Symbolism Allegory Allusion The nature of evil The role of society Dystopia in Lord of the Flies By William Golding Symbolism • Comprehend the difference between literal and figurative and apply these concepts to symbolism and allegory • Explain what a symbol is; comprehend the difference between universal and personal symbols; create a personal symbol Today you will . . . Literal vs. Figurative 1. literal • The literal meaning of a story is the actual meaning. It is the most obvious meaning 2. figurative • The symbolic, suggested meaning • something used for or regarded as representing something else • a material object representing something, often something immaterial; emblem, token, or sign. A symbol in literature is a sign which has further layers of meaning. In other words, a symbol means more than it literally says. Symbolism What does this symbolize? What does this symbolize What does this symbolize? What does this symbolize? What does this symbolize? What does this symbolize? Universal and Cultural Personal Interpretation of Symbols • Universal – most people anywhere in the world would recognize it. • Cultural—the people in a particular culture would recognize it, but those outside the culture may not. • Personal—developed by an author, artist, etc. to specifically represent something. A Symbol Can Be . . . • Write down another universal symbol and another cultural symbol. Explain what it means. • Create your own personal symbol with an explanation. Homework • • • • • Comprehend what an allegory is Analyze “Little Red Riding Hood as an allegory Analyze a quote as an allegory Comprehend what an allusion is Create an allusion Today you will . . . Allegory Allegory a work in which the characters and events . . . • represent other people or events in history • represent concepts, such as virtues, war, communism • symbolically express a deeper, often spiritual, moral, or political meaning • LITERAL • FIGURATIVE An allegory can be understood on two levels: • Little Red Riding Hood: a little girl • The wolf a dangerous, wild creature • The woodsman a strong, brave working man “Little Red Riding Hood” Level One: Literal • Little Red Riding Hood: Innocence • The wolf: Evil • The woodsman: Society’s sense of moral justice “Little Red Riding Hood” Level 2: Figurative “It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion.” -- Ecclesiastes (9.4) Ecclesiastes uses the literal significance of "dog" and "lion," coupled with their cultural associations, to refer to conditions of human life. lion dog • Literal meaning: a four• Literal meaning: a fourlegged mammal with sharp legged mammal with sharp teeth teeth • Cultural association: the lion • Cultural association: the dog is ordinary, weak, is noble, strong, courageous cowardly • Symbolic meaning: • Symbolic meaning: Allegory • the literal meaning of "lion" and "dog"--two different species of mammal • the cultural associations of both animals--the lion is noble, strong, courageous; the dog is ordinary, weak, cowardly. • the application to human character: The cultural associations are transferred from dogs and lions to human beings; the application makes a point about life. Breaking it Down the application to human character: The cultural associations are transferred from dogs and lions to human beings; the application makes a point about life. “It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion.” It is better to be a coward and stay alive than be brave and die because of your bravery. • Edmund Spenser's “The Faerie Queene” -– several knights stand for virtues like friendship, truth and justice • Animal Farm by George Orwell— – the animals stand for real people and the events real events in the Russian Revolution – the animals and events represent all people during all tyrannies Examples of Other Allegories Allusion • A brief, usually indirect reference to a person, place, or event--real or fictional. • According to their content, allusions may be historical, cultural, mythological, literary, political, or private. • Allusions add a depth of meaning. Allusion (NOT “illusion”) Direct Indirect • He’s as strong as Hercules. • Hey, Einstein! • She is as loyal as Lady Macbeth. • The title of Robert Frost’s poem “Out, Out--,” is an allusion to Macbeth’s speech about life's shortness after Lady Macbeth dies: “Out, out, brief candle!" Examples of Allusions • Create an allusion and then explain it. Allusion When during a conversation you allude to something, you are making a reference to that something without directly stating it. How are an allegory and symbolism similar? Respond to this question . . . • What is the nature of evil? • Does a lack or disintegration of society cause injustice? Themes for Lord of the Flies Utopia Dystopia What’s the difference between a Utopia and a Dystopia? 1. 2. Answer both of the thematic questions and explain your responses: A.) What is the nature of evil? B.) Does a lack or disintegration of society lead to injustice? Describe your utopia. What would it look like? Would there be laws, and if so, what kind? How would you get your food and clothing and other goods? Would everyone be treated equally? Would there be schools? For Homework . . .