APUSH10 - APUSHistoryHardee

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AP U.S. History
Unit 10
America’s Involvement in World War II
Focus on While Reading:
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The Rise of Fascism, militarism, and imperialism as answers to the
Great Depression.
Signs of, at best, marginal U.S. neutrality.
The continually deteriorating relationship between the United
States and Japan.
U.S. treatment of Japanese-Americans in the west as compared to
treatment of German-Americans and Italian-Americans in the East
Key military “turning points” of both the War in Europe and the War
in the Pacific.
Events related to the Holocaust
Circumstances that led to the use of two Atomic Bombs against the
Empire of Japan.
How Post-War conditions led to the beginning of the Cold War
between the United States and Soviet Union.
Introduction to World War II
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As the world searched for answers to the economic crisis that
gripped the globe during the Great Depression some nations sought
peaceful answers while others turned to increased imperialism,
militarism, and more aggressive political systems such as fascism.
The penalties imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles
created a climate in Germany that was conducive to the rise of
Adolf Hitler.
The Rise of Dictatorships in Germany, Italy, and Japan gave rise to
fears that the world was once again on the brink of war.
The United States had turned to a foreign policy of Isolationism
during the interwar years and continued to embrace neutrality
seeing these issues as uniquely European and Asian problems.
The fate of the world would soon rest on how long the U.S. was
willing to cling to that policy of neutrality.
Unit 10.1: The Rise of Dictatorships
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How did the Treaty that ended World War I
contribute to the Rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany?
How did Benito Mussolini rise to power in Italy
and what led to a connection between Mussolini
and Hitler?
How did Mussolini and Hitler’s aggressive aims
join together in the protection of fascism in Spain?
What led to the rise of the military class in Japan?
Unit 10.1: The Rise of Dictatorships
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How did the Treaty that ended World War I contribute to the Rise of
Adolf Hitler in Germany?
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Hitler in 1923 was simply another World War I veteran and a third-rate artist.
He joined an obscure political party, the Nationalist Socialist Party (Nazi
Party) and began a meteoric rise to the Chancellorship of Germany in 1933.
Hitler fueled his rise to power by charging that weak political leadership,
defeatism at home, and the economic machinations (conspiracies) of
Germany’s Jewish population had led to Germany’s hardships following World
War I.
Hitler cultivated a “cult of personality” in which ultimately he would state that
“Hitler is Germany and Germany is Hitler” (that Hitler was greater than the
nation of Germany itself)
Feeding off the anger and bitterness of the German people Hitler promised to
return economic success, military power, and the honor of the German people
despite the restrictions of the Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations, and
Kellogg-Briand Pact.
In his book, Mein Kampf, Hitler shared a plan to unify German-Speaking
peoples living in other parts of Europe, “cleansing” the German population of
Jewish people and other non-Aryans, and rebuilding the German Military.
Unit 10.1: The Rise of Dictatorships
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How did Benito Mussolini rise to power in Italy and what
led to a connection between Mussolini and Hitler?
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Labor Strikes, a breakdown of law and order, and clashes
between fascists and communists led to the rise of Benito
Mussolini in Italy.
Mussolini’s “Black Shirts”, much like his colleague Hitler’s
“Brown Shirts” used political intimidation and bullying to
catapult Mussolini to dictatorship in Italy.
Mussolini promised the return of the Old Roman Empire and
pledged to make the Mediterranean Sea an “Italian Lake”.
Mussolini’s aims of conquest in North Africa and the common
ground of Fascism led to the Rome-Berlin Axis (which would
later become the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis).
Unit 10.1: The Rise of Dictatorships
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How did Mussolini and Hitler’s aggressive aims join together in the
protection of fascism in Spain?
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Fascist General Francisco Franco led a revolution to overthrow the Leftist
Republican government of Spain.
52,000 volunteers, including the famous Abraham Lincoln Brigade of
Americans, came to Spain to support the Loyalists fight against Fascism.
Both Hitler and Mussolini sent ground and air units to Spain to support
Franco’s Revolutionary Movement.
Joseph Stalin, Communist Dictator of the Soviet Union, sent substantial war
materials and money to the Loyalists fighting General Franco’s Army.
Although FDR was sympathetic to the Loyalists, he was severely limited in
what assistance he could send to Spain by the Neutrality Act of 1937 which
forbade sending arms shipments to belligerent nations.
FDR did make his famous “Quarantine Speech” urging the world to isolate
aggressor nations through trade restrictions and unified military action if
necessary.
General Franco won his revolution in 1939, the Fascists had won this “Dress
Rehearsal” for World War II and confidence was riding high. Spain would
remain a Fascist neutral throughout the war.
Unit 10.1: The Rise of Dictatorships
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What led to the rise of the military class in Japan?
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U.S. contact with Japan began in earnest in 1854 when Commodore Matthew
Perry led an expedition to Japan to work out a trade agreement. Perry’s use
of bullying tactics (gunboat diplomacy) to achieve the treaty also began the
resentment of the Japanese toward the United States.
The Japanese initiated an intense policy of industrialization, westernization,
and militarism in the years following 1854.
Their victories in the Sino-Japanese War (Sino = China), Russo-Japanese War,
and World War I (acquired Chinese territory and all of Germany’s Pacific
Colonies) increased Japanese confidence.
The Japanese military felt that despite their achievements in the RussoJapanese War and in World War I they were being largely overlooked as a
world power and blamed much of that on the United States.
During the 1930s Japan embarked on a campaign to establish hegemony over
Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, known as the Co-Prosperity Sphere.
During this period the Japanese military, under the leadership of Hideki Tojo,
rose to dominance in the Japanese government (virtually reducing the
Emperor to a mere figurehead until 1945).
Unit 10.2: The weakening of American
Neutrality
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How did the results of World War I and
subsequent investigations into American
involvement lead many Americans to once again
support neutrality?
What events led President Franklin Roosevelt to
begin requesting greater U.S. military
expenditures and greater assistance provided to
the Allies?
What was the intended purpose of American aid
sent to Great Britain and the Soviet Union?
Unit 10.2: The weakening of American
Neutrality
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How did the results of World War I and subsequent
investigations into American involvement lead many
Americans to once again support neutrality?
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By the 1930s the general perception amongst Americans was that
entry into World War I had been a terrible mistake.
The Nye Committee, led by Gerald Nye of North Dakota, presented
evidence they claimed showed that the only purpose of American
involvement in World War I was to serve the greed of Bankers and
