Moles and Voles

Report
Moles and Voles
Pine Vole
Presented by:
Meadow Vole
Eastern Mole
Wilma Sharp
Devin Wallace
Susan Neidlinger
Cathy Johnson
VOLES
Identification and Characteristics
• Pine Vole
Characteristics
•
Cannot see eyes and ears
•
Short tail
•
Reddish brown or grey fur
•
Smaller than a meadow vole
•
3” long; weighs 1 oz. or less
•
Female produces 4-6 litters yearly of
2.8 babies
•
Lives below ground mostly in clay
soils mostly at the edge of woods and
meadows. Tunnels are 1” to 2’ below
ground
•
Destroys vegetation below ground
and just at the surface
Visual Signs of the Pine Vole
• Damage to underground roots
• Roots look like they have been sharpened in a pencil sharpener
• Roots may be severed from tree or plant causing it to die
• Will eat apples from bottom up leaving a hollow shell
• Will also eat flower bulbs underground
• Often girdle crowns of trees, especially under snow
• Night time feeding above ground of fruits and tender green leaves
• Meadow Vole
Characteristics
• Visible eyes and ears
• Longer tail (longer that
back legs)
• Dark brown fur
• 3.5” to 5” long and weighs
1-2.5 pounds
• Lives in a complex network
of tunnels near the surface
in grassy areas
• Mostly damages
vegetation above ground
Signs of the Meadow Vole
• Most common sign of
meadow vole damage is
gnawing of tree bark
• May see fresh grass
clippings and feces along
large clumps of grass
• Like the pine vole, will eat
fruits of the strawberry
and blueberry plants and
will gnaw stems and roots
of ornamental shrubs
Biology and Behavior of Moles
Controlling Moles and Voles
• Habitat Reduction
Controlling Moles and Voles
• Habitat Reduction
• Predators
Controlling Moles and Voles
• Habitat Reduction
• Predators
• Trapping
Trapping Pine Voles
• Fall is best time
Trapping Pine Voles
• Fall is best time
• Use ordinary mousetraps
Trapping Pine Voles
• Fall is best time
• Use ordinary mousetraps
• Bait with peanut butter or apple slices
Trapping Pine Voles
• Fall is best time
• Use ordinary mousetraps
• Bait with peanut butter or apple slices
• Use 1 trap per 100 square feet
Trapping Pine Voles
• Fall is best time
• Use ordinary mousetraps
• Bait with peanut butter or apple slices
• Use 1 trap per 100 square feet
• Set trap in active run
Trapping Pine Voles
• Excavate area so trap will lay flush with bottom of run
Trapping Pine Voles
• Excavate area so trap will lay flush with bottom of run
• Set trap at right angle to run
Trapping Pine Voles
• Excavate area so trap will lay flush with bottom of run
• Set trap at right angle to run
• Cover excavated area so no light reaches trap site
Trapping Pine Voles
• Fall is best time
• Use ordinary mousetraps
• Bait with peanut butter or apple slices
• Use 1 trap per 100 square feet
• Set trap in active run
• Check traps daily until no voles are caught for 1 week
Trapping Pine Voles
• Fall is best time
• Use ordinary mousetraps
• Bait with peanut butter or apple slices
• Use 1 trap per 100 square feet
• Set trap in active run
• Check traps daily until no voles are caught for 1 week
• Wear disposable gloves and wash hands thoroughly after
emptying traps
Trapping Meadow Voles
• Similar to trapping pine voles except since their tunnels are in
grass thatch or just beneath surface - no need for excavation
Trapping Moles - “Kill” Traps
• “Kill” traps for moles, such as this scissor type, are
difficult to set and properly place
Trapping Moles - “Kill” Traps
• “Kill” traps for moles, such as this scissor type, are
difficult to set and properly place
• Can cause personal injury.
Trapping Moles - “Kill” Traps
• “Kill” traps for moles, such as this scissor type, are
difficult to set and properly place
• Can cause personal injury.
• Dangerous for pets or small children.
Trapping Moles - “Kill” Traps
• “Kill” traps for moles, such as this scissor type, are
difficult to set and properly place
• Can cause personal injury.
• Dangerous for pets or small children.
• Should be left to those trained in the handling of wild
animals.
