Governance Mechanisms to Implement Post-2015

Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Governance mechanisms to implement SDGs and post2015 development agenda at national and local level
Tetsuro Yoshida
Senior Researcher / Task Manager on SDGs
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES)
[email protected]
Consultative Workshop on Measuring Progress in Post-2015 Development Framework
Urban Environmental Performance Indicators and Environmental Welfare Indicators
10-11 December 2013, Incheon, Republic of Korea
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Post 2015 Development Agenda and Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs)
• Emerging consensus on SDG principles outlined in Rio+20,
especially goals should be simple, easy to understand,
• Goals should carry a message for all stakeholders across
the globe
 Including governments, companies, and general public
 Mobilize them for their behavioural and life style change
• Goals should be positive, action oriented and aspirational
turning burden into opportunity (e.g. renewable energy
targets rather than GHG emission reduction).
2013 December 10
Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Differentiation between developed/developing countries,
within countries
• Targets and indicators would have different focus according
to countries and even communities’ level of development
to ensure policy relevance (Columbia’s Dashboard
approach? )
• Categories such as developed, emerging and developing and
problems/issues are not constant and likely to be different in 10
– 20 years from now; targets should be progressive and
reviewed regularly
• Also need to consider differences within countries
• Traditional values (e.g. happiness not based
on materials) can be an underlying philosophy
(up to each country?)
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Differentiation between developed/developing countries,
within countries – Illustration
Countries’ Level of Development
Income level within
Lifestyle change
Lifestyle change
Efficiency, (others? Efficiency,
Access to
resources, basic
human needs
Access to
resources, basic
human needs
Access to
basic human
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
An example: Possible set of goals in Asia
Least developed countries
Developed countries
Focus Issues
Access to basic services
Increase efficiency
Life style change
Climate change
Access to electricity
Energy efficiency
improvement in production
% of renewable energy
use in daily life
Fresh Water
Access to safe drinking water
Efficiency improvement of
water use in agriculture
Reduction of fresh water
use in daily life (including
reuse of gray water)
Disaster risk
reduction &
% of population with access
to safe places/areas
% of population living with
strengthened physical
% of population with
resilient infrastructure
systems (decentralized
and redundant)
Access to local natural
resources such as forests
Efficiency improvement in
producing forest products
(such as paper)
Sustainable use of forest
products (long time use
and recycling)
Sustainable cities
Access to proper housing
Efficiency improvement in
essential urban services
Reduction of energy use
in houses and offices
Sustainable transport
Access to basic modern
transport service
Energy efficiency
improvement in various
transportation means
Percentage of public
transportation services
(Modal shift and transport
management) 55
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Why bottom up?
• The power and importance of local action
increasingly recognized in the context of accelerating
urbanization and difficulty to reach agreement at
international level
• Actions ultimately need to take place at local level
• Immediate connect with problems and issues
• Local level targets more implementable with clearer
division of responsibility and accountability to be
pursued by local agents of change (NGOs and
• National governments’ support still essential for
finance and encouraging policy measures
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
How to encourage bottom-up implementation
• Participation
Motivation / Incentives
• SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, TimeBound) criteria + Legitimacy and Credibility
• Finance (private capital , domestic public resources
mobilization and external assistance )
• Resources (equipment, data, research, knowledge)
• The cycle of planning, implementation, evaluation and review
The Role of International Organizations
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
IGES-DA Case Study
- Decentralized District Planning in IndiaFocus the process of Decentralized District Planning in India and analyse the
various steps in planning process. These steps will be analysed in terms of design,
implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
A.Sectoral Planning (e.g. Agriculture, Water, Health, Energy) - How the plans are
incorporating and addressing the MDG’s goals through their plans
B.Resource and Budget Mapping
C. Integrated Planning – Vertical–horizontal integration and coordination among
relevant departments
D.Participatory Planning –Participation in rural and urban planning of multistakeholders
E.Application of Planning Tools Currently in Use for gathering of relevant data,
analysing it to set priorities, matching the set priorities to available budgets.
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
IGES-DA Case Study
- Energizing India with Clean Energy to Enhance Energy Security • The Government of India pledged to provide ‘electricity for all by
2012’ - a target later extended to 2017
• Governance Mechanisms and Challenges: The study will focus on
national, state and local level governance mechanisms during designing,
implementation and monitoring phase of the below initiatives
• Strategies to overcome Governance Challenges: Based on the
interaction with the stakeholders, the case study will reflect the strategies
adopted to overcome the challenges faced during each phase at national,
state and local level.
• Comparative Analysis and Learnings: Based on the study of
challenges, strategies adopted and progress made by these programs in
the two states, a comparative analysis will be undertaken to capture the
gaps in the governance framework and lessons learned from the two
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
IGES-DA Case Study
Two governmental initiatives to be studied
1. Rajeev Gandhi Grameen Vidutikaran Yojana
– launched by Ministry of Power (MoP) in 2005, which
aims to provide household electrification and electricity
infrastructure to the rural areas.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
– implemented by Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy (MNRE).
– The mission aims at creating policy framework to ramp
up grid-connected solar power generation.
– The program also looks at deploying solar lighting
systems and promoting off-grid programs in rural
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
Preliminary results of IGES-DA case studies in India
• Inadequate implementation efforts
• Inefficient utilization of existing policy instruments
• Unavailability of finance and strategies for proper channelization of
• Struggle for well balanced and optimally designed subsidy measures
• Gaps in inter-linkages and convergence of sector, targets,
departments and planning strategies
• Inequality issues
• Capacity needs for effective implementation
• Absence of clear cut region and community specific strategies
• Gaps in monitoring and evaluation
• Challenges in availability of detailed data and proper accountability
mechanisms (especially at the sub regional level)
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Institute for Global Environmental Strategies
• The users (national and local governments etc.) should be able to adjust
or choose indicators as deemed relevant and useful to ensure ownership
and motivation
• Setting or choosing indicators involves value based judgment therefore
the process should be participatory to reflect multiple views and ensure
policy relevance
• Participation should not come at the expense of scientific validity
• Their publicity and policy relevance as important as their legitimacy
otherwise it would end up dusty on the shelves and SDGs/Post 2015 DA
also awareness raising tool
• Existing indicators and data should be utilized. No need to reinvent the
wheel from scratch (WB and MDGs indicators)
• The international organizations such as WB and UNDP which have
been engaged in tracking implementation of MDGs should take on
even a greater role in assisting countries’ M&E efforts for Post 2015
DA and SDGs.
2013 December 10

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