Arms Manufacturers.
The Findings of the Nye Committee led to:
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The Neutrality Act of 1935: Banned all arms shipments to belligerent nations and Americans were
prohibited from travel on ships under the flags of belligerent nations.
The Neutrality Act of 1936: Forbade the extensions of credit and loans to belligerent nations.
The Neutrality Act of 1937: Forbade the shipment of arms to either side in the Spanish Civil War.
The Neutrality Acts led to their being virtually no American assistance
provided in the fight against Fascism in Spain and the victory of
General Franco in 1939.
After the outbreak of World War II in 1939 the Isolationists formed the
America First Committee to build up the American public’s opposition
to U.S. entry into this “European” conflict.
Unit 10.2: The weakening of American
Neutrality
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What events led President Franklin Roosevelt to begin requesting greater U.S.
military expenditures and greater assistance provided to the Allies?
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In 1931 the Japanese invaded Manchuria, a northern province of China.
In 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia.
In 1936 Hitler marched troops into the Rhineland in open defiance of the Treaty of
Versailles.
In 1937 Japan declared war on neighboring China, then “accidentally” bombed and sank
the U.S.S. Panay for which they apologized. The U.S. quickly accepted the apology.
In 1938 after forcing an Anschluss (annexation) of Austria Hitler set his sights on the
Sudetenland, a strip of Czechoslovakia with a large German-speaking population.
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Hitler sent in his thugs to start trouble and spark arrests so that he could say that Germans were
being persecuted by the Czech government.
FDR urged Britain and France to meet with Hitler and find a peaceful resolution to the problem.
The four parties met in Munich, Germany and it was ultimately agreed, against Czech objections,
that Germany would occupy the Sudetenland unopposed and Hitler promised there would be no
further aggression.
Within six months Hitler had invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia and the British and French were
threatening war if Hitler committed any further acts of aggression.
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain foolishly proclaimed that they had achieved “Peace in
our time” upon returning from Munich.
Unit 10.2: The weakening of American
Neutrality
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What was the intended purpose of American aid sent to Great Britain and the
Soviet Union?
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The ultimate failure of the policy of Appeasement adopted by the United States, Britain,
and France toward the Fascist Axis came when Hitler invaded Poland in September
1939 resulting in a declaration of war by Britain and France against Germany.
FDR had already asked for and received increased funding for the Army and Navy in
hopes that the increased military spending would be used to defend against a possible
invasion of the Western Hemisphere.
After the defeat of France, FDR began actively seeking ways to aid the British and, later,
the Soviets so that they could fight the Nazis in hopes we would not have to.
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“Cash and Carry”: A belligerent nation could purchase arms from the U.S. as long as they paid up
front and transported the material themselves.
The Lend-Lease Act: exchanged leases to Naval Bases for credit to purchase war materials. FDR
also authorized the United States Navy to secretly escort British shipping and attack German
Submarines “on sight”. The U.S. was now fighting an undeclared war with Germany on the North
Atlantic.
“Destroyers for Bases”: In exchange for 50 U.S. Navy Destroyers (a class of warship designed for
anti-Submarine Warfare) the U.S. gained rights to build naval bases on Britain’s Caribbean
possessions.
The Draft:The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 established a peacetime draft that many
isolationists viewed as a prelude to U.S. entry into the War in Europe.
Unit 10.2: The weakening of American
Neutrality
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What was the intended purpose of American aid sent to
Great Britain and the Soviet Union?
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In the Summer of 1941, FDR met with British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill off the coast of Newfoundland.
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In what became known as the Atlantic Charter the two pledged their
nations to protection of the Four Freedoms, Self-determination for all
nations, opposition to territorial expansion, and arms control.
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The Four Freedoms included Freedom of Religion, Freedom of the Seas,
Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear.
They were, in essence, pledging themselves to behavior that
represented the total opposite of that of the Axis powers.
The Atlantic Charter was the World War II equivalent of World War I’s
Fourteen Points (only that it came prior to American involvement).
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It established the aims of American involvement and pledged the would-be
victors to working for lasting post-war peace.
The Atlantic Charter would later have a dramatic influence on the formation
of the United Nations.
Unit 10.3: The Deterioration of the
U.S./Japanese relations
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Where did the relationship between the United
States and Japan first begin to fracture?
What events furthered the rift between the U.S.
and Japan leading up to actual war?
Why was Pearl Harbor the natural target for the
Japanese Military as they made a final decision to
initiate war with the United States?
Unit 10.3: The Deterioration of the
U.S./Japanese relations
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Where did the relationship between the United States and
Japan first begin to fracture?
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One could argue that the relationship between the United States
and Japan first began to fracture when Commodore Perry
implemented “gunboat diplomacy” to essentially threaten the
Japanese into signing a trade agreement with the United States.
The relationship further deteriorated when the Gentlemen’s
Agreement was signed pledging the Japanese to limit the
emigration of unskilled workers to the United States.
Further still, the Japanese military class resented Theodore
Roosevelt’s mediation of the Russo-Japanese War. They believed
that victory was imminent and mediation was unnecessary. They
also viewed the concessions won by the mediation as not
representative of their achievements in the war.
Even after being awarded part of China and all of Germany’s Pacific
Colonies after World War I, the Japanese resented the Five Power
Treaty’s restriction on production of Japanese Warships.
At the root of much of this discontent was the United States.
Unit 10.3: The Deterioration of the
U.S./Japanese relations
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What events furthered the rift between the U.S. and Japan leading up
to actual war?
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With interests in Guam, American Samoa, Wake Island, Midway Island, the
Philippines, and Hawaii the United States became increasingly concerned
about Japanese aggression in the Pacific and Asia through the course of the
1930s.
After the Japanese invasion of China, the signing of the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo
Axis, and the occupation of French Indochina it was clear that Japan would
not stop until it controlled all of Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
The U.S. and Britain responded by declaring a trade embargo with
emphasis on rubber, scrap metal, and oil (all critical to the Japanese war
machine).
In order to reinvigorate its war machine the Japanese would need the
