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Do Now 9/23: Complete the diagram
to compare prokaryotes and
eukaryotes
Pro
Eu
Pro
Eu
80 S ribosomes
70s ribosomes
Cell wall made of
peptidoglycan
Circular DNA
Capsule
No membrane
bound organelles
•
•
•
•
CSM
Cytoplasm
Ribosome
DNA
Cell wall (plants)
made of cellulose
Linear DNA
Membrane bound
organelles (nucleus,
mito., Golgi, SER,
RER, vesicles,
lysosomes)
Yes, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain 70S ribosomes and circular DNA, but we
aren’t comparing mitochondria or chloroplasts vs prokaryotes
Ch 1 Review
Organelle sizes
Organelle
~size
Organelle
~size
70S ribosome
18 nm
Nucleolus
2.5-5 µm
80S ribosome
25 nm
Centriole (length)
0.5 µm
Mitochondria
(width)
1 µm
Centriole (width)
150 nm
Mitochondria
(length)
2-3 µm
Chloroplast
5 µm
CSM
7 nm (thickness)
Typical animal cell
10-30 µm
Lysosome
.1-.5 µm
Typical plant cell
10-100 µm
Golgi apparatus
2.5-3.5 µm
ER (highly
variable)
2-9 µm
Nucleus
5-10 µm
Organelle function
• Cell surface membrane: partial permeable
membrane surrounding ALL CELL (pro&eu)
• Cytoplasm: aqueous fluid of ALL CELLS
(pro&eu)
• Mitochondria: carries out aerobic
respiration to generate ATP (eu only)
• Centriole: microtubule organizing center
(animals only)
• Cell wall: maintains cellular rigidity (ALL
pro, ALL plants)
• Vacuole: stores water and ions, maintains
plant cell rigidity
• Tonoplast: membrane surrounding central
vacuole (plant only)
Organelle function- EU only
• Nucleus: contains DNA that regulates cell
functions
• Nucleolus: produces rRNA to assemble
ribosomes
• Nuclear envelope: double membrane that
surrounds nucleus
• Ribosomes (80S- EU, 70S-PRO): site of protein
synthesis
• Smooth ER: lipid (including steroid,
hormones)synthesis
• Rough ER: contains ribosomes, protein
synthesis
• Golgi apparatus: modification and packaging of
cellular products (esp. proteins)
• Golgi vesicles: transport products of Golgi (in
and out of cell)
• Lysosomes: metabolize (break down) old
organelles, cells, bacteria and viruses
• Using a stage micrometer scale, one unit of an
eyepiece graticule was calculated as 0.005 mm. The
diameter of a spongy mesophyll cell was counted as
3.5 units on the eyepiece graticule. What is the
estimate of the diameter of the cell?
• Using a stage micrometer scale, one unit of an
eyepiece graticule was calculated as 0.005 mm. The
diameter of a spongy mesophyll cell was counted as
3.5 units on the eyepiece graticule. What is the
estimate of the diameter of the cell?
• 17.5 µm
• The diagram shows a stage micrometer viewed with an
eyepiece graticule scale, using a magnification of ×400.
• Using the same magnification, a chloroplast is
measured and found to be 4 eyepiece graticule
divisions long. How long (in µm)is the chloroplast?
• What would be the observed size (in mm)of the
chloroplast?
• The diagram shows a stage micrometer viewed with an
eyepiece graticule scale, using a magnification of ×400.
• Using the same magnification, a chloroplast is
measured and found to be 4 eyepiece graticule
divisions long. How long (in µm)is the chloroplast?
10µm
• What would be the observed size (in mm)of the
chloroplast? 4mm
• The diagram shows a mitochondrion drawn from
an electronmicrograph. The length of the
mitochondrion from X to Y is 3000nm. What is
the magnification of the drawing?
• (on paper, XY=30mm)
• The diagram shows a mitochondrion drawn from
an electronmicrograph. The length of the
mitochondrion from X to Y is 3000nm. What is
the magnification of the drawing? 10,000x
• (on paper, XY=30mm)

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