Body Directions and Movement

Report
BODY DIRECTIONS AND
MOVEMENT
Athletic
Medicine 1
BODY POSITIONS
 When we describe body position, we assume the person is in
anatomical position.
 Body is upright, with the person facing forward, feet flat on the
ground, arms at the side, and palms facing forward.
REGIONS
 Principle regions of the body
 Head
 Skull
 Face
 Trunk
 Chest
 Abdomen
 Pelvis
 Upper limbs
 Lower limbs
BODY PLANES
 When the body is in anatomical position, it can be divided into
three imaginary planes. These planes help clarify and specify
movements.
 Sagittal Plane: Divides the body into right and left portions.
 Frontal (or coronal) Plane: Divides the body into front (anterior) and
back (posterior) portions.
 Transverse Plane: Divides the body into upper (superior) and lower
(inferior) parts.
DIRECTIONAL TERMS
 In order to locate various body structures, anatomists use
specific body directional terms.
 Describe the position of one body part in relation to another.
Directional Term
Definition
Example
Superior
Toward the head
The head is superior to the
neck
Inferior
Away from the head
The belly button is inferior
to the chest
Anterior
Posterior
Medial
Lateral
Directional Term
Definition
Example
Superior
Toward the head
The head is superior to the
neck
Inferior
Away from the head
The belly button is inferior
to the chest
Anterior
Nearer to or at the front of
the body
The knee cap is on the
anterior side of the body.
Posterior
Nearer to or at the back of
the body
The shoulder blade is on
the posterior side of the
body.
Medial
Lateral
Anterior
Posterior
Directional Term
Definition
Example
Superior
Toward the head
The head is superior to the
neck
Inferior
Away from the head
The belly button is inferior
to the chest
Anterior
Nearer to or at the front of
the body
The eyes are anterior to
the brain
Posterior
Nearer to or at the back of
the body
The brain is posterior to
the eyes
Medial
Nearer to the midline
The pinky is medial to the
thumb
Lateral
Farther from the midline
The thumb is lateral to the
pinky
Directional Term
Definition
Ipsilateral
On the same side of the
The right shoulder is
body as another structure ipsilateral to the right hip
Contralateral
On the opposite side of
the body as another
structure
Proximal
Distal
Superficial
Deep
Example
The right shoulder is
contralateral to the left
hip
Directional Term
Definition
Ipsilateral
On the same side of the
The right shoulder is
body as another structure ipsilateral to the right hip
Contralateral
On the opposite side of
the body as another
structure
The right shoulder is
contralateral to the left
hip
Proximal
Nearer to the attachment
of a limb to the trunk
The shoulder is proximal
to the wrist
Distal
Farther from the
attachment of a limb to
the trunk
The elbow is distal to the
shoulder
Superficial
Deep
Example
Directional Term
Definition
Example
Ipsilateral
On the same side of the
body as another structure
The right shoulder is
ipsilateral to the right hip
Contralateral
On the opposite side of the The right shoulder is
body as another structure contralateral to the left hip
Proximal
Nearer to the attachment
of a limb to the trunk
The shoulder is proximal to
the wrist
Distal
Farther from the
attachment of a limb to
the trunk
The elbow is distal to the
shoulder
Superficial
Toward or on the surface
of the body
The ribs are superficial to
the lungs
Deep
Away from the surface of
the body
Bones are deep to the skin
QUIZ!








The
The
The
The
The
The
The
The
knee is _______ to the hip.
elbow is ______ to the wrist.
navel is on the ________ side of the body.
buttocks is on the _______ side of the body.
nose is ________ to the mouth.
neck is ______ to the chin.
big toe is _______ to the little toe.
little toe is ______ to the big toe.
BODY CAVITIES
 Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect,
separate, and support internal organs.
 Cranial cavity: Formed by the cranial bones and contains the brain.
 Vertebral cavity: Formed by the vertebrae and contains the spinal
cord.
 Thoracic cavity: Formed by the ribs and contains the heart and lungs.
 Abdominopelvic cavity: contains all other internal organs.
PLAY-DOH LAB!
1. Choose a partner.
2. Come get toothpicks (14), play -doh, a knife, and tape from me.
3. Make a person out of play -doh (they have to have a head, a
trunk, two arms and two legs). Please put a face on your
person.
4. Stick a toothpick in the most superior aspect of the person.
5. Make a transverse cut through the person’s navel.
6. Make a frontal cut through the person’s head.
7. Make a sagittal cut through the person’s left (your right) leg.
8. On the person’s right arms and legs, mark the most proximal
and distal portions. Also, mark the medial and lateral portions.
9. Label the anterior and posterior portions of the person’s head.
10. Everything in RED needs to be toothpicked and labeled!
11. Have me come check when you’re done!
BODY MOVEMENTS
BODY MOVEMENTS
 All of these body movements take place at joints.
 Four main categories:




