11PHE Exam practice answers 2011 Explain in detail how and why the biomechanical principle (LEVERS) improves your volleyball skills. • • • • In volleyball we use 2nd and 3rd class levers. There are three distinctive parts of a lever, which are the fulcrum, the load and the effort. Levers are used to apply a force. 3rd class levers relate to volleyball through a dig, the fulcrum in a dig is shoulder flexion using the ball and socket joint. The effort is the agonist muscle, which is the deltoid anterior. The load is the ball. A 2nd class lever is used when jumping and preparing for a spike. The fulcrum in the jump is the phalanges, the effort is the gastrocnemius and the load is the mass. Newtons 3rd law is relevant to the dig. Newtons 2nd law is also important to volleyball, because the harder the ball is hit the further it will move. Levers are important in volleyball because they help to apply a force. The result of a force is a motion. Longer levers are important in volleyball because the increase the speed of the load. An example of this is when a spike is being used, the harder you hit it the harder and faster the ball will travel. Also when you use a longer lever to make the ball go up, the ball will travel higher in order for the ball to go over the net. A longer lever is important in the jump so that we can get as high up the net as possible, so we have the best chance of a winning spike.