Durkheim

Report
EMILE DURKHEIM
1858-1917
Durkheim
Theory & Methods
The Theory
Preindustrial
Industrial
Simple D.O.L.
Complex D.O.L
Collective conscience
Individualistic
Mechanical Solidarity
Organic Solidarity
Sacred
Secular
Social integration high
Social integration low
Consensual norms
Anomie
Shifting Social Integration
Mechanical Solidarity
Organic Solidarity
Simple D.O.L. =
same tasks
Collective conscience =
Same beliefs
Consensual norms=
behaviors
=
Complex D.O.L.=
Different tasks
Individualism =
Different beliefs
Different norms=
different behaviors
=
Lower Social Integration
High Social Integration
The glue that holds society together
Mechanical Solidarity
Organic Solidarity
Homogeneity
Sameness
Sacred
Heterogeneity
Differentness
Interdependent
Secular
Mechanical Glue is stickier than Organic Glue
The Shift in Social Integration
Theory to Research:
The Social Science Leap (1897)
More integration: Less Anomie
Less integration: More Anomie
More Anomie: More Suicide
Less Anomie : Less Suicide
The basic scientific method
Theoretical
DEDUCTIVE
Empirical
INDUCTIVE
Theoretical
From the Theoretical to the empirical
Theoretical: Less integration: More Anomie:
More Integration: Less Anomie
[Operationalization]
Empirical:
Religion
Suicide Rates
Jews
Catholics
Low
Medium
Protestants
High
And back to theory….
• Egoistic suicide: Suicide as a means to escape facing the
consequences of actions.
• Altruistic suicide: Suicide as a means to contribute to the
social group.
• Anomic suicide: Suicide from a loss of social contacts and
sense of belonging.
• Fatalistic suicide: Suicide to escape the rules of a social group.

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