golden Age of Greek Culture: cont. Women in Ancient Greece In ancient Greece, men generally regarded women as inferior and excluded them from public life. Women managed the home, subject to their husband’s will. Spartan women enjoyed greater status than elsewhere in Greece. Many were given an education and physical training. Athenian women could own clothing and slaves, but they could not own land or enter into contracts. ALEXANDER THE GREAT In 338 B.C. the King of Macedonia, an area located north of Greece, brought all the Greek city-states under his control. His son, Alexander the Great, was taught by Aristotle. Alexander went on to conquer most of the Mediterranean world, including Egypt and Persia. His conquests took him as far as the Indus River Valley, However, Alexander died at a young age, and his empire quickly fell apart. HELLENISTIC CULTURE Wherever Alexander went, he spread the Greek culture. His followers also absorbed Eastern ideas and styles. Hellenistic culture refers to the fusion of Greek culture with the cultures of the Middle East and India. The greatest Hellenistic achievements were in mathematics and science. Alexander’s construction of a great library in Alexandria encouraged scholarship. Hellenistic sculptors aimed at more emotional representations in art. Many wealthy members of society , including women , began to study philosophy and to attend lectures of popular philosophers. The Golden Age of Greek Culture: Hellenistic Culture cont. Political and Military Map: The extent of Alexander’s empire. Checking for understanding: • Based on the map, how does Alexander get most of the credit for the spread of Greek ideas throughout the Middle East to India? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Democracy: Athens developed the first known democratic government – a system in which citizens take part in governing. Art and Architecture: The Greek ideal of beauty was based on harmony and proportion. In architecture, the Greeks built temples with beautiful columns, such as the Parthenon in Athens. Science & Mathematics: Key advances were made by Pythagoras, Euclid, and Archimedes – mathematicians who are still studied today. Ancient Greek Achievements Literature and History: The Greeks developed the first known dramas and historical writings. Philosophy: Greeks believed in the dignity of the individual. Through the use of reason, they believed humans could understand how the world worked. Greek philosophers included Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. The “Grandeur” of Rome: Classical West (cont.) One of the most influential civilizations to emerge in the ancient world was Rome. Rome was located on a fertile plain in the center of Italy, close to the west coast. To the north, the Alps Mountains protected Rome from most invaders. To the west, the sea provided further protection, while serving as a route for trade and expansion. The Romans were heirs to Greek culture. They believed in the same gods and goddesses as the Greeks, although they gave them Latin (Roman) names. The Romans also studied and imitated the Greek achievements in science, art, history, and literature. They delighted in making copies of famous Greek sculptures. The Roman Republic: Early Rome contained two main social classes: the patricians (wealthy landowning families) and the plebians (small farmers, craftsmen, and merchants). In early times, the Romans overthew their king and made Rome a republic – a system of government by representatives, Rome was then governed by a patrician assembly known as the Senate, and by elected officials, known as Consuls. The plebians chose tribunes, speakers who represented them.. The Twelve Tables: Rome flourished, in part, because it strongly supported the “rule of law.” Government officials were not above the law, nor could they act outside the law. The Roman Republic issued the Twelve Tables to protect the plebians. These written laws were placed in public meeting places, for all to see. The Twelve Tables covered civil, criminal, and religious law, and provided a foundation for later Roman law codes. Under Roman law, all citizens were “equal under the law.” – meaning they were subject to the same rules and laws. Romans contributed the important concept of a contract – the idea that a private agree-ment can be enforced by the government once people have entered into it. The Romans also established rules for the ownership of property. The Romans also established important legal processes to promote justice. If people had a legal dispute, they went to an official to argue their case. The official then made a judgment, which the parties could appeal. People accused of crimes had the right to a trial in court. The accused person was considered innocent until proven guilty. The U.S. still uses those legal practices today. The “Grandeur of Rome”: iv.1 vii.2 vii.21 vii.23 ix.3 ix.6 xi.1 Twelve Tables continued SOME RULES FROM THE TWELVE TABLES a badly deformed child shall be killed if a person has injured another’s limb, let there be retaliation in kind, unless he agrees to make compensation with him if a patron shall defraud his client, his life must be forfeited (‘killed). those convicted of speaking false witness shall be flung from the Tarpeian Rock The penalty for a judge who has been found guilty of receiving a bribe for giving a decision shall be capital punishment (death). the putting to death…of any man who has not been convicted is forbidden no marriage shall take place between a patrician and a plebian The “Grandeur” of Rome: Rome expands an Empire & Pax Romana (Peace 27 B.C.