MongoDB and Spring Data Integration

Report
MongoDB and Spring Data
Prepared for:
THE JAVA™ METROPLEX USERS GROUP
August 8th, 2012
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Who Am I?
 Java Solutions Architect with ICF Ironworks
 Adjunct Professor
 Started with HTML and Lotus Notes in 1992
• In the interim there was C, C++, VB, Lotus Script, PERL, LabVIEW,
etc.
 Not so much an Early Adopter as much as a Fast Follower of Java
Technologies
• Learned Java 1.1 in 1997, J2EE in 1999
 Alphabet Soup (MCSE, ICAAD, ICASA, SCJP, SCJD, PMP, CSM)
 LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/iamjimmyray
 Blog: http://jimmyraywv.blogspot.com/ Avoiding Tech-sand
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MongoDB and Spring Data
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Tonight’s Agenda
 Quick introduction to NoSQL and MongoDB
• Configuration
• MongoView
 Introduction to Spring Data and MongoDB support
• Spring Data and MongoDB configuration
• Templates
• Repositories
• Query Method Conventions
• Custom Finders
• Customizing Repositories
•
•
•
•
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Metadata Mapping (including nested docs and DBRef)
Aggregation Functions
GridFS File Storage
Indexes
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What is NoSQL?
 Official: Not Only SQL
• In reality, it may or may not use SQL, at least in its truest form
• Varies from the traditional RDBMS approach of the last few decades
• Not necessarily a replacement for RDBMS; more of a solution for more
specific needs where is RDBMS is not a great fit
• Content Management (including CDNs), document storage, object storage,
graph, etc.
 It means different things to different folks.
• It really comes down to a different way to view our data domains for
more effective storage, retrieval, and analysis
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From NoSQL-Database.org
“NoSQL DEFINITION: Next Generation Databases mostly
addressing some of the points: being non-relational, distributed,
open-source and horizontally scalable. The original intention has
been modern web-scale databases. The movement began early
2009 and is growing rapidly. Often more characteristics apply such
as: schema-free, easy replication support, simple API, eventually
consistent / BASE (not ACID), a huge amount of data and more.”
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Some NoSQL Flavors
 Document Centric
• MongoDB
• Couchbase
 Wide Column/Column
Families
• Cassandra
• Hadoop Hbase
 Key/Value Stores
• Redis
 Object
• DB4O
 Other
• LotusNotes/Domino
 XML
• MarkLogic
 Graph
• Neo4J
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Why MongoDB
 Open Source (written in C++)
 Multiple platforms (Linux, Win, Solaris, Apple) and Language Drivers
 Explicitly de-normalized
 Document-centric and Schema-less
 Fast (low latency)
• Fast access to data
• Low CPU overhead
 Ease of scalability (replica sets), auto-sharding
 Manages complex and polymorphic data
 Great for CDN and document-based SOA solutions
 Great for location-based and geospatial data solutions
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Why MongoDB (more)
 Because of schema-less approach is more flexible, MongoDB is
intrinsically ready for iterative (Agile) projects.
 Eliminates “impedance-mismatching” with typical RDBMS solutions
 If You are already familiar with JavaScript and JSON, this is an easy
database to understand.
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What is schema-less?
 A.K.A. schema-free
 It means that MongoDB does not enforce a column data type on
the fields within your document, nor does it confine your document
to specific columns defined in a table definition.
 The schema is actually controlled via the application API layers
and is implied by the “shape” (content) of your documents.
 This means that different documents in the same collection can
have different fields.
• So the schema is flexible in that way
• Only the _id field is mandatory in all documents.
 Requires more rigor on the application side.
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Why Not MongoDB
 High speed and deterministic transactions:
• Banking and accounting
 Where SQL is absolutely required
• Where Joins are needed
 Traditional non-real-time data warehousing ops
 If your organization lacks the controls and rigor to place schema
and document definition at the application level without
compromising data integrity
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MongoDB
 Was designed to overcome some of the performance
shortcomings of RDBMS
 Some Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Fast Querying
In place updates
Full Index support (including compound indexes)
Replication/High Availability (see CAP Theorem)
Auto Sharding for scalability
Aggregation, MapReduce
GridFS
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CAP Theorem
 Consistency
 Availability
 Partition Tolerance (network partition tolerance)
 You can never have all three, so you plan for two and make the
best of the third.
• For example: Perhaps “eventual consistency” is OK for a CDN
application.
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Container Models: RDBMS vs. MongoDB
 RDBMS: Servers > Databases > Schemas > Tables > Rows
• Joins
 MongoDB: Servers > Databases > Collections > Documents
• No Joins, Db References, Nested Documents, de-normalization
• Embedding and Linking
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MongoDB Collections
 Schema-less
 Can have up to 24000 (according to 10gen)
• Cheap to resource
 Contain documents (…of varying shapes)
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MongoDB Documents
 JSON (what you see)
• Actually BSON (Internal - Binary JSON - http://bsonspec.org/)
 Elements are name/value pairs
 16 MB maximum size
 What you see is what is stored
• No default fields (columns)
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Why BSON?
