EMILE DURKHEIM 1858-1917 Durkheim Theory & Methods The Theory Preindustrial Industrial Simple D.O.L. Complex D.O.L Collective conscience Individualistic Mechanical Solidarity Organic Solidarity Sacred Secular Social integration high Social integration low Consensual norms Anomie Shifting Social Integration Mechanical Solidarity Organic Solidarity Simple D.O.L. = same tasks Collective conscience = Same beliefs Consensual norms= behaviors = Complex D.O.L.= Different tasks Individualism = Different beliefs Different norms= different behaviors = Lower Social Integration High Social Integration The glue that holds society together Mechanical Solidarity Organic Solidarity Homogeneity Sameness Sacred Heterogeneity Differentness Interdependent Secular Mechanical Glue is stickier than Organic Glue The Shift in Social Integration Theory to Research: The Social Science Leap (1897) More integration: Less Anomie Less integration: More Anomie More Anomie: More Suicide Less Anomie : Less Suicide The basic scientific method Theoretical DEDUCTIVE Empirical INDUCTIVE Theoretical From the Theoretical to the empirical Theoretical: Less integration: More Anomie: More Integration: Less Anomie [Operationalization] Empirical: Religion Suicide Rates Jews Catholics Low Medium Protestants High And back to theory…. • Egoistic suicide: Suicide as a means to escape facing the consequences of actions. • Altruistic suicide: Suicide as a means to contribute to the social group. • Anomic suicide: Suicide from a loss of social contacts and sense of belonging. • Fatalistic suicide: Suicide to escape the rules of a social group.