-395 A.D. Rome Expands to an Empire: By 275 B.C., Rome already ruled the entire Italian peninsula. After uniting Italy, Rome defeated its main rival, Carthage, located just across the Mediterranean in North Africa. This victory made Rome the leading power in the Mediterranean. Rome next acquired territories in Spain, North Africa, and eastern Mediterranean. Roman generals like Julius Caesar completed the conquest of Spain and Gaul (present day France). When Caesar’s enemies in the Senate recalled him to Rome, Caesar returned with his army and made himself “dictator” for life. Leading Roman officials feared the loss of their freedom. They assassinated Julius Caesar on the floor of the Senate in 44 B.C. His heir, Augustus Caesar, eventually emerged as Rome’s next ruler. Although Augustus assumed monarch-like powers, he also preserved Rome’s republican institutions. He removed corrupt officials and tried to revive the “old” Roman values of responsibility and self-discipline. His successors became known as “Emperors” and were worshipped as gods. They made conquests to the north and east, greatly expanding Rome’s frontiers. Pax Romana: Augustus brought a long period of peace, known as Pax Romana, to Europe and the Mediterranean world. Rome’s centralized poliltical authority, trained officials and traditions of law allowed it to rule effectively over this large area. Romans saw their culture as superior. They generally respected local customs, provided a system of laws, promoted trade, and offered Roman citizenship to people throughout the empire. The Romans were great engineers. They developed concrete for their large buildings. To run their huge empire, they built a network of almost 50,000 miles of roads. Rome became the center of communication, commerce, trade, politics, culture and military power for Wester Europe and the Mediterranean world. New cities became outposts of Roman culture. The expansion of the city-state of Rome changed its basic character. The Roman army became a professional force obedient to its generals instead of a citizen’s army. Although Romans established the “rule of law,” they also recognized the ancient institution of slavery. A large force of slaves performed much of Rome’s labor. Rome itself became the scene of blood-thirsty games, such as contests between gladiators. Later Roman emperors maintained their popularity by providing these games at no expense to the citizens of Rome in the Colosseum, an immense concrete stadium. Growth of the Roman Empire: Roman Cultural Issues: Sermon on the Mount: cont. a rendition of Jesus and his most important speech. CHRISTIANITY Christianity: began about 2,000 years ago. It is based on the teachings of Jesus, a Jew born in Bethlehem who preached forgiveness, mercy, and sympathy for the poor and helpless. The Romans crucified Jesus for claiming he was the Messiah or Savior. After his death, a band of his followers, known as the Apostles, believed Jesus rose from the dead to redeem mankind. The promise of an afterlife in which all believers, including the poor and humble, would be rewarded, helped the new Christian religion spread. Because they refused to worship the emperor, Christian martyrs were murdered in the Colosseum. Despite attempts by the Romans to eliminate Christianity, the new religion slowly began to spread. Unlike Jewish leaders, Christians wanted to spread their faith to non-believers. They also did not require believers to follow strict dietary rules and other religious laws. Christianity’s simple message of love, hope and salvation inspired many living in the Roman Empire. In the 4th Century (300’s a.d.), Emperor Constantine had a vision right before an important battle. This convinced him to convert to Christianity. Soon after, Constantine proclaimed freedom of worship for Christians. By the end of the 4th century, Christianity became the offical religion of the Roman Empire. Role of Jesus: Christians believe Jesus was the son of God and sacrificed himself to save humankind from punishment of their sins. Christians believe that after his death, Jesus was resurrected and rose to Heaven. Why is this against the teachings of Judiasm? Why is this against the teachings of the Roman Empire? MAJOR BELIEFS OF CHRISTIANITY Christian Conduct: Christians believe they will be saved and will go to Heaven after death if they have faith in Christ as their Savior and treat others with love and respect. Christians believe in the Golden Rule – “do unto others as your would have them do unto you.” The Christian Bible: The sacred book of Christianity consists of the Old Testament (The Jewish Bible) and the New Testament, which describes the life of Christ, the works of the Apostles, and the basics of Christian living. How is this Bible different from the Bible of Judiasm? How is this Bible similar from the Bible of Judiasm? Roman Cultural Issues: cont. Women in Rome & Judiasm Women in Rome: Romans adopted a traditional view of gender roles, in which women were responsible for household chores and men represented the family in public life. Under Roman law, women passed from the authority of their father to that of their husbands. Women were not allowed to hold office, but it was acceptable for men to seek their wife’s advice in private. Nevertheless, there was generally more equality in Roman society between men and women than there had been in earlier Greek society. Romans placed a high value on marriage, home, property and make wills. Among the lower classes, many women worked outside the home. The Jewish Diaspora (Dispersion): The Romans permitted the existence of different religions throughout the empire, but expected people to worship the emperor as divine. Jews refused to recognize the emperor as a god. Jews revolted against Roman rule in 66 A.D. and again 135 A.D. Romans crushed these rebellions, destroyed the Jewish temple in Jerusalem, and drove the Jews out of Israel. Many fled north and west into Europe, while a number settled in other areas of the Middle East. Even though they faced exile, Jews refused to abandon their religion. Roman destruction of