resources of Southeast Asia (Burma,Thailand, Indonesia) and to do this
the Japanese would have to neutralize the United States Pacific Fleet
based in Hawaii.
The Japanese launched a surprise attack to do just that on December 7th,
1941.
The United States responded quickly by declaring war on the Empire of
Japan.
Unit 10.3: The Deterioration of the
U.S./Japanese relations
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Why was Pearl Harbor the natural target for the
Japanese Military as they made a final decision to
initiate war with the United States?
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In order for Japan to succeed in acquiring the resources
from Southeast Asia that she desired she would have to
eliminate the U.S. presence in the Philippines.
To do this they would have to neutralize the U.S. Pacific
Fleet based at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
December 7th, 1941 was labeled “A day that would live in
infamy” by President Roosevelt and the American people
now found themselves squarely at war with Japan, Germany,
and Italy.
After crippling the Pacific Fleet the Japanese expanded
their empire to encompass most of Southeast Asia and the
Pacific Islands.
The great fear was that they now stood in threat of India,
Australia, and the West Coast of the United States.
Unit 10.4: Civil and Human Rights Abuses
During WWII
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How did the outbreak of war affect the rights of
African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native
Americans, and Women?
How did the threat of a Japanese invasion (real or
perceived) affect Japanese-Americans living on the
West Coast as opposed to the treatment of
German-Americans and Italian Americans in the
East?
What led to worst abuse of human rights in
History, the Holocaust?
Unit 10.4: Civil and Human Rights Abuses
During WWII
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How did the outbreak of war affect the rights of African
Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and
Women?
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African Americans
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Over 1.5 million African Americans left the South looking for
factory jobs in the North.
1 million African Americans left home to serve in the military.
Facing resentment over job competition and discrimination in the
military African Americans were encouraged to adopt a “Double
V” mentality. “V” for Victory over Fascism and Supremacy in
Europe and “V” for Victory over discrimination and segregation at
home.
Membership in the NAACP grew during the War.
The Congress On Racial Equality (CORE) formed to work more
militantly for Civil Rights in America.
In the Case of Smith v. Alwright the Supreme Court ruled that
African Americans could not be excluded from Political Parties to
keep them from voting in primary elections and having a voice in
the selection of candidates.
Unit 10.4: Civil and Human Rights Abuses
During WWII
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How did the outbreak of war affect the rights of African
Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, and Women?
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Women
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Hispanic Americans
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200,000 women served in the United States Military during World War II.
5 Million women entered the workforce taking industrial jobs. One of the
most endearing images from World War II was “Rosie the Riveter”.
Women still faced issues with “equal pay for equal work” even during
wartime.
300,000 Mexican Americans served in the Military
Many Mexican Americans worked in the War Industries.
Many Mexican migrant workers (Braceros) were allowed to come to the
United States during harvest season without going through normal
processing.
The heavy influx of Mexicans into the Southwest United States led to the
infamous Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles, California in the Summer of 1943
Native Americans
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25,000 Native Americans served in the U.S. Military, some as vital code
specialists (“wind talkers”) in the Pacific Theatre.
Once having left the Reservations, many never returned.
Unit 10.4: Civil and Human Rights Abuses
During WWII
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How did the threat of a Japanese invasion (real or perceived)
affect Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast as
opposed to the treatment of German-Americans and Italian
Americans in the East?
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More than any other ethnic group, Japanese Americans suffered
from their association with a wartime enemy and the perceived
threat of a Japanese invasion of the West Coast and suspicion of
espionage and sabotage.
In 1942 the United States Government forced 100,000 Japanese
Americans to leave their homes and businesses to reside in the
Barracks of Military Internment Camps.
In the case of Korematsu v. United States the Supreme Court
ruled the U.S. Government’s internment policy as necessary
during wartime.
In 1988 Ronald Reagan authorized the payment of financial
reparations to the families of those interned in an attempt to right
this injustice.
20,000 native born Japanese Americans served with distinction
during World War II in the European Theatre.
Unit 10.4: Civil and Human Rights Abuses
During WWII
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What led to worst abuse of human rights in History, the Holocaust?
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Hitler successfully blamed European Jews for many of Germany’s problems prior
to World War II, using them as a “scapegoat” in his rise to power.
Initially, German Jews were harassed and encouraged to emigrate to other nations.
The worst of these episodes occurred in 1938 when Synagogues and Jewish
Businesses were destroyed as part of the Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht).
Worse still the Jews were blamed for this event and forced to pay massive
reparations.
Kristallnacht led to the systematic rounding up of the Jewish population and
forcing them into forced-labor Concentration Camps or segregated into Ghettos
where food was deprived and disease was rampant.
Still not seen as an adequate answer to the “Jewish Problem”, Hitler authorized
what became known as the “Final Solution”. This featured the construction of six
“Death Camps” and the systematic genocide of the European Jewish population.
Ultimately 6 million Jews and 5 million other “enemies of the state” were
executed as part of the Final Solution.
The Allied Armies became aware of the atrocities of the Holocaust about midway
through the war, but the full extent of the tragedy was known until the discovery of
the Death Camps at the end of the war.
The end of the war also revealed Japanese atrocities in Prisoner of War Camps and
in their treatment of Chinese civilians.
Both Nazi (in the Nuremburg Trials) and Japanese leaders were placed on trial for
crimes against humanity and either executed or sentenced to long jail terms for
their crimes.
Practice Question #1
Which of the following is not associated with the Axis
Powers?
1.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Adolf Hitler
Benito Mussolini
Hideki Tojo
Charles De Gaul
Francisco Franco
Practice Question #2
In the Munich Conference:
2.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Hitler agreed to form an alliance with Italy and Japan
The Big Three agreed to demand “unconditional surrender”
from the Germans and Japanese
Britain and France gave in to Hitler’s territorial demands
The United States promised Germany it would remain
neutral in the war.
The Nazis worked out the details of the Final Solution
Practice Question #3
Which future Allied nation provided support to the
Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War?
3.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
United States
Great Britain
France
China
Soviet Union
Practice Question #4
