Pitch Counts Shoulder/Elbow Anatomy Risks for Injury Medical Care Injury Prevention Rehabilitation Return to Sport Training 9 Months 3 months of NO throwing REST, Conditioning, Rehab, Preparation Two Major Studies 1996 USA Baseball Medical & Advisory Committee Expert Survey 2002 American Journal of Sports Medicine Study Epidemiological Study 2002 Study; American Journal of Sports Medicine 476 baseball pitchers ages 914 followed x1 season Pre-season and Post-season Questionaires Types of pitches Stiffness and pain in elbow and shoulder Injury and Performance interviews following each game Pitch count logs Video analysis of pitching mechanics 50% reports elbow or shoulder pain at least once during the season Pitchers who threw sliders were 86% more likely to experience elbow pain during the season Pitchers who threw curve balls were 56% more likely to experience shoulder pain during season Pitchers who threw change-ups were 12% less likely to experience elbow pain and 29% less likely to experience shoulder pain during season As pitch counts increased, the number of shoulder and elbow pain cases increased The incidence of elbow and shoulder pain increased with the number of pitches thrown in a season LISTEN and REACT to complaints of arm pain A pitcher who complains or shows arm pain during a game should be removed immediately Medical Attention: Pain not relieved in 4 days Recurs immediately upon return to throwing GAME: 50 WEEK: 75 SEASON: 1000 YEAR: 2000 GAME: 75 WEEK: 100 SEASON: 1000 YEAR: 3000 GAME: 75 WEEK: 125 SEASON: 1000 YEAR: 3000 GAME Pitch Count Warm up pitches No breaking pitches until bones mature 13 years old FOCUS: Good Mechanics and Control NO MORE than 9 Months of Competition Pitch Count, Pitch Count, PITCH COUNT OVERUSE Showcases Playing year round Improper Activity to Rest Ratio Poor Shoulder ROM/Flexibility Poor Elbow ROM/Flexibility Kids who required surgery TWICE as many pitches as those who did not…. After ONE game pitchers loose some shoulder and elbow range of motion Number of pitches History of previous injury to area Games In-season Painful Off Season Warm Up: Full Body and Shoulder NOT all throwing Pitch Counts COUNT full speed, warm up pitches/throws Limit between inning warm up throws Post Game Stretching: Elbow and Shoulder Flexibility post throwing (ALL Positions) Light shoulder exercises Mix Up Demands, Practice, and Training Consequences: Devastating “Elbow Pain” Torn UCL = Tommy John Surgery Shoulder Pain, “Little Leaguers Shoulder” Fracture of Humerus Pain greater 3-4 days Pain immediately returns Unable to walk (weight bear) >3-4 steps Pain is getting significantly worse Not improved with rest REFER THEM OUT Less often, less weight in season Make a part of practice at least in pre-season NOT TO FATIGUE 3 sets of 8-12 Slow, good control, EXCELLENT form http://www.mikereinold.com/2010/05/little-league-injury-prevention-program.html Lower Body Strength, Power, Control & Balance Single Leg Balance Lunge Squats Core Strength & Control Lower Body Flexibility Higher Level Shoulder Exercises RELATIVE REST > NO THROWING Strengthen small stabilizers of shoulder and shoulder blade Total Body conditioning including strength and resistance Baseball Players CAN and SHOULD lift weights http://www.mikereinold.com/2009/04/littleleague-pitching-injuries.html Curveballs: http://www.mikereinold.com/2009/08/isthrowing-curveball-dangerous-to-our.html Youth Injuries:http://www.mikereinold.com/2012/02/ the-real-reason-why-there-are-so-manyyouth-pitching-injuries.html http://www.ericcressey.com/baseball-content http://www.asmi.org/asmiweb/usabaseball.ht m Effect of pitch type, pitch count, and pitching mechanics on risk of elbow and shoulder pain in youth baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 2002 Jul-Aug;30(4):463-8. Lyman S, Fleisig GS, Andrews JR, Osinski ED.