the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem Masada Siege against the Jews by the Romans The Fall of the Roman Empire: Starting in the 3rd Century A.D. the gov’t of Rome began to weaken. Historians offer several explanations for this decline: Political Weakness: Roman government depended on the abilities of the emperor, but many later emperors were corrupt ineffective leaders. Economic Problems: The costs of defending and administering the empire led to high taxes. Inflation and unemployment led to economic difficulties. REASONS FOR THE DECLINE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Military Decline: Later Roman armies relied on paid soldiers. These soldiers were often recruited from nonRoman peoples, who were less loyal than Roman citizens. Invasions: Rome was under continual attack by fierce tribes from Northern Europe and Central Asia, such as the Goths and Huns. The Romans considered these tribes barbarians. Eventually, These tribes successfully invaded Rome. Later emperors tried to reverse the decline of the empire. In 284 A.D. the empire was split into two parts so it could be governed more efficiently. The eastern part consisted of Greece, Asia Minor (Turkey), Egypt, and Syria; the western part consisted of Italy, Gaul (France), Britannia, Spain, and North Africa. Constantine temporarily reunited the empire and moved its capital to Constantinople in the east. The End of the Roman Empire: In the late 300’s, a nomadic group from Asia, known as the Huns, began to move westward. They pressured the Goths, another tribe outside the empire. The Goths and others began entering the Roman Empire. A period of great turmoil and chaos followed. Rome was finally sacked. In 476 A.D. the last Roman emperor was overthrown in the West. The eastern empire, known as the Byzantine Empire, survived for another 1,000 years. The Enduring Legacy of the Roman Empire: The Romans took the best from other cultures and made it their own. Much of that influence is from Greek gods, sculptures, poems, plays, and philosophers: Law: Roman concepts of justice, equality before the law, and natural law based on reason shaped later European legal systems. Language: Latin was the language of Rome. Several European languages evolved from it, including Spanish, French, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian. ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Engineering: The Romans built thousands of miles of roads to connect distant parts of the empire of Rome. They built bridges and aqueducts to supply water to their cities. They developed concrete and the use of arches and domes. Christianity: The adoption of the Christian religion by the Roman Empire was a major turning point in the spread of Christianity. APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED What debt did the Romans owe to the ancient Greeks? • __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Imagine you are writing a speech about the legacy of the Roman empire. What would you identify as its most enduring contributions. • __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Learning with Graphic Organizers Complete the graphic organizer below. For each ancient civilization, describe some of its characteristics. Finally, list several of its accomplishments or cultural contributions. The First Civilizations Persia Location:____________ Characteristics:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Greece Location:____________ Characteristics:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Rome Location:____________ Characteristics:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Achievements:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Achievements:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Achievements:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Chapter Study Cards Persian Civilization Cyrus the Great: united the Persian Empire Darius: his son, introduced uniform measures and built several new cities. Zoroastrianism: A new religion based on Zoroaster, who taught there were two gods: light and goodness, darkness and evil. Persian Accomplishments: Learned to use coins, moving from a barter system to a money economy. Built hundreds of roads to unify empire. Established a postal service. Golden Age of Greek Culture During this period, the Greeks enjoyed great prosperity and made significant achievements in art, literature, and philosophy. Philosophers: Athenians believed human reason was powerful enough to understand the world and solve problems. Noted Greek philosphers questioned nature and life: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Architecture: Athens created statues and buildings of perfect proportions. Parthenon: Temple to goddess Athena. High point of Greek culture. Greek Civilization City-States: Mountains cut off centers of population from each other. This led to the development of separate city-states. Sparta: A city state that was military in nature. Life was organized around military needs. At an early age, males were taught to be strong soldiers serving the state. Athens: Developed world’s first democracy, but women, foreigners and slaves were not citizens and could not take part in Athenian government. Roman Civilization Rome: built on fertile plain in the middle of Italy. Roman Republic: A republic has a system of government by elected representatives. Roman society had two main social classes: patricians and plebians. Twelve Tables: Roman code of laws that stated that citizens were “equal under the law” and “innocent until proven guilty.” Roman Empire: After uniting Italy, Rome defeated Carthage, and spread to Western Europe. Augustus became the first emperor. Christianity gradually spread. CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING Directions: Circle the letter that best answers the question. 