The Egyptian and Nubian Empires Chapter 4:1 Vocabulary Words • Hyksos: A group of nomadic invaders from Southwest Asia who ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C. • New Kingdom: The Period of ancient Egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the Hyksos rulers, lasting from 15701075 B.C. • Nubia: A region of African that straddled the upper Nile River. • Kush: An ancient Nubian Kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt between 200) and 1000 B.C. • Meroe: Center of the Kush dynast from about 250 B.C. through 150 A.D. Understanding Connotations: The Word “Empire” Empire: Brings together several people or states under the control of one ruler. Make a list of movies, quotations or other “contexts” in which you have heard the word Empire. What thoughts or connotations are a associated with the word Empire? What makes an Empire good or bad? Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt Hyksos: Invaders from Southwestern Asia take control of Egypt from 1640-1570 B.C. Hebrews Migrate to Egypt: Abraham and his family came to the land of “Canaan” 1600 B.C. Egyptians drive out Hyksos rulers: Hebrews were force into slavery Hebrews Cross Canaan The New Kingdom of Egypt New Kingdom: Era Egyptian Pharaohs from 1570-1075 B.C. Used Bronze Weapons, charioteers, archers foot soldiers Hatshepsut: Women Pharaoh, ruled while stepson was too young to rule Thutmose III pushed the empire into the African Kingdom of Nubia The New Kingdom of Egypt: An Age of Builders Pharaohs of New Kingdom erected “Grand Buildings” Temple of Amon-Re, Valley of the Kings The Egyptian Empire Declines Invasions by Sea: “Sea People” invade Egyptians. May have been the Philistines Tribes in Palestine and Libya raided Egyptian outposts. Egypt Never recovered from the invasions!!! Kingdom of Kush: Nubians take control of Egypt The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region Nubian Kingdom of Kush Nubia lays in the Middle of Africa Traders Cultural Diffusion with Egypt: Learned Egyptian language, Gods, Clothing, Social Customs King Piankhi: Overthrew Libyans Short Lived, Assyrians conquered Egypt The Golden Age of Meroe Kushites moved south to Meroe Wealth of Kush: Natural Resources helped with trade Larger amounts of Rainfall Large developments of Iron Weapons and tools Decline of Meroe: Other African kingdoms began to peck at the Kushite kingdom The Golden Age of Meroe Main Idea Questions 1. How did the New Kingdom of Egypt Become so Powerful and Wealthy? 1. What cultural Aspects of Egyptian civilizations did the Kushites adopt? 1. Why was Kush able to thrive after losing Egypt to the Assyrians? Vocabulary Words Assyria: Southwest Asian kingdom that controlled a large empire from about 850 to 612 B.C. Sennacherib: Assyrian King who defeated 89 Cities 820 Villages and burned Babylon (one of the most important ancient cities) to the ground. Killed everyone! Nebuchadnezzar: Chaldean King who restored the ancient City of Babylon to glory. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon (One of Seven Wonders of The Ancient World) A MIGHTY MILITARY MACHINE From the Northern Part of Mesopotamia Territory was easily invaded (flat, no natural barriers) Constantly Fighting Developed into “battle hardened” society due to all the constant fighting Empire stretched from Banks of the Northern Tigris River all the way to Central Egypt Sennacherib A Might Military Machine: Cont Organized Military Society Glorified Military Developed Ironworking technology (Weapons) Soldiers in Stiff leather armor Copper Helmets Planned Military Conquests in Advance: Pontoons for rivers, bridges Before attacking Assyrians dug out city walls to weaken them Waves of arrows Battering rams (Lord of the Rings) No Mercy!!!!! Killed or enslaved Assyrian Military Pictures The Assyrian Empire: Map The Empire Expands At the peak of the Assyrian Empire the Assyrians controlled lands ranging from Mesopotamia, southern Anatolia and into the Nile River Valley Conquered People: Refusal to pay equaled exile, destroyed cities or death Assyrian Culture Great reputations as warriors and as builders Nineveh: Assyria’s Capital along the Tigris River. Three miles long by One mile wide!!!! King Ashurbanipal: Collected 20,000 clay tablets for the library at Nineveh Government: A system of Governors who reported to a central authority Epic of Gilgamesh The Empire Crumbles Power spread too thin Many enemies because of their cruelty Armies of the Medes and the Chaldeans burned Nineveh to the ground (Clay tablets hardened in the fire) Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans Chaldean King: Nebuchadnezzar Hanging Gardens One of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World Terraces 75ft above the ground 7 tier Ziggurat 300ft high Astronomers studied changes in the night sky Main Idea Questions: PG 98 1. What methods did the Assyrians use when they attack enemy cities? 1. What contributions to government administration and culture did the Assyrians make? 1. Why did the people in the region rejoice when the Assyrian Empire was defeated? The Persian Empire Chapter 4:3 Vocabulary: 3 Key Vocabulary Words Cyrus: Persian King who united Persia. He conquered neighboring Kingdoms. He was known for his “methods of governing” Cyrus prevented his generals and soldiers from destroying conquered lands and he honored local customs and religions. (Jews back to homeland and forever thankful) Satrap: A governor of a province in the Persian Empire Zoroaster: A Persian Prophet who taught that the earth is a battleground where a great struggle between the spirit of good and the spirit of evil. Each person is expected to take part in this struggle. The Rise of Persia Persians based their empire on tolerance and diplomacy (opposite of the Assyrians) Present day Iran Originally Indo-Europeans who migrated south Better Natural Resources: Copper, lead, gold, silver, etc Dozen of mini Kingdoms Cyrus the Great Unites The Persian Empire in 550 B.C. The Persian Empire Cyrus the Great Empire totaled over 2,000 miles Military Genius “Cyrus’s most enduring legacy was his method of Governing. His kindness toward conquered peoples