The America First Committee:
4.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Was strongly in favor of providing economic assistance to
Britain, but opposed to military aid.
Believed the United States should enter the war only if its
ships were attacked by German submarines
Was strongly in favor of the assistance President Roosevelt
gave to the British
Believed “Cash and Carry” would not jeopardize American
neutrality
Strongly opposed U.S. intervention in the war in any way,
shape, or form.
Practice Question #5
At which conference did the Big Three first meet?
5.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Casablanca
Munich
Potsdam
Yalta
Teheran
Practice Question #6
“It was like lending a garden hose to a neighbor whose
house was burning.” This statement by President
Roosevelt is consistent with all of the following U.S.
policies except:
6.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The Neutrality Acts
The Destroyers for Bases Deal
The Lend-Lease Act
The Cash-And-Carry Plan
“Sink on Sight”
Practice Question #7
Which of the following best represents an expression of
isolationism in the 1930s?
7.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Roosevelt’s “Quarantine” Speech
The Good-Neighbor Policy
The Nye Committee Report
The Recognition of the Soviet Union
“Cash and Carry” policy
Practice Question #8
On the “Home Front”, U.S. involvement in World War II
brought about:
8.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Increased labor violence
Increased spending on consumer goods
Strict limits on corporate profits
Increased employment of women
An end to deficit spending by the Federal Government
Practice Question #9
In Korematsu v. United States the Supreme Court
upheld the government’s practice of:
9.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Placing quotas on Japanese immigration
Embargoing trade with Japan
Providing financial compensation for victims of discrimination
Placing Japanese Americans in wartime internment camps
Drafting men into the armed services in peacetime
Practice Question #10
10.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Which of the following phrases accurately describes
Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy?
Search for improved relations with Canada
Abandonment of the Open Door Policy in China
U.S. pledge not to intervene in Latin America
Diplomatic recognition of the Soviet Union
Commitment to the democracies of Europe
Answer Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
D
C
E
E
E
A
C
D
D
C
Unit 10.5: The War at Home
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How did the United States mobilize industrial
production to provide for the military needs of
both our Army and those of the Allies as well?
How were worker effected by entry into World
War II?
How did the government pay for the war and
encourage the people to conserve resources?
In what ways did they government gather support
for the war effort from within the population?
Unit 10.5: The War at Home
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How did the United States mobilize industrial
production to provide for the military needs of both
our Army and those of the Allies as well? How were
worker effected by entry into World War II?
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As it did in World War I, the government created specific agencies to mobilize
the nation for war.
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The War Production Board was created to manage the nation’s war industries.
The Office of War Mobilization set production priorities and controlled raw materials.
By 1944 American military production was more than twice that of all the Axis Powers combined.
By 1944 tanks and fighter planes were flowing off the assembly lines and onto the battlefield.
Henry Kaiser’s giant shipyard in California was producing “Liberty Ships” in as little as 14 days.
Also important was controlling prices and wages, as well as dealing with Labor
Unions.
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The Office of Price Administration set prices, wages, and rent. This agency was also in charge of
rationing meat, sugar, gasoline, and car tires.
Although the Unions and Businesses agreed there would be no strikes during the war, there was a
wide discrepancy between frozen employee wages and profits earned by corporations under the
government’s “cost-plus” contracting system.
After John L. Lewis called for strikes at a few coal mines, Congress passed the Smith-Connally
Anti-Strike Act which allowed the government to take over industries threatened by strikes.
Although he vetoed the Act, FDR used the law to take over the nation’s railroads for a short
period.
Unit 10.5: The War at Home
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How did the government pay for the war and
encourage the people to conserve resources?
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World War II was the most expensive war in our
history, the war effort cost $100 Billion in 1945 alone.
The Government responded by:
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Increasing the income tax
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For the first time most Americans paid an income tax
In 1944 the government began the process of automatically
deducting a withholding tax from paychecks
The shortage of consumer goods helped offset some of the tax
burden. Less consumer products available meant it was easier to
save your money.
Selling War Bonds
Unit 10.5: The War at Home
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In what ways did they government gather support
for the war effort from within the population?
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War propaganda was everywhere.
Posters, films, songs, news bulletins, etc. all had a
purpose.
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Maintain public morale
Encourage people to sacrifice and conserve vital resources
Increase war production
The Office of War Information controlled news about
troop movements and battles.
Movies, radio, and popular music often were supportive
and projected an optimistic view of the war effort.
Unit 10.6: The War in Europe; “Germany
First”
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How did Adolf Hitler go about conquering
“Fortress Europe” and North Africa in the early
stages of the war?
How did setbacks in the Battle of Britain and at
the Battles of El Alamein and Stalingrad put Nazi
Germany on the “defensive”?
How did the Normandy Invasion and subsequent
events lead to the downfall of Hitler and the
surrender of Germany?
Unit 10.6: The War in Europe; “Germany
First”
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How did Adolf Hitler go about conquering “Fortress Europe” and North
Africa in the early stages of the war?
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September 1938: Hitler signs the Munich Pact
March 1938: Hitler breaks the Munich Pact by sending troops to occupy all of
Czechoslovakia
August 1939: Britain and France are shocked to learn that Soviet Dictator
Joseph Stalin (whom they believed they could count on to oppose Hitler)
signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. Both countries had designs on
portions of Poland and neither wanted war with the other.
September 1, 1939: Hitler launches his invasion of Poland.
September 1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany. Italy and Japan
respond in kind.
Winter of 1939-1940: All forces involved wait through a relatively inactive
winter (The Phony War/Sitzkrieg) for business to pick up in the Spring.
Spring of 1940: Germany invades Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and France. By
June of 1940 the only Allied nation free of German troops was Great Britain.
June 1940: Italy begins the North Africa Campaign pushing back and forth
between Libya and British-held Egypt. Hitler hoped the Italians and Vichy
French Forces (the French Foreign Legion) could hold North Africa. Italian
defeats prompted Hitler to send Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Corps to the Theatre.
Unit 10.6: The War in Europe; “Germany
First”