Gliding
Angular
Rotation
Special movements
Movement
Description
Type
Flexion
Decrease in the angle
Angular
between articulating bones
Extension
Increase in the angle
Angular
between articulating bones
Lateral Flexion
Angular
Abduction
Angular
Adduction
Angular
Circumduction
Angular
Flexion
Extension
Movement
Description
Flexion
Decrease in the angle
Angular
between articulating bones
Extension
Increase in the angle
Angular
between articulating bones
Lateral Flexion
Movement of the
trunk/head in the frontal
plane
Angular
Abduction
Movement of a bone away
from the midline
Angular
Adduction
Movement of a bone
toward the midline
Angular
Circumduction
Type
Angular
Lateral
Flexion
Abduction/Adduction
Circumduction
Movement
Description
Type
Flexion
Decrease in the angle
Angular
between articulating bones
Extension
Increase in the angle
Angular
between articulating bones
Lateral Flexion
Movement of the
trunk/head in the frontal
plane
Angular
Abduction
Movement of a bone away
from the midline
Angular
Adduction
Movement of a bone
toward the midline
Angular
Circumduction
Flexion, abduction,
Angular
extension and adduction in
succession, in which the
distal end of a body part
moves in a circle
Lateral
Flexion
Abduction/Adduction
Circumduction
Movement
Description
Type
Supination
Movement of the forearm
that turns the palm
anteriorly
Special
Pronation
Movement of the forearm
that turns the palm
posteriorly
Special
Dorsiflexion
Special
Plantarflexion
Special
Inversion
Special
Eversion
Special
Supination
Pronation
Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion
Movement
Description
Type
Supination
Movement of the forearm
that turns the palm
anteriorly
Special
Pronation
Movement of the forearm
that turns the palm
posteriorly
Special
Dorsiflexion
Bending the foot towards
the face
Special
Plantarflexion
Bending the foot towards
the ground
Special
Inversion
Special
Eversion
Special
Supination
Pronation
Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion
Movement
Description
Type
Supination
Movement of the forearm
that turns the palm
anteriorly
Special
Pronation
Movement of the forearm
that turns the palm
posteriorly
Special
Dorsiflexion
Bending the foot towards
the face
Special
Plantarflexion
Bending the foot towards
the ground
Special
Inversion
Medial movement of the
soles so they face each
other
Special
Eversion
Lateral movement of the
soles so that they face
away from each other
Special
Inversion/Eversion
 Rotation: Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis; in
limbs, it may be medial or lateral.
STAND UP!











Show
Show
Show
Show
Show
Show
Show
Show
Show
Show
Show
me
me
me
me
me
me
me
me
me
me
me
flexion of the elbow.
flexion of the knee.
extension of the elbow.
extension of the knee.
ABDuction of the shoulder.
ADDuction of the shoulder.
supination.
pronation.
lateral flexion of the head.
Dorsiflexion.
plantarflexion.
STAND UP!




Show
Show
Show
Show
me
me
me
me
flexion of the hip.
flexion of the shoulder.
extension of the wrist.
flexion of the wrist.
BODY MOVEMENT POSTER
 Your assignment is to create a poster with a partner that displays
the body movements.
 You may choose your partner.
 Your poster MUST contain:









Flexion
Extension
Lateral Flexion
Abduction
Adduction
Supination
Pronation
Dorsiflexion
Plantarflexion
 Worth 100 points; MUST BE NEAT AND PRETT Y

similar documents