Brian King, GISP

Report
Geospatial Analysis of Archaeological Sites,
Water, and Early Agriculture in Ocampo,
Tamaulipas, Mexico
Ocampo, Tamaulipas,
Mexico
Brian King, GISP – MGIS candidate
Dr. Larry Gorenflo – Graduate Adviser
May 7, 2013
Department of Geography
Overview
Background
Problem
Tamaulipas,
Mexico
Goals and Objectives
Study Area / Environment
Proposed Methodology
Anticipated Results
Timeline / References
Brian King, GISP
Background
In the 1950s, Richard S. MacNeish excavated archaeological sites in a
series of dry caves within the project area near the town of Ocampo. He
discovered evidence for the local adoption of domesticated plants and the
development of a mixed foraging-farming economy that persisted for
millennia, before culminating in the establishment of settled farming
villages. From 2005 to 2011, Kevin Hanselka returned to conduct survey
and archaeological investigations within the same study area.
The excavations have identified a cultural chronology covering 9,000
years of occupation, revealing an early economy of hunting and gathering
present in the project area before slowly transitioning into low-level food
production.
Excavations have documented remains of domesticated squash, beans,
maize, and gourds, along with a wide range of plants and animals obtained
from hunting and gathering.
Brian King, GISP
Problem
To date, the spatial arrangement of archaeological sites within the study
area and the effect of early agriculture on regional organization, are poorly
understood.
The effects of managing water resources, on the spatial organization of
prehistoric cultures in the project area similarly are poorly understood.
Extremely challenging mountainous terrain, with elevations ranging from
1,968-5,177 feet above sea level, make detailed field analyses challenging
and GIS-based solutions particularly attractive.
Few archaeologists have used a GIS to produce a hydrological model
allowing for the direct examination of water-related issues important to
agriculture, such as floodplains and irrigation potential.
Brian King, GISP
Goals and Objective
Goal
My project goal is to model the river valley floodplain, identify
additional water sources located on hill sides, and investigate
how these components of local hydrology might have
influenced the geographical arrangement of prehistoric sites in
the study area.
Objective
The analysis will include an aspect analysis, least cost distance
analysis to water, distance to water, distance to stream confluence,
cost distance to stream confluence, slope, topographic variation,
and a view shed analysis within the river valley in an attempt to
make inferences about the spatial relationships of previously
recorded archaeological sites documented in the project area.
Brian King, GISP
Study Area
Ocampo,
Tamaulipas,
Mexico
Brian King, GISP
Environment
Ocampo, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Project Area
Sites
4659 FT
2035 FT
•
•
•
•
Steep rugged terrain (travel by walking, burro or horseback)
Tropical savanna climate (Humid)
Dense Forest Vegetation
Perennial and intermittent stream flow
Brian King, GISP
Precipitation
Project Area
Sites
Precipitation data for Ciudad
Victoria, Tamaulipas, a city located
north of the project area.
4659 FT
2035 FT
Precipitation mm
(Inches)
•
•
•
•
18.9
13.9
22.3
26.8
78.5
125.1
74.3
95.5
173.1
70.9
20.5
18.3
738.1
-0.744
-0.547
-0.878
-1.055
-3.091
-4.925
-2.925
-3.76
-6.815
-2.791
-0.807
-0.72
-29.059
Average annual precipitation is 700 millimeters (28-inches)
Half of the rainfall occurs between May and September
Short mild winters and long hot summers
Exceptionally heavy rains from occasional cyclones influence overall
precipitation amounts.