How did setbacks in the Battle of Britain and at the Battles of El Alamein and
Stalingrad put Nazi Germany on the “defensive”?







July 1940: Hitler begins a massive air campaign to destroy the British Royal Air Force
(RAF) as a prelude to an amphibious invasion of the British Isles.
October 1940: Hitler suffers his first setback as his mighty Luftwaffe (German Air Force)
was defeated in the Battle of Britain and any hopes of an invasion of Britain or a forced
surrender were dashed.
November 1942: After a see-saw series of battles, the British (commanded by Bernard
Montgomery) defeated Rommel (The Desert Fox) at the Second Battle of El Alamein.
Also American forces commanded by George Patton landed in West Africa (Operation
TORCH) and defeated the Vichy French (who promptly changed sides) and drove the
remaining Nazi elements into Tunisia, where they ultimately surrendered.
September 1943: British and American forces opened a 2nd front in Europe by invading
Italy (Operation AVALANCHE) and commenced a tough, bloody fight up the Italian
Peninsula (The German Army provided the defense of Italy).
June 1941: Hitler breaks the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and invades the Soviet
Union. The German Army did not bother to pack winter gear confident the invasion would
be over before winter.
August 1942: Giving up on capturing Moscow, Hitler ordered an offensive against
Stalingrad to capture vital oil reserves.
November 1943:The final elements of German 6th Army in Stalingrad had either been
destroyed or had surrendered. This would be the first surrender of an entire German
Army and “Turning Point” of World War II in Europe.
Unit 10.6: The War in Europe; “Germany
First”

