*The Necklace* p 348 - Greer Middle College || Building the Future

POV, Irony, Characterization, and Dialogue
“The Necklace” Review
Major conflict(s)?
Point of View (POV)
Definition: the narrator’s position in relation to the story
being told
 First person—I, me, my, our, we—the narrator is directly
involved in the story
nd person—you, you all (usually in self-help books, guide
 2
books, and DIY manuals)
 3 person—they, he, she, it—the narrator is removed from
the action in the story/ not a character (most common POV
used in novels, short stories, etc.)
Omniscient—knows thoughts and actions of more than one
character; can jump in time and setting to other times/places
 Limited—limited to only what is observed/heard; doesn’t know
thoughts (except for one character, usually protagonist)
Story Application
In what POV is “The Necklace” written?
Story Application Answer
In what POV is “The Necklace” written?
Third person omniscient
Irony: A difference between appearances and
Verbal Irony—when people say the opposite of
what they mean
 Understatement
is when one minimizes the nature of
 Overstatement is when one exaggerates the nature of
Situational Irony—when a situation is different
than what is expected/what it should be
 Dramatic Irony—when the reader/audience
knows something a/the character(s) don’t
Story Application
What is ironic in the story?
What type of irony is it?
Story Application
What is ironic in the story?
The necklace is fake.
What type of irony is it?
Situational irony
Character and Characterization
Characterization—process of revealing personality of a character
Character- a person in a work (sometimes animals are characters)
Ways to reveal character:
Inner thoughts and feelings
What other characters think/say about the character
Tell us directly: cruel, kind, sneaky, etc.
Indirect Characterization- (first 5 ways) we have to use our own
judgment to decide what a character is like, based on the evidence
the writer gives us.
Direct characterization- (#6) we don’t have to decide; we’re told
How does the
appearance of each
character indicate
Story Application
How is Mathilde characterized:
A) Directly?
Story Application
How is Mathilde characterized:
Directly? Pretty, charming, unhappy
Indirectly? Dressed plainly; acts selfish when
husband gets her invitation and she uses his $
to buy a dress and when she leaves him at
party; determined to pay back debt; prideful
in not telling friend she lost it, etc.
Protagonist/ Antagonist
PROTAGONIST—The character the story
revolves around
ANTAGONIST—The character or force
that opposes the protagonist
Story Application
Who is the protagonist?
Who/ what is the antagonist?
Story Application
Who is the protagonist?
Who/ what is the antagonist?
Her pride; “fate”/ her
Character (continued)
Characters are classified as:
Static- one who does not change much (ex: Zaroff in MDG)
 Dynamic- character changes as a result of the story’s events (ex:
Rainsford in MDG)
Flat- has only one or two traits (ex: Ivan in MDG)
 Round- like a real person, has many different character traits
(usually protagonists)
Motivation- the fears or conflicts that drive a character (ex:
vengeance, fear, greed, love, boredom)
Motivation plays a role in characterization as well—by analyzing
motivation, we can make judgments re: character traits
Character Classification
Static—always mean
Story Application
Who is static? How?
Who is dynamic? How?
Story Application
Who is static? How?
Monsieur Loisel doesn’t change—stays selfless and nice
Who is dynamic? How?
Madame Loisel—she changes as a result of the hard
work she has to do to pay back the debt. She ages
rapidly from hard work and stress, and she loses all $
they had when she thought they were poor.
Character Classification
Flat—just evil
Round—stubborn, tenderhearted, playful, loyal, etc.
Will do with “The Cask of Amontillado”
next week
Some vocabulary to know…
 Dialogue= character conversation
 An
essential part of most short stories and novels. It is
always better to show or have happen than to explain or
to describe, and dialogue is one way to “show” and not
Dialogue Tags= identify who is speaking
Examples of common dialogue tags include:
I said
She said
Fred said
Mark commented
Sallie yelled
muttered Janice
said Max
asked William
Dialogue Rule 1
All talking needs to be surrounded by quotation
marks (").
"Go to your cupboard - I mean, your bedroom," he
wheezed at Harry.
The comma has to go inside the quotation marks.
Dialogue Rule 2
Instead of using a period at the end of the speech,
use a comma if you are going to tell who is talking.
"Las' time I saw you, you was only a baby," said the
giant. "Yeh look a lot like yer dad, but yeh've got yer
mum's eyes.”
Dialogue Rule 3
If you use a question mark, you don't need a comma
"What do they think they're doing, keeping a thing like
that locked up in a school?" said Ron finally. "If any dog
needs exercise, that one does.”
Dialogue Rule 4
If you use an exclamation mark, you don't need to
change to a comma.
"A stone that makes gold and stops you ever dying!"
said Harry. "No wonder Snape's after it! Anyone
would want it.”
Dialogue Rule 5
If you have interrupted speech, to let the reader know
who is speaking, a comma is needed before the break,
and after the speaker's name.
"Professor," Harry gasped, "your bird - I couldn't do
anything - he just caught fire –”
Dialogue Rule 6
If someone is thinking about something, but doesn't say it
out loud, you can either use quotation marks or not.
Either way is acceptable.
Of course, he thought bitterly, Uncle Vernon was talking
about the stupid dinner party.
Rowling chose not to use quotations around Harry's thoughts.
She could just have easily used them like this...
"Of course," he thought bitterly, "Uncle Vernon was talking
about the stupid dinner party.”
How does dialogue help the story?
Then one evening, her husband came home proudly holding out
a large envelope.
“Look,” he said, “I’ve got something for you.”
She excitedly tore open the envelope and pulled out a printed
card bearing these words:
“The Minister of Education and Mme. Georges Ramponneau beg
M. and Mme. Loisel to do them the honor of attending an evening
reception at the Ministerial Mansion on Friday, January 18.”
Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, she
scornfully tossed the invitation on the table, murmuring, “What good
is that to me?”
“But, my dear, I thought you’d be thrilled to death. You never
get a chance to go out, and this is a real affair, a wonderful one! I
had an awful time getting a card. Everybody wants one; it’s much
sought after, and not many clerks have a chance at one. You’ll see
all the most important people there.”
How does dialogue help the story?
Shows conflicts
Develops plot events
Adds realism

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