revealed a wise and tolerant view of Empire.” Soldiers could not destroy or burn conquered cities Honored local customs and religions Jews returned to homeland (Thankful for Cyrus) Cyrus the Great Persian Rule Cyrus’s son Cambyses expanded empire into Egypt but was not respectful to Egyptian Religion Caused wide spread rebellions Cambyses successor Darius stabilized the empire Former member of the Ten Thousand Immortal soldiers Expanded empire into India “Indus River Valley” Empire now 2,500 miles long!! Persian Rule Government Zoroastrianism Ruling in far away lands A Persian Prophet Set up regional governments (Roughly similar to the homelands of the different groups) “Zoroaster taught that the earth is a battle ground for the spirit of good and evil. We each have to play a part in the battle between good and evil.” Satraps: A governor who ruled locally Cultural Diffusion: Judgment day, people have free will to choose good or evil. Construction Projects Under Darius Royal Road Turkey---Iran Increased Travel, trade, money, transportation of goods/materials, TRADE, Cultural Diffusion, Communication 6-7 Days Rest stops Horse Exchange Canal from Mediterranean Sea to Red Sea Main Idea Questions 1. How did Cyrus treat the people he conquered? 2. What methods and tools did Darius use to hold together his empire? 3. What did Zoroaster teach? What similarities does it share with other “Major Religions” The Unification of China Chapter 4:4 Chapter Vocabulary: Section 4 Confucius: Ancient Chinese Philosopher who believed in 5 basic principles and filial piety Filial Piety: Respect Shown by children for their parents Bureaucracy: A system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of the government Daoism: A philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinking Laozi, who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao Legalism: A Chinese political philosophy based on the idea that a highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order. Ying and Yang: In Chinese thought, the two powers that govern the natural rhythms of life. Autocracy: A government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner I Ching: A Chinese book of oracles, consulted to answer ethical and practical problems Qin Dynasty: A short lived Chinese dynasty that replaced the Zhou Dynasty in the third century B.C. Confucius and the Social Order End of Zhou Dynasty signaled the end of Chinese values of “social order, harmony, respect for authority” Confucius: China’s most influential scholar Deep desire to restore social order to China Believed that that social order, harmony and good government could be restored in China if society organized itself around 5 basic Relationships 5 Basic Relationships 1. Ruler and Subject 2. Father and Son 3. Husband and Wife 4. Older Brother and younger Brother 5. Friend and Friend Three of Confucius’s relationships were based on the Family Filial Piety: Respect for their parents and ancestors. Confucius Confucius In Government/Beliefs Appointed to “Minister of Justice” Crime ended overnight Education could transform a “humbly born person into a gentleman” What does he mean? Bureaucracy: A system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of the government Education was key to “advancing” in government Confucianism: IS NOT A RELIGION Repeat with Mr. Erickson Confucianism was never a religion, but it was an ethical system, a system based on what is Right and what is Wrong!! Other Ethical Systems: Daosim Daoism Daoists Seek Harmony with Nature Chinese Thinker named Laozi Book: Dao De Jing (The Way of Virtue) Universal Force called the “Dao”, meaning “the way” guides all things. Only humans fail to follow the Dao. Legalists Urge Harsh Rule: Legalism Legalism Founded by: Hanfeizi and Li Si Completely different from Daoism and Confucianism Highly efficient and powerful government was key to restoring order in society Government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony. Believe in controlling ideas as well as actions Why? Chinese Ethical System Confucianis m Daoism Legalism Social order, harmony and good government should be base on family relationships The natural order is more important than the social order A highly efficient and powerful government is the key to social order Respect for parents and elders is important to a wellordered society A universal force guides all things Punishments are useful to maintain social order Education is important both to the welfare of the individual and to the society Human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature Thinkers and their ideas should strictly be controlled by the government American Society ? Hippies ? School ? I Ching Chinese also turned to other practices for finding answers to life’s questions Book of Oracles: I Ching or “Yi Jing” Readers used the book by throwing a set of coins, and interpreting the results, and then reading the appropriate oracle or prediction. Offered good advice and simple common sense Ying and Yang Two Powers that together represented the natural rhythm of life Yin: Cold, dark, soft and mysterious Yang: Warm bright, hard and clear The Qin Dynasty Unifies China Qin Dynasty replaces the Zhou Dynasty (Legalist Empire) After 20 years of ruling Qin assumed the name Shi Huangdi “First Emperor” Put down fighting throughout China, both invaders and civil disobedience Moved 120,000 noble families China: Now 36 Districts Murdered thousands of Confucian Scholars The Qin Dynasty Unifies China “Shi Huangdi established an Autocracy: a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner” Centralization Built 4,000 miles of roads Set standards for writing, law, currency, weight and measures Irrigation projects Harsh Taxes and repressive government Great Wall of China Forced scholars to work on Great Wall of China Close gaps in preexisting walls to discourage attacks by northern nomads Work on Wall or Die!!! Main Idea Questions 1. How did Confucius believe that social order, harmony and good government, could be restored in China? 1. What did the Legalist see as the key to restoring order? 1. What measures did Shi Huangdi take to crush political opposition at home?