How did the Normandy Invasion and subsequent
events lead to the downfall of Hitler and the
surrender of Germany?


January 1943: Franklin Roosevelt and Winston
Churchill meet in Casablanca, Morocco where they
agreed to invade Sicily (followed by the invasion of
Italy) and demanded “Unconditional Surrender” from
the Axis Powers.
November 1943: “The Big Three” (FDR, Churchill, and
Stalin) meet for the first time at Teheran, Iran. There
they agree that Britain and the United States would
invade Northern France and the Soviets would invade
Germany as well as join the war in the Pacific.
Unit 10.6: The War in Europe; “Germany
First”

How did the Normandy Invasion and subsequent
events lead to the downfall of Hitler and the surrender
of Germany?






June 6, 1944: U.S., British, and Canadian forces land at
Normandy (D-Day) in Northern France. The largest
amphibious invasion in history succeeded in securing
beachheads into which millions of Allied soldiers could be
poured into Europe.
August 1944: Paris, France is liberated.
September 1944:The first Allied troops crossed into
Germany and were poised for a “push to Berlin”.
December 1944: Germany launches a desperate
counterattack in Belgium in hopes of driving the Allies back
to the sea. The failure of the Battle of the Bulge opened
Germany to the Allies.
April 30, 1945: Hitler commits suicide
May 7, 1945: Germany surrendered to the Allies
Unit 10.7: The War in the Pacific



How did the Japanese military use the “victory” at
Pearl Harbor to build the Empire of the Rising
Sun?
How did setbacks in the Doolittle Raid, Battle of
Coral Sea, and Battle of Midway put the Japanese
Military on the “defensive”?
How did the Invasion at Iwo Jima and subsequent
events lead to first use of Atomic bombs and the
surrender of Japan?
Unit 10.7: The War in the Pacific

How did the Japanese military use the “victory” at
Pearl Harbor to build the Empire of the Rising Sun?



December 23, 1941: A vastly outnumbered U.S. Army force
surrendered Wake Island, but not before accounting for
1000 Japanese casualties and sinking 4 Japanese Warships.
April 9, 1942:The last American forces fighting on Bataan
Peninsula (Philippines) surrender and are forced on a brutal
march to Prisoner of War Camps. The Commander of U.S.
Army forces in the Philippines had been ordered to
evacuate, but General Douglas MacArthur vowed “I shall
return”.
By 1942 the Japanese troops occupied Korea, Eastern China,
the Philippines, British Burma and Malaya, French Indochina
(Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos), the Dutch East Indies
(Indonesia), and most of the Pacific Islands west of Midway
Island.
Unit 10.7: The War in the Pacific

How did setbacks in the Doolittle Raid, Battle of Coral Sea, and
Battle of Midway put the Japanese Military on the “defensive”?