Brian King, GISP
Proposed Methodology
Software
United States
Army Corps of
Engineers
(USACE)
USACE
ESRI
HEC-RAS
HEC-HMS
RAS-Mapper
HEC-GeoRAS
ArcGIS 10.1
3D Analyst
Spatial Analyst
Modelbuilder
Environmental
Systems
Research Institute
(ESRI)
Brian King, GISP
Proposed Methodology
DATA
Instituto Nacional de
Estadística y Geografía
United States
Geological Survey
INEGI
USGS
Stream Network
Contours (10m)
Precipitation data
Temperature data
Soils / Land use Data
Geology
Watersheds / Sub-Basins
Vegetation Zones
Orthoimagery (1m / 30m)
Landsat 7 ETM+ data
Pancromatic image 15m
All data have
been obtained
Brian King, GISP
GIS Hydrological Floodplain
30-Foot Contours (INEGI)
Create 3D-Terrain / Raster
Stream Centerline / Tributaries
Soils / Precipitation / Landuse
Floodplain
The
HEC-RAS / HEC-HMS /
RAS-Mapper / ArcGIS /
HEC-GeoRAS
Brian King, GISP
Landsat Analysis
1
Select four Landsat images from the same
year representing a typical precipitation and
temperature year
2
Create a 3 band composite image simulating a
Landsat 4-3-2 combination. (Band 4 is a good
band to identify land water)
3
ArcGIS Spatial Analyst Supervised Classification Analysis
4
Digitize training areas of 4-3-2 water pixels and documented
water sources provided from ethnographic data.
5
Overlay final source images and run Trend tool in
ArcGIS to isolate those areas having extended supply
of water at 3-month intervals.
Brian King, GISP
Spatial Analysis
Spatial Join tool used to
combine archaeological
Sites to their geomorphic
location.
Soils
Land use
Archaeological
Sites
(Centroid)
Temperature
Vegetation
Geology
Elevation
Watershed
Brian King, GISP
Spatial Analysis
Spatial Analyst
Tools
Slope (%)
Topography Raster
Aspect
Topography Raster
Topography Raster
Topo to Raster tool
Soils / Vegetation
Feature to raster tool
Precipitation
Feature to raster tool
Viewshed
Water Dataset Raster
Topography Raster
Feature to raster tool
Brian King, GISP
Spatial Analysis
Variables
Slope (%)
Raster Output
Aspect
Most Favorable
Topography Raster
Soils / Vegetation
Precipitation
Intersect each dataset
With Archaeology Site
Centroids
Slope
Aspect
Site Elevation
Soils / Vegetation
Precipitation
Viewshed
Water Source
Viewshed
Water Dataset Raster
Brian King, GISP
Spatial Analysis
Slope
Aspect
Site Elevation
Soils / Vegetation
Precipitation
Viewshed
Water Sources
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
Reclass Suitability System
(1) Most Favorable
(2) Favorable
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
(3) Least Favorable
Brian King, GISP
Spatial Analysis
The weighted overlay tool will be
used to calculate the weighted value
for each cell, for each raster dataset.
Slope
Aspect
Site Elevation
Soils / Vegetation
Final Cost Raster
Precipitation
Viewshed
Water Sources
Each layer will be assigned a relative importance in
percent to create a weighted ranking before these
values are combined into a final cost surface raster.
Brian King, GISP
Cost Distance Analysis
The final cost surface raster will be imported into the Spatial Analyst
cost distance tool to create a cost distance raster from archaeological
sites to water sources.
The cost distance tool creates a raster surface that is continuous to the
defined project boundaries revealing the lowest collective cost from
each cell to the nearest source, in this case water sources.
It is important to point out that cost can be defined using a variety of
variables, including time, level of energy expended.
The Spatial Analyst cost path tool will be used to calculate the most efficient
path from the site location to water sources. The cost path tool creates a
raster that identifies the least-cost path or paths from a specific location to
the closest defined cell using the cost raster surface.
Brian King, GISP
Anticipated Results
I expect that defining the floodplain will reveal potential areas having rich
alluvial soils and terraces that can be difficult to identify in this rugged
terrain. These areas have a high probability for buried cultural material.
I believe the least cost distance analysis will show the relationship of site
location to upland water sources and types of terrain.
Archaeologists already know that farmers are planting successful crops
on steeper terrain, suggesting that more research needs to be conducted
on farming techniques and crop selection in relation to water resources.