1. a. b. c. d. Which statement would most likely represent the view of a citizen in ancient Athens visiting Sparta? “The government and society of Sparta are too strict. The people have little voice in government.” “I feel as though I have never left home. Everything here is the same as it is in Athens.” “This society allows more freedom of expression that I have ever experienced in Athens.” “I have never seen a society that so valued its citizens as here in Sparta.” CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING 1. a. b. c. d. Which statement would most likely represent the view of a citizen in ancient Athens visiting Sparta? “The government and society of Sparta are too strict. The people have little voice in government.” “I feel as though I have never left home. Everything here is the same as it is in Athens.” “This society allows more freedom of expression that I have ever experienced in Athens.” “I have never seen a society that so valued its citizens as here in Sparta.” First, Examine the Question: This question tests your knowledge of the differences between ancient Athens and Sparta. Recall what you know. about Ancient Greece. Athens was a democracy. Sparta was organized as a highly militaristic society to promote the strength of Sparta’s army. Apply what you know: An Athenian in Sparta would probably be amazed at how different Sparta was from Athens. Spartans had little voice in government. Sparta did not value its citizens as Athens did. Instead, Spartan society was quite strict. This would make Choice B, Choice C and Choice D wrong. The best answer is Choice A. CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING cont. 2. Which statement is most accurate based on the information on the map?? f. Spain was ancient Europe’s largest grain producer. g. Rome’s main trading partner was Carthage. h. Rome traded extensively throughout the Mediterranean region. j. Greece limited its trade to Alexandria in North America 3. Which society was the first to practice direct democracy? a. City-state of Athens b. Empire of Alexander the Great c. City-state of Sparta d. Persian Empire Checking for understanding… Now try answering some additional questions. 4. One effect of rugged, mountainous geography on the civilization of ancient Greece was the development of? f. Absolute monarchies g. Extensive trade h. Separate, independent city-states j. Belief in one God 5. a. b. c. d. What conclusion can best be drawn from the development shown above? The Phoenician, Greek, and Latin alphabets were unrelated. The spread of ideas often has little impact on culture. The alphabet spread from Phoenicia to Greece and later to Rome. A people’s culture often has a strong influence on its institutions. Checking for understanding… Now try answering some additional questions. 6. Roman women could own property and make wills leaving their property to whomever they chose. What conclusion could be drawn by this statement? f. Roman women had the right to vote g. Roman women enjoyed some legal rights. h. Roman women were equal to men j. Roman women could hold political offices. 7. In what way were the Code of Hammurabi and the Twelve Tables of Rome similar? a. They allowed for belief in one god. b. They established written legal standards. c. They provided records of economic activity. d. They legalized democratic government. Checking for understanding… Now try answering some additional questions. 8. How did Italy’s geography influence the development of the Roman Empire? f. A harsh climate prevented sufficient agricultural production. g. Unnavigable rivers in the northern part of the peninsula protected the Romans from their neighbors. h. The lengthy, rugged seacoast encouraged frequent invasions by hostile foreigners. j. The central location of the peninsula contributed to Roman control of the Mediterranean region. 9. Which ancient civilization is most closely associated with the Twelve Tables, an extensive road system, the invention of concrete, and the spread of Christianity? a. Babylonian b. Greek c. Phoenician d. Roman Checking for understanding… Now try answering some additional questions. 10. Which conclusion about Europe and the Mediterranean world in 526 A.D. can be drawn from the information on this map? a. Gaul dominated trade on the Mediterranean Sea b. Rome was the capital of the entire western region. c. The eastern region was unified under the Byzantine Empire. d. The division between eastern and western Rome followed natural boundaries. The “Classical Era” in the East: In the centuries when Persia, Greece and Rome dominated the West, a different series of empires and dynasties flourished in the east. India witnessed a flower of Hindu and Buddhist cultures, influencing all of South and Southeast Asia. China saw the emergence of great philosophers, who set the tone for much of Chinese thought and tradition. Essential Questions “Classical Era in the East” • What were the major accomplishments of India and China during the ‘Classical Era’”? • How did the civilizations compare with the civilizations of the West? • What factors contributed to the rise and fall of empires and dynasties in the East? Vocab •Aryans •Hinduism •Reincarnation •Caste System •Buddha •Emperor Asoka •Mauryan Empire • Gupta Empire • Zhou Dynasty • Confucius • Qin Dynasty • Shih Huang-ti • Great Wall of China • Han Dynasty Important Ideas The “Classical Era” in the East A. The Aryans introduced Hinduism and the caste system to India, creating hereditary social classes. B. Although Buddhism began in India, it spread quickly throughout South, Central Southeast, and East Asia. Asoka, a Mauryan ruler, adopted Buddhism. C. The Gupta Empire was marked by a “Golden Age of Hindu Culture,” which saw growth in learning, the arts, literature, the sciences, and mathematics. D. China was ruled by a series of dynasties (ruling families) E. Confucianism became China’s dominant