April 18, 1942: Colonel James Doolittle leads a squadron of sixteen B25 medium bombers launched from the U.S.S. Hornet Aircraft Carrier
and successfully bombed the Japanese homeland (casting some doubt
on Japanese invulnerability). This provided a much needed morale
boost for the United States following Pearl Harbor and losses in the
Pacific.
Doolittle’s Raid also caused the Japanese Navy to pull its Aircraft
Carriers out of the Indian Ocean to protect the Japanese Mainland and
prompted Admiral Yamamoto to begin plans to invade Midway Island.
May 7-8, 1942:The U.S. Navy stops a potential Japanese invasion of
Australia in the first Naval Battle in history where the opposing ships
never saw one another (The Battle of the Coral Sea).
June 4-7, 1942:The U.S. Navy intercepts Japanese coded messages
indicating an attack on Midway Island. Admiral Charles Nimitz
positions his fleet to surprise the Japanese and destroys four Japanese
Aircraft Carriers and over 300 Japanese planes(Battle of Midway). This
decisive victory would be the “Turning Point” of the War in the Pacific.
Unit 10.7: The War in the Pacific

How did the Invasion at Iwo Jima and subsequent events lead to
first use of Atomic bombs and the surrender of Japan?





July 1942-October 1944: Admiral Nimitz put in place an “IslandHopping” strategy that isolated heavily fortified Japanese Islands with
naval and air power. The strategy allowed the U.S. Army and U.S.
Navy to move quickly across the Pacific (although many of the Battles
featured horrific Japanese casualties – the result of Japanese soldiers
fighting to the death refusing to surrender).
October 1944:The Battle of Leyte Gulf resulted in the near complete
destruction of the Japanese Navy, first use of Japanese Kamikaze
attacks, and the recapture of the Philippines.
February 1945: U.S. forces land on Iwo Jima and fight a brutal struggle
for an Island that would yield three airfields from which the U.S. Air
Force could begin bombing Japan itself.
April 1945: U.S. forces land at Okinawa and come into contact with
Japanese civilians who commit suicide rather than face American
occupation. This event will have an important impact on American
decisions related to further prosecution of the war.
April 12, 1945: Franklin D. Roosevelt dies and Harry Truman is left with
the decisions of how to proceed with the war.
Unit 10.7: The War in the Pacific

How did the Invasion at Iwo Jima and subsequent events lead to first use of
Atomic bombs and the surrender of Japan?








1942: The government initiates a top-secret project (The Manhattan Project) to build a
weapon of mass destruction. The project was headed by General Leslie Groves (Military
Commander) and Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer (lead Physicist) and cost over $2 Billion.
July 16, 1945: The first Atomic Bomb is successfully tested at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
The explosion was so powerful that the government had to report it as a weapons depot
explosion.
July 1945: Harry Truman calls on Japan to surrender unconditionally or face “utter
destruction”.
August 6, 1945: The Enola Gay drops the first Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima, Japan with
destructive effect.
August 8, 1945: Joseph Stalin breaks the Soviet-Japanese Non-Aggression Pact and
declares war on Japan finally fulfilling his vow from Teheran (his only aims were to grab
as much Japanese Territory as he could – specifically Manchuria and Korea).
August 9, 1945: Bockscar drops the second atomic bomb (“Fat Man”) on Nagasaki,
Japan. Between the two bombs roughly 250,000 Japanese died either immediately or
after prolonged suffering from fall out. The Soviets launch an invasion of Manchuria.
August 15, 1945: After the Allies agree to allow the Emperor of Japan to remain in power
as a powerless head of state, the Emperor announced by radio the surrender of Japan
(first time the Emperor had ever spoken via radio to his people).
September 2, 1945: Japan’s surrender is received by General Douglas MacArthur in
Tokyo Harbor aboard the U.S.S. Missouri, which had been at the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Unit 10.8: Conditions leading to the Cold
War



What events laid a foundation of distrust between
the United States and Soviet Union dating back
even prior to the outbreak of World War II?
What role did wartime and post-war conferences
play in creating a greater rift between the Allies
and the Soviets? How did this rift manifest itself in
the form of post-war alliances?
What events intensified the differences between
the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and led to the beginning of a
“Cold War” between the two superpowers?
Unit 10.8: Conditions leading to the Cold
War

What events laid a foundation of distrust between the United
States and Soviet Union dating back even prior to the outbreak of
World War II?




