Ming-Qing China, Tokugawa Japan, and Ottoman, Safavid, and

Chapters 17 and 18
 a. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing
rulers; include how Oda Nobunga laid the ground
work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and
how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in
 b. Analyze the impact of population growth and
its impact on the social structure of Japan and
 Mongols:
 Conquered China
 Established the Yuan Dynasty
1368—Mongols are overthrown
Ming Dynasty is
founder: Zhu Yuanzhang (Joo Yoo-en-JAHNG)
Ming means “Brilliant”
Dynasty lasts 300 years
 Society divided into four classes:
This landed,
highly literate
class helped staff
the royal
They produced
food and paid the
taxes that
supported the
They made
At the bottom of
beautiful and useful the social order,
they made their
living by selling
objects that
peasants and
artisans had
Confucianism restored as the official philosophy of the
 1. Drove the Mongols out of China
 a. Centralized government control; faced new
invasions from the Mongols
 b. Rebuilt and repaired the Great Wall to prevent
northern invasions.
 c. Restored Chinese cultural traditions and civil
service examinations
 2. Ming Decline
 a. trade disrupted by pirates, 1520s-1560s
 b. Government corruption
 c. Famines and peasant rebellions during the 1630s
and 1640s
 d. Manchu (Manchurians) invaders with peasant
support led to final Ming collapse, 1644
 Ming Dynasty conquered by Manchuria
(unified tribes that formed a single
people, the Manchu)
 They were outsiders who conquered
 Established their own dynasty
 Not Chinese, but adopted Chinese
 Ruled with traditional Chinese
 Manchu people, a minority, were kept
separate from the Chinese
Manchu people, had to study Manchu
language and cultural traditions
Qing emperors could marry only
Manchu women
Chinese could not move to Manchuria
All Chinese men had to wear their hair
tied in a queue [kyoo](tail), it
symbolized Chinese submission to
Manchu rule.
an ethnic
 Economy increases
 Growth of cities
 Growth of popular culture
 Studied ancient writings
 Created library for rare books from their past.
 However, most people lived in the countryside-
 Society—based on the family---it reflected
Confucian belief that each person had a role in
 Population increases
 More crops = able to feed more people
 Peace and stability—caused population increase
Eventually—enormous peasant class in China
•Kangzi ruled from 1661 to
•the longest reign on the
throne in China's history, 61
•Many famous works on
literature and art were
compiled under his order.
•During Kangxi's reign, the
society accumulated huge
wealth and most of the time
enjoyed peace and
 Policy of strict control on foreign trade
 Western merchants restricted to certain
areas of China
 Considered technological change
 Believed that China’s abundant labor,
labor-saving technologies were
 1467—Ashikaga family dispute over who would
be next shogun (chief military and
governmental officer)
 100 years of warfare
 Late 1500s—3 daimyo (powerful local lords in
feudal Japan) emerged victorious
These powerful daimyo established themselves
as overlords over other daimyo and built a
centralized feudal system in Japan.
 1568—captured the city, Kyoto through
conquests and alliances
Ended the Ashikaga shogunate in 1573
Started to strengthen his power in Japan
Attacked by one of his own vassals in 1582
Wounded, he committed
 2nd—Hideyoshi-succeeded
 Carried out a “sword hunt”
to disarm peasants
 Peasants could no longer
become warriors
 Only men born into warrior
families could become
 Ruled until he died in 1598
 Succeeded Hideyoshi
 Established capital at Edo [AY-doh] (now
1603—he became shogun (chief military and
governmental officer)
He crushed his defeated rivals
The Tokugawa family—kept title of shogun for
more than 250 years
Established a government known as the
Tokugawa shogunate
 A cross between feudalism and a central
 Within his domain, each daimyo governed as an
almost absolute ruler
 Local peasants paid taxes to support the daimyo
NOTE: The Tokugawa family had its own private
domain—included ¼ of the nation’s resources.
 1630s—adopted a policy of isolation from outside
 Foreign trade was under tight restriction at the
port of Nagasaki
 Despite the policy, Japan
was never completely isolated
Japanese people were prohibited
from traveling abroad.
 Shoguns did not promote change
 Stability more important to the Japanese
 Adopted—with some changes—the Confucian
ideal of social classes.