belief system. Based on the teachings of Confucius, it stressed kindness and following traditional ways to achieve peace and harmony. F. The Quin Emperor, Shih Huang-ti, united distant parts of China and built the Great Wall to protect China from foreign invaders. G. The fall of the Han Dynasty in the East had some similarities to the fall of the Roman Empire in the West. The Empires of India The Aryan Invasion: In the last chapter, you learned how an early river valley civilization arose along the Indus River and then suddenly collapsed. The Dravidian people living in this region were then conquered by the Aryans. Many historians believe that the Aryans came from Central Asia, crossed the Himalayas and arrived in India about 1,500 B.C. Other historians believe that Aryan culture developed locally. The Aryans were nomadic peoples who lived by herding cattle and by fighting. They developed iron weapons and horse-drawn chariots which enabled them to conquer their neighbors. Over the next several centuries, Aryan tribes moved into the Ganges river valley, pushing the Dravidian people farther south. By 900 B.C., the Aryans had formed city-states in the major river valleys. (Alexander the Great). Each city-state was ruled by its own ruler. The Aryans developed their own form of writing, known as Sanskrit. Knowledge of the Sanskrit became a sign of education and wealth since it was only taught to members of the high castes. The Aryans also brought a new religion to India, known as Hinduism. Gods: Hindus believe that there are many gods and goddesses. Each of these gods, however, is a manifestation (form) of one Supreme Being. MAJOR BELIEFS OF HINDUISM Reincarnation: Hindus believe that at death, a person’s soul is reborn as another living thing. This creates an Like many religions, Hinduism provided its believers with an entire way of life. It served as a guide, explaining everything a person should do from birth to death. Hinduism had no single holy book, but various Hindu writings provided guidance. Two texts containing the major beliefs of Hinduism were the Upanishads and the Bhagavad-Gita. Below this group is “Untouchables” No even in social order No social mobility Based on birth Must marry inside your caste Sacred Objects: Hindus believe the Ganges River is sacred and has the power to wash away sin and evil. The cow is also considered sacred, and religious Hindus do no eat beef. Karma: Karma refers to a person’s behavior in life, which Hindus believe determines that person’s form in the next The Empires of India Another religion emerges – “Buddhism” Buddhism: The Spread: Buddhism quickly attracted many followers. Missionaries helped spread Buddhist beliefs throughout India. It was popular among many because it rejected the caste system. It’s spread is shown here: The religion of Buddhism began in India around 500 B.C. Siddhartha Gautama (563-487 B.C.) lived his youth in comfort and luxury as a wealthy prince in Nepal. One day, he looked beyond the palace walls and was shocked by all the human suffering he saw around him. This prompted him to leave his wealth, his wife, and his two children to set out in search of truth. After six years of searching, he realized in a flash of insight that all suffering was caused by selfish human desires. To end this suffering, a person must come to accept the world as it is and to block out his or her own selfish desire. Gautama became known as the “Buddha” or “Enlightened One.” Basic Philosophy: Buddhism is based on a philosophy of self-denial and meditation. Buddhists also believe in reincarnation. Four Noble Truths: These truths explain life’s meaning. They explain that pain and suffering is caused by human desires, such as the desire for material wealth and selfish pleasures. Give up to get harmony. MAJOR BELIEFS OF BUDDHISM Gods and Holy Books: Buddhists do no believe in a Supreme Being. They also do not have a holy book. Their basic beliefs are found in books called Sutras. Eightfold Path: To give up selfish desires, Buddhists believe one should follow this path: have the right goals, have the right perspectives, be aware, act in a worthy manner, speak truthfully, live righteously, respect all living things and meditate. Nirvana: By following the Eightfold Path, an individual can escape the soul’s endless reincarnations and achieve nirvana – a state of eternal peace and bliss. Hinduism - Buddhism: Buddhism - Hinduism: APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED How was the hereditary caste system closely connected to Hindu beliefs in reincarnation? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN The main ideas of Buddhism are summarized in the “Four Noble Truths.” 1. 2. 3. 4. • All life is suffering Suffering is caused by our craving (or wanting things). Suffering can only be stopped by ending our craving. Only a carefully disciplined and moral life, such as a life of concentration and meditation, can end our craving. According to the “Four Noble Truths,” how can we end our suffering? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED What beliefs did Buddhism borrow from Hinduism? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ How did the spread of Buddhism in the East compare to the spread of Christianity in the West? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Indian Empires (About the same time as Alexander the Great) The Mauryan Empire: King Chandragupta challenged the Greeks and established the powerful Mauryan Empire in India, which stretched from Afghanistan to the Ganges. His grandson Asoka (269-232 B.C.) was the next great ruler of India. Asoka began his reign by fighting a series of wars to enlarge his empire. After eight years of nearly constant warfare, Asoka grew horrified by the bloodshed of battle. This prompted him to renounce violence and convert to Buddhism. Asoka decided to win his people’s loyalty by acts of kindness and by promoting their welfare and happiness. He decreed that people of all religions should live peacefully with one another. He improved roads, built hospitals, and sent teachers throughout the empire to encourage education. To promote Buddhism, he built Buddhist shrines throughout India and sent missionaries to other lands. Despite his successes, after Asoka’s death the Mauryan Empire began to fall apart. No real organized government was in India until 320A.D. (ALMOST 500 YEARS) The Gupta Empire: In 320A.D., a new ruling family, the Gupta emerged. They united the territory around the Ganges River. Gupta emperors encouraged peace, prosperity, and trade with foreign lands, especially China. The two centuries of Gupta rule (200yrs) are sometimes referred to as a “Golden Age of Hindu Culture.” A “golden age” is a period marked by peace and stability accompanied by strides in arts and literature. Gupta emperors built universities and supported learning, the arts, and literature. Gupta artists painted colorful murals, while writers composed poems and plans written in Sanskrit. Indian scholars excelled at the sciences and mathematics. Gupta mathematicians developed the concept of zero, the idea of infinity, and the decimal system. Arabic numerals, used throughout the world today, were first developed in India in this period. Gupta astronomers put forward the idea that the Earth was not flat, but round and rotated on its own axis. These astronomers calculated the solar year and the shape of movement of bodies in space with remarkable accuracy. Gupta physicians set bones and performed minor skin grafts. The Huns, invaded and disintegrated the unity of the Gupta empire. The Dynasties of China Like the flowering of Greek and Roman culture in the West, China also witnessed some of its greatest cultural achievements in these centuries. Chinese history is generally divided into periods based upon the dynasty (ruling family) that governed China at that time. From 1027 B.C. to 220 A.D., China was ruled by three main dynasties. Zhou Dynasty: In 1027 B.C., the Shang were conquered, marking the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty. The new Zhou ruler justified his rule as the Mandate of Heaven. The Chinese believe that their ruler was chose to rule by heaven. Scholars taught that if a ruler became selfish and thought of himself first, then heaven would bring devastation signaling that a new family should emerge as ruler. Zhou rulers established a system in which land was given to nobles in exchange for military service. During succeeding centuries, Zhou rulers conquered neighboring peoples and made them a part of China. However, by the 6th century B.C., local nobles became too powerful for the Zhou ruler to control, and China was plunged into civil war. The greatest legacy of the Zhou dynasty was the work of two Chinese philosophers, Confucius and LaoTzu (Laozi). These philosophers were deeply affected by the turmoil they lived through at the end of the Zhou dynasty. Confucius sought to bring order to China’s social and political life, while Lao Tzu was more interested in peace and inner stability for individuals. The Empires of China Another religion emerges – “Confucianism & Daoism”” Confucianism: Confucianism is named for its founder, Confucius, who lived during a time of great turmoil in China. Confucius established a philosophy based on what he believed was the basic order of the universe. He stressed following traditional ways, which had worked well in the past to achieve peace and harmony. Confucius taught that each person should live up to his or her name. Confucius placed great importance on traditional values such as obedience and order. He also stressed the importance of family, where children should show devotion, known as filial piety, to their parents. For Confucius, the family served as a model for society, emphasizing duties, good deeds and civilized way of life. Natural Order: There is a natural order to the universe and to human relationships. Each person has a role in society, which reflects his or her position in the universe. Relationships: In each relationship, there is a superior and an inferior. The superior must show love and responsibility, while the inferior must show loyalty and obedience. MAJOR BELIEFS OF CONFUCIANISM The Spread: Buddhism quickly attracted many followers. Missionaries helped spread Buddhist beliefs throughout India. It was popular among many because it rejected the caste system. It’s spread is shown here: Role of each person: Each person’s social role brings a number of obligations. If everyone fulfills these roles by meeting their obligations, people and society will be in harmony. Mandate of Heaven: If the ruler benefits his people and provides them with food and protection, then the people will obey their ruler, who will continue to hold the Mandate of Heaven (the right to rule) China: Daoism cont… (or Taoism) is a Chinese philosophy that began in the 5th century B.C. based on the teachings of Lao Tzu. Daoists believe that nature has a “way” (the Dato) in which it moves, and that people should accept the “way” of nature rather than try to resist it. Daoists have a deep respect for nature and harmony, and accept things rather than trying to change them. If you fight against nature, Daoists believe your action may even have results opposite to what you intended. People can achieve enlightenment only by “non-striving,” enjoying nature, and using contemplation to abandon earthly concerns. APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED Compare Confucianism and Daoism by describing how they are similar and different? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN Eastern beliefs often seem different than Western religions. The teachings of Lao Tzu describe the mysterious “way” of the universe, known as the Dao. Daoists seek the underlying principle that explains how nature and the universe move. Just as some people see God behind all things, Daoists describe the “way:” You look at it, but it is not to be seen; Its name is Formless. You listen to it, but it is not to be heard; Its name is Soundless. You grasp it, but it is not to be held; Its name is Bodiless. • How does this description of the “way” compare to Western religious ideas about God? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ • On slide 43 you read about Four Noble Truths. Based on that reading and this reading on Daoism, how do these religions or beliefs differ? How are they alike? _____________________________________________________________________ Learning with Graphic Organizers Complete the graphic organizer below. For each ancient civilization, describe some of its characteristics. Finally, list several of its accomplishments or cultural contributions. Major Eastern Religions Hinduism Buddhism Confucianism Began:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Began:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Began:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Main Beliefs:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Main Beliefs:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Main Beliefs:________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ The Qin Dynasty: (221 B.C. – 206 B.C.) Shih Huan-ti, the lord of the Quin (chin), was a provincial ruler who unified all of China through conquest. He began a new dynasty and became the first Chinese ruler to call himself “Emperor.” He felt that all power should rest in the hands of a single, absolute ruler. Shih believed that people were not necessarily good and that they needed a strong gov’t to punish those who committed bad acts. He rejected Confucianism, burnt Confucian books, and persecuted scholars. Shih Accomplishments: Shih Huang-ti centralized power by dividing China into districts, each with its own military and civil administrator. Construction of a network of roads and canals was begun to unite distant parts of China. Uniform systems of writing and measurements were established throughout the empire. Shih also joined together several existing protective walls to form the Great Wall of China, in order to protect his empire from nomadic peoples to the northwest. His lasting effect was a unified China. ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN Imagine your class is conducting a trial of Shih Huang-ti. Was he justified in his actions? The class should present arguments for and against the emperor. Look in your school or local library or on the Internet for more information. Then go ahead and conduct the trial. Use the space below for listing your arguments. Explain why. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Han Dynasty: (206 B.C. – 220 A.D.) Following the Qin emperor’s death, the people rebelled against this harsh style of rule. After years of civil war, a new dynasty emerged. The Han emperors kept China unified for over four hundred years. The Han are credited with inventing paper and lead-glazed ceramics, and with advances in silk weaving. In addition, the Han emperors established examinations to select candidates for imperial service. Candidates were tested on their knowledge of history and Confucian philosophy. This encouraged the spread of Confucian ideas. The examination system also strengthened the power of the emperor by weakening the independence movement of the nobles. They could no longer claim the high status and rewards of imperial service as a matter of right. Only those who passed these rigorous tests could assist the emperor in the government. Examinations provided a way for commoners to move up the social ladder. Confucian ideas came to unite all government officials and the Chinese upper classes as a whole. The Han rulers established overland trade routes, such as the “Silk Road,” which connected China to the Roman Empire and other regions. Merchants carried goods by camel caravan along this route through mountains, steppes, and deserts, with resting points in new towns along the way. Over these routes, China exported its silk, iron, and bronze in exchange for gold, linen cloth, glass, ivory, animal hides, horses, and cattle. India also introduced Buddhism, which became popular in China. China – Societal Issues and Fall of an Empire Women and Children: Wealthy families in early Han China had many children so that their sons could serve in the government and the daughters could marry into other wealthy families. Marriages were arranged, and families prepared their daughters to serve their future husbands. Wealthy women were generally well-treated and influential. Under Confucian teachings, women were subordinate to men. In childhood, a woman obeyed her father; in adulthood, she obeyed her husband; and in old age , she obeyed her son. In Han China, a system of public school, for boys only, developed. Confucian principles, such as respect for elders and looking after one’s parents in old age were taught. The Fall of the Han Dynasty: The Han ruled for over 400yrs (2x as long as U.S.A.). They were weakened by rebellions. Governors used their power to undermine the emperor. Economic hardship led to discontent. Led to a series of civil wars that led to the empire splitting into a series of separate states led by independent warlords. The End of Empires: Why do empires decline and fall? Some scholars have compared the collapse of the Han to that of Rome in the West. In both cases, an empire had gradually spread over a very large area, making it difficult to govern given the state of transportation and communication at that time. Both the Han and Roman empires saw areas in their empire fall into the hands of generals and local warlords, weakening central control. In both