 Adds data types that JSON did not support
 Optimized for performance
 Adds compression
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MongoDB Install
 Extract MongoDB
 Build config file, or use startup script
 Start Mongod (daemon) process
 Use Shell (mongo) to access your database
 Use MongoVUE for GUI access and to learn shell commands
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Mongo Shell
 In Windows, mongo.exe
 Command-line interface to MongoDB (sort of like SQL*Plus for
Oracle)
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MongoVUE
 GUI around MongoDB Shell
 Makes it easy to learn MongoDB Shell commands
• db.employee.find({ "lastName" : "Smith", "firstName" : "John"
}).limit(50);
• show collections
 Demo…
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Web Admin Interface
 Localhost:28017
 Quick stats viewer
 Run commands
 Demo
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Spring Data
 Large Spring project with many subprojects
• Category: Document Stores, Subproject MongoDB
 “…aims to provide a familiar and consistent Spring-based
programming model…”
 Like other Springs, Data is POJO Oriented
 Provides high-level API and access to low-level API for managing
MongoDB documents.
 Provides annotation-driven meta-mapping
 Will allow you into bowels of API if you choose to hang out there
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Spring Data MongoDB Templates
 Implements MongoOperations (mongoOps) interface
• mongoOps defines the basic set of MongoDB operations for the Spring
Data API.
• Wraps the lower-level MongoDB API
 Provides access to the lower-level API
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Spring Data MongoDB Templates - Configuration
 See mongo-config.xml
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Spring Data MongoDB Templates - Configuration
 Or…see the config class
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Spring Data Repositories
 Convenience for data access
• Spring does ALL the work
 Convention over configuration
 Hides complexities of Spring Data templates and underlying API
 Builds implementation for you based on interface design
• Implementation is built during Spring container load.
 Is typed (parameterized via generics) to the model objects you
want to store.
• When extending MongoRepository
• Otherwise uses @RepositoryDefinition
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Spring Data Meta Mapping
 Annotation-driven mapping of model object fields to Spring Data
elements in specific database parlance.
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MongoDB DBRef
 Optional
 Instead of nesting documents
 Have to save the “referenced” document first, so that DBRef exists
before adding it to the “parent” document
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MongoDB Custom Spring Data Repositories
 Hooks into Spring Data bean type hierarchy that allows you to add
functionality to repositories
 Important: You must write the implementation for this custom
repository, using the class name for the Spring Data generated
class
 And…your Spring Data repository interface must extend this
custom interface
 Demo
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MongoDB Advanced Queries
 http://www.mongodb.org/display/DOCS/Advanced+Queries#Advan
cedQueries-%24all
 Demo - $in, $nin, $gt, $all
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MongoDB Aggregation Functions
 Aggregation Framework
 Map/Reduce
 Distinct - Demo
 Group - Demo
• Similar to SQL Group By function
 Count
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MongoDB GridFS
 “…specification for storing large files in MongoDB.”
 As the name implies, “Grid” allows the storage of very large files
divided across multiple MongoDB documents.
• Uses native BSON binary formats
 16MB per document
• Will be higher in future
 Large files added to GridFS get chunked and spread across
multiple documents.
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MongoDB Indexes
 Similar to RDBMS Indexes
 Can have many
 Can be compound
 Makes searches, aggregates, and group functions faster
 Makes writes slower
 Sparse = true
• Only include documents in this index that actually contain a value in the
indexed field.
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MongoDB Security
 Default is trusted mode, no security
 --auth
 --keyfile
• Replica sets require this option
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MongoDB Encryption
 MongoDB does not support data encryption, per se
 Use application-level encryption and store encrypted data in BSON
fields
 Or…use TDE (Transparent Data Encryption) from Gazzang
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Helpful Links
 Spring Data MongoDB - Reference Documentation:
http://static.springsource.org/spring-data/datamongodb/docs/1.0.2.RELEASE/reference/html/
 http://nosql-database.org/
 www.mongodb.org
 http://www.mongodb.org/display/DOCS/Java+Language+Center
 http://www.mongodb.org/display/DOCS/Books
 http://openmymind.net/2011/3/28/The-Little-MongoDB-Book/
 http://jimmyraywv.blogspot.com/2012/05/mongodb-and-spring-data.html
 http://jimmyraywv.blogspot.com/2012/04/mongodb-jongo-and-morphia.html
 https://www.10gen.com/presentations/webinar/online-conference-deep-divemongodb
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Questions
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