 1. Warrior class
Therefore the samurai stood at the top of the Japanese
social order. Peasants, artisans, and merchants followed
in descending order of importance.
A person’s social class –determined at birth
Sons—followed occupation of their fathers.
 Agriculture production doubled between 1600
and 17006
 Population rose by a one-third from 1600 to 1700
Internal trade expands (regions specialized in
certain crops and handicrafts)
Rise in
Cities grew
Artisans and merchants grow wealthier
culture: art,
and theater
 1858—Japan and United States sign a new treaty
 Samurai angered by agreement
 1860s –Japanese Civil War
 1867--anti-Tokugawa overthrew the shogunate
 Emperor’s power restored
 More centralized government in Japan
 Meiji reign— “Enlightened Rule”
SSWH12 The student will examine the origins
and contributions of the Ottoman, Safavid, and
Mughal empires.
a. Describe the geographical extent of the
Ottoman Empire during the rule of Suleyman
the Magnificent, the Safavid Empire during
the reign of Shad Abbas I, and the Mughal
Empire during the reigns of Babur and Akbar.
b.Explain the ways in which these Muslim
empires influenced religion, law, and the arts
in their parts of the world.
SuleymanThe greatest
Ottoman sultan
• Ruled 1520-1566
• Known as “The
Magnificent” in Europe
• “The Lawgiver” by his
own people
• Expanded the empire—
conquered Hungary
• Ruled most of eastern
Europe, western Asia,
and northern Africa.
 Ottoman Empire—made up of different groups of
 Muslim Turks—lived in the heart of the empire
 Christians and Jews—lived in the Balkans
 Muslim Arabs lived in the Fertile Crescent and
northern Africa
Religious differences = TENSION
Sultans allowed the different groups to practice their
own religions. They were organized into separate
religious communities called
Suleyman the Magnificent
died in 1566
• His death marked the start of a slow
decline of Ottoman power and
• 1600s—Empire lost control of the
silk and spice trade between Europe
and Asia
• New sea routes—they bypassed
the Turks
• Destroyed their trade monopoly
Late 1700s
• Ottomans lost the Crimean Peninsula and lands around
the Black Sea—to the Russians
• The French invaded Egypt—an Ottoman possession
• Land in the Balkans were also lost
• 1923—The Ottoman Empire ends
Turkey established itself as a republic
The Safavid [sah-FAH-vid] Empire
Ottoman Empire on the west
Mughal Empire on the east
1399—shifted from the
Sunni to the Shi’ah sect
Use the ancient title of
shah or “king of kings”
Shi’ah—official religion
Persian language and
history—strong sense
of identity
Shah ‘Abbas the Great
1587---became shah
in 1626
• Reformed their military—
used slave soldiers
• Recovered territory that
had been lost
• Moved capital to Esfahan—
a beautiful city
political, spiritual, and
commercial center
• Economic development—
manufacturing and foreign
tradePersian rugs, rich
fabrics (brocade, damask,
and silk) and beautiful
The empire began
to decline and had
ended by 1736.
Eventually Persia
split into a
number of small
Ancient Persian rug
The Mughal Empire in India
“Babur the Tiger”
1526—he attacked the
Sultanate of Delhi
Occupied Deli and the
surrounding region.
This territory become the
core of the Mughal
Babur’s grandson
“the greatest Mughal
(r. 1556-1605)
• Tax System—based on
average of what a village
might produce over a 10-year
• He encouraged Hindu and
Muslim artists
• Encouraged literature,
architecture (blending
Persia, Islamic, and Hindu
Allahu Akbar
“God is great” or
“Akbar is God”
Tolerant of ALL religions
Repealed the special tax
that non-Muslims had
been forced to pay
Thought of himself as a
divine ruler
Established a creed called
the Divine Faith
Creed blended elements
of Islam, Hinduism,
Jainism, Christianity, and
Note: Muslim strongly
opposed it!
 Economy improved
 Wealth and great resources
 Location—sea route to Asia = European
Jewels and gold
Climate—variety of crops grown
Cities—seemed larger than any in Europe
Leaders lived in greater luxury than those in
Taj Mahal
 One of the Architectural Wonders
of the World
 Built by the Shah Jahan
 Tomb for his wife
 Made of marble inlaid with
semiprecious gems

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