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Best time is spring as soon as first ridges appear or after fall
rains
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Best time is spring as soon as first ridges appear or after fall
rains
• Use can large enough that mole will be unable to escape (3 lb
coffee can should suffice)
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Best time is spring as soon as first ridges appear or after fall
rains
• Use can large enough that mole will be unable to escape (3 lb
coffee can should suffice)
• Determine main or frequently used runways
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Best time is spring as soon as first ridges appear or after fall
rains
• Use can large enough that mole will be unable to escape (3 lb
coffee can should suffice)
• Determine main or frequently used runways
• Set “pit” trap
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Dig hole through center of runway
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Dig hole through center of runway
• Place a #10 tin can upright in hole (be sure top of can is level
with bottom of runway)
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Dig hole through center of runway
• Place a #10 tin can upright in hole (be sure top of can is level
with bottom of runway)
• Fill and pack dirt tightly around the can and plug both sides of
runway
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Dig hole through center of runway
• Place a #10 tin can upright in hole (be sure top of can is level
with bottom of runway)
• Fill and pack dirt tightly around the can and plug both sides of
runway
• Lay board over pit to block light
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Best time is spring as soon as first ridges appear or after fall
rains
• Use can large enough that mole will be unable to escape (3 lb
coffee can should suffice)
• Determine main or frequently used runways
• Set “pit” trap
• Illegal to transport wild animal captured on your property to
another property without permit
Trapping Moles – “Pit” Traps
• Best time is spring as soon as first ridges appear or after fall
rains
• Use can large enough that mole will be unable to escape (3 lb
coffee can should suffice)
• Determine main or frequently used runways
• Set “pit” trap
• Illegal to transport wild animal captured on your property to
another property without permit
• Perform humane euthanasia (wear heavy gloves and longsleeved garments before handling)
Controlling Moles and Voles
•
•
•
•
Habitat Reduction
Predators
Trapping
Chemicals
Chemical Control – Moles and Voles
• Most effective formulations (fumigants, toxicants) require a
certified-pesticide applicator license to obtain and use.
Chemical Control – Moles and Voles
• Most effective formulations (fumigants, toxicants) require a
certified-pesticide applicator license to obtain and use.
• Baits are available to control voles. Always follow the
instructions carefully as they can be harmful to children and
pets.
Chemical Control – Moles and Voles
• Most effective formulations (fumigants, toxicants) require a
certified-pesticide applicator license to obtain and use.
• Baits are available to control voles. Always follow the
instructions carefully as they can be harmful to children and
pets.
• Baits are not usually effective for moles since they are
insectivores.
Chemical Control – Moles and Voles
• Most effective formulations (fumigants, toxicants) require a
certified-pesticide applicator license to obtain and use.
• Baits are available to control voles. Always follow the
instructions carefully as they can be harmful to children and
pets.
• Baits are not usually effective for moles since they are
insectivores.
• Inseticides have been used to reduce the grubs population
and limit the mole’s food source. But moles usually just switch
to another food source – ie. beneficial earth worms so it is not
a very effective control.
Controlling Moles and Voles
•
•
•
•
•
Habitat Reduction
Predators
Trapping
Chemicals
Barriers
Barriers
• Offer long-term protection but only practical in small areas
Barriers
• Offer long-term protection but only practical in small areas
• Install sheet metal or hardware cloth barrier around
perimeter of bed
Barriers
• Offer long-term protection but only practical in small areas
• Install sheet metal or hardware cloth barrier around
perimeter of bed
• Barrier should extend 5” above the ground surface
• Barrier should be buried 12 – 15” deep
• 6” of the barrier should be bent out at the bottom to
discourage moles and voles from digging under (form an ”L”
with the foot of the “L extending away from the bed)
Barriers
• Offer long-term protection but only practical in small areas
• Install sheet metal or hardware cloth barrier around
perimeter of bed
• Barrier should extend 5” above the ground surface
• Barrier should be buried 12 – 15” deep
• 6” of the barrier should be bent out at the bottom to
discourage moles and voles from digging under (form an ”L”
with the foot of the “L extending away from the bed)
• All corners must be secure
Controlling Moles and Voles
•
•
•
•
•
•
Habitat Reduction
Predators
Trapping
Chemicals
Barriers
Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous Controls
• Coarse material, such as sharp-edged pea gravel, can be
useful deterrents when mixed throughout the soil when
putting in new plants.
Miscellaneous Controls
• Coarse material, such as sharp-edged pea gravel, can be
useful deterrents when mixed throughout the soil when
putting in new plants.
• Sonic or vibration producing devices have no proven effect.
Miscellaneous Controls
• Coarse material, such as sharp-edged pea gravel, can be
useful deterrents when mixed throughout the soil when
putting in new plants.
• Sonic or vibration producing devices have no proven effect.
• Flooding tunnels has not proven effective.
Miscellaneous Controls
• Coarse material, such as sharp-edged pea gravel, can be
useful deterrents when mixed throughout the soil when
putting in new plants.
• Sonic or vibration producing devices have no proven effect.
• Flooding tunnels has not proven effective.
• Home remedies, such as gassing with auto exhaust, placing
broken glass in tunnels or use of harsh household chemicals,
usually are ineffective, can be hazardous and may be illegal.
Questions ?????
Resources
•
www.vt.edu
•
www.ces.ncsu.edu
•
www.extension.umd.edu
•
VCE Publication 420-201, Managing Wildlife Damage: Moles
•
•
Voles in Horticultural Plantings
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/nreos/wild/wildlife/wdc/voles2.html
•
•
Reducing Vole Damage in Plants in Landscapes, Orchards, and Nurseries:
Maryland Cooperative Extension, Fact Sheet 654
•
VCE Publication 420-024, April 2001, Controlling Voles www.yorkcounty.gov/vce
•
Tree Fruit Fact Sheet, 102GFSTF-M1, 1988, Cornell Cooperative Extension
•
•
Voles: Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management, 2005
http://icwdm.org/handbook/rodents/voles.asp

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