Future research in the area could include a hyperspectral analysis with
high resolution imagery and Lidar acquisition to reveal in greater detail
those areas having water pools at different elevations.
Brian King, GISP
Timeline
October
2013
May
2013
July
2013
05/07 Peer Review
05/20 Revise Proposal
05/28 Begin GEOG596B
June
2013
10/27 Present Capstone
Presentation to The Texas
Archaeological Society
Meetings in Del Rio, Texas
07/17 Draft Capstone Report
07/24 Revise Report
07/31 Submit Final Report
06/12 Floodplain Analysis
06/19 Landsat Analysis
06/30 Geospatial Analysis
Brian King, GISP
References
Binford, Lewis R.,
1980. Willow Smoke, Dogs Tails, Hunter-gatherer Settlement Systems. American Antiquity, Vol. 45,
No. 1 (Jan., 1980), pp. 4-20.
Dorshow, Wetherbee Bryan,
2012. Modeling agricultural potential in Chaco Canyon during the Bonito phase: a predictive
geospatial approach. Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 39, Issue 7, July 2012, Pages
2098–2115
Flannery, Kent V. (editor)
1976. The Early Mesoamerican Village. Academic Press, Inc., New York.
Hanselka, J. Kevin
2010. Informal Planting of Squashes and Gourds by Rural Farmers in Southwestern
Tamaulipas, Mexico, and Implications for the Local Adoption of Food Production in Prehistory.
Journal of Ethnobiology 30(1):31-51.
2011. Prehistoric Plant Procurement, Food Production, and Land Use in Southwestern
Tamaulipas, Mexico. PhD. Dissertation, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri.
Kelly, Robert L.
1995 The Foraging Spectrum: Diversity in Hunter-Gatherer Lifeways. Smithsonian
Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
Brian King, GISP
References
MacNeish, Richard S.
1956 Prehistoric Settlement Patterns on the Northeastern Periphery of Meso-America.
In Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the New World, edited by Gordon R. Willey, pp. 140-147.Viking Fund
Publications in Anthropology, No. 23. Wenner Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, Incorporated,
New York.
1958 Preliminary Archaeological Investigations in the Sierra de Tamaulipas, Mexico. Transactions of the
American Philosophical Society. New Series. Vol. 48, Part 6.
The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
1964 The Food-Gathering and Incipient Agriculture Stage of Prehistoric Middle America. In Natural
Environment and Early Cultures, edited by R. C. West, pp. 413-426. Handbook of Middle American Indians,
Vol. 1. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.
Smith, Bruce D.
1997 Reconsidering the Ocampo Caves and the Era of Incipient Cultivation in Mesoamerica. American
Antiquity 8:342-383.
1998a The Emergence of Agriculture. 2nd ed. Scientific American Library, New York.
1998b Between Foraging and Farming. Science 279:1651-1652.
2005 Documenting the Transition to Food Production along the Borderlands. In The Late Archaic Across the
Borderlands: The Transition from Foraging to Farming, edited by Bradley J. Vierra, pp. 300-316. University
of Texas Press, Austin.
Brian King, GISP
References
USACE
2013. HEC-GeoRAS: Features Retrieved on March 12, 2013 from
http://www.hec.usace.army.mil/software/hec-ras/hec-georas.html.
2013 HEC-HMS: Features Retrieved on March 12, 2013 from
http://www.hec.usace.army.mil/software/hec-hms/features.html.
2013 HEC-RAS:Features. Retrieved on March 12, 2013 from
Weatherbase
2013 Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas Monthly – All Weather Averages. Retrieved on April 27, 2013
http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=19467&cityname=Ciudad+Victoria%2C+Tamaulip
as%2C+Mexico&units.
Brian King, GISP
Acknowledgements
Dr. Larry J. Gorenflo
Department of Landscape Architecture
Pennsylvania State University
Dr. J. Kevin Hanselka
SWCA Environmental Consultants
Austin, Texas
Celine Finney and Anaïs King, my supportive
wife and daughter.
Brian King, GISP
Thank You
QUESTIONS
Brian King, GISP

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