empires, early emperors were talented rulers but later emperors were not always equally capable. In each empire, later rulers were sometimes overthrown by their own generals or palace guards. Another similarity between the two empires was the spread of corruption, creating instability in the government and dissatisfaction with the unequal distribution of wealth. Vast differences existed between the richest and poorest social classes, leading to frequent peasant uprisings. Both empires faced the constant threat of invasion from outside “barbarian” tribes. The Huns also pushed eastward, causing neighboring nomadic tribes to press against China. China – Societal Issues and Fall of an Empire cont: APPLYING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED In what other ways were the collapse of the Han and Roman empires similar? • ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Are there any other lessons that can be learned by present-day world leaders from factors that led to the fall of either of these two empires? • ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ACTING AS AN AMATEUR HISTORIAN Using the Internet or your local library, find two works of art – such as sculpture, pottery, calligraphy, architecture, wood carvings, paintings – from India and China that were done during the Classical Era. Then complete the chart below: Name of Artwork Date Material Created Used Description of Artwork Learning with Graphic Organizers Complete the graphic organizer below. For each ancient civilization, describe some of its characteristics. Finally, list several of its accomplishments or cultural contributions. The Classical Civilizations Of India and China Mauryan Empire Location: ____________ ____________ Characteristics: _____________ _____________ _____________ Achievements: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Gupta Empire Location: ____________ ____________ Characteristics: _____________ _____________ _____________ Achievements: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Zhou Dynasty Location: ____________ ____________ Characteristics: _____________ _____________ _____________ Achievements: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Qin Dynasty Location: ____________ ____________ Characteristics: _____________ _____________ _____________ Achievements: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Han Dynasty Location: ____________ ____________ Characteristics: _____________ _____________ _____________ Achievements: _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ Chapter Study Cards Empires of India Aryans: came to India around 1500 B.C. Mauryan Empire: Created city-states in major river valleys Developed Sanskrit, a form of writing Introduced Hinduism to India New social order developed, known as the caste system. Asoka allowed all religions in India Asoka built roads and hospitals Gupta Empire: They ushered in a “Golden Age of Hindu Culture.” Advanced concept of zero, decimal system. Their system of numerals is used today. Hinduism Hindus: believe in many gods and goddesses – all are forms of one Supreme Being. Reincarnation: We’re reborn in a new form after we die, based on deeds in this life. Buddhism Began in India around 500 B.C. Siddhartha Gautama: Known as Buddha. Rich prince who set off in search of truth. Beliefs: Self-denial and meditation One must give up selfish desires to find true peace and harmony: Eight-Fold Path. Believe in reincarnation. Dynasties of China Confucianism China’s history is divided into dynasties. Zhou Dynasty: Believed their ruler was in power due to Mandate Confucius established a philosophy followed in China for centuries. This philosophy stressed kindness, peace, harmony, and following the natural order – each person’s role in society is due to his or her position in the universe. In every relationship there is a superior and an inferior. A good ruler should govern justly and for the benefit of his subjects. of Heaven. Qin Dynasty: Shi Huan-ti: First emperor of China Unified China under his rule Built Great Wall of China Han Dynasty: Kept China unified for next 400 years. Selected officials based on examinations Established trade along Silk Road. CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING Directions: Use the diagram and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question. 1. a. b. c. d. The diagram to the right shows the relationship between individuals in a society based on the ideas of Confucius Moses Everyone had duties and responsibilities, depending on his or her position Emperor Asoka in a relationship. Siddhartha Gautama Superior Ruler, husband, father, elder brother Takes care of and sets good example for Owes loyalty and obedience to Inferior Subject, wife, son, younger brother CHECKING YOUR UNDERSTANDING 1. a. b. c. d. The diagram to the right shows the relationship between individuals in a society based on the ideas of Confucius Moses Emperor Asoka Siddhartha Gautama Directions: Use the diagram and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question. Everyone had duties and responsibilities, depending on his or her position in a relationship. Superior Ruler, husband, father, elder brother Takes care of and sets good example for Owes loyalty and obedience to First, Examine the Question: This Inferior question tests your ability to Subject, wife, son, interpret a diagram. It shows the younger brother relationship between “superiors” and “inferiors” in a society. It asks who developed these ideas. Recall what you know. You should recall that Confucius developed a philosophy based on each person fulfilling his position in society. Apply what you know: Choice B, Choice C and Choice D are the names of rulers or thinkers who developed other philosophies. The best answer is Choice A, since the diagram illustrates one of the main points of Confucian teachings.