The Soviets perceived that Britain and the United States were delaying
the opening of a “second front” with Germany, leaving the Soviet Army
to suffer massive casualties facing the brunt of Germany’s power.
The “attempt” to keep the development of the Atomic Bomb a secret
from the Soviets. Some argue that the use of the bomb was less about
ending the war and more about sending a message to the Soviets.
The Soviet’s delay in declaring war on Japan and entering the War in
the Pacific. They only declared war when use of the Atomic Bomb was
imminent so they could occupy Japanese territory before the war was
over.
The unfulfilled promise of “free elections” in the states of Eastern
Europe occupied by the Soviets at the end of the war. The Soviets
sought to use these nations as a “buffer zone” between the Soviet
Union and Western Europe following the war.
Unit 10.8: Conditions leading to the Cold
War

What role did wartime and post-war conferences play in creating a greater rift between
the Allies and the Soviets? How did this rift manifest itself in the form of post-war
alliances?

The Yalta Conference:



February 1945
Resort town on the Black Sea Coast of the Soviet Union
The “Big Three” decided that:




The Potsdam Conference:



July-August 1945
FDR had passed away, Truman was now U.S. President, Clement Attlee was now the British Prime
Minister, only Stalin remained from the original “Big Three”.
They agreed that:




Germany would be divided into “occupation zones” after the war
There would be “free elections” in the liberated nations of Eastern Europe.
A new organization devoted to world peace should be created
They should demand unconditional surrender from Japan
Truman shared information about the Atomic Bomb
That there should be war crimes trials for Nazi War Criminals associated with the Holocaust.
The San Francisco Conference:





The idea for the United Nations was first proposed at the Yalta Conference.
Delegates from the U.S., Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and China met at Dumbarton Oaks near
Washington DC to discuss conditions for a “United Nations”.
In April 1945 representatives from 50 nations met in San Francisco and took eight weeks to draft a
charter for the United Nations.
The U.S. Senate almost immediately voted for the U.S. to join the body.
The United Nations came into being on October 24, 1945 when the majority of member nations ratified
the charter.
Unit 10.8: Conditions leading to the Cold
War

What events intensified the differences between the U.S.
and U.S.S.R. and led to the beginning of a “Cold War”
between the two superpowers?





The Soviets broke their promise at Yalta to allow free elections
in the Eastern European states and forged their “buffer zone”
(later described as the Iron Curtain across Europe by Winston
Churchill).
The Soviets successfully tested their first Hydrogen Bomb in
1949.
Communist regimes would develop in North Korea, China, and
Vietnam causing fears that vital U.S. Allies (India, Japan, South
Korea, Greece, and Turkey) and resource interests (the Middle
East) may be threatened by communist plots.
Americans (Klaus Fuchs, Alger Hiss, and Julius and Ethel
Rosenburg) were caught in espionage cases passing secrets to
the Soviets about atomic weapons.
These developments would lead to the Cold War from 1945 to
1990.
Practice Question #11
11.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
In the Panay Incident:
The Japanese inadvertently sank a U.S. gunboat on patrol in
China
The Japanese launched a surprise attack on the Seventh Fleet
at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Japan invaded China
The Japanese government agreed not to invade China in
return for territorial concessions in Southeast Asia
Chinese troops attacked the Japanese embassy in Hong Kong
Practice Question #12
12.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The Stimson Doctrine:
Was widely condemned by the America First Committee
Stated that the United States would not recognize Japan’s
puppet government in Manchuria
Implied that the United States would not challenge Soviet
influence in Eastern Europe
Declared that the United States would sink German
submarines on sight
Stated that the United States would seek unconditional
surrender terms from Japan and Germany
Practice Question #13
13.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
When President Roosevelt stated that this event was “a
date which will live in infamy”, he was referring to:
The D-Day landing
The dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima
The discovery of the atrocities related to the Holocaust
The surprise attack on Pearl Harbor
Germany’s invasion of Poland
Practice Question #14
14.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
In order to establish a new Italian Empire, Mussolini
ordered his military to invade:
Poland
France
Belgium
Ethiopia
Egypt
Practice Question #15
15.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The Manhattan Project was a top-secret plan:
To prevent Japan from acquiring raw materials necessary for
the expansion of its military
Devised by the Nazis to eliminate Europe’s Jews
By the United States to develop the atomic bomb
That led to the formation of the United Nations
That culminated in the Allies’ invasion of Normandy on DDay
Practice Question #16
16.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
In the 1930’s, the foreign policies of Japan and the
United States were strained the most by actions related
to which of the following?
U.S. control of the Philippines
Japanese invasion of Manchuria and subsequent hostilities in
China
U.S. Isolationism
Ideological differences between Capitalism and Communism
Internment of Japanese-Americans in California
Practice Question #17
17.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Consequences of Truman’s decision to use the atomic
bomb against Japan included all of the following except
which one?
The surrender of Japan
The end of World War II
Full-scale invasion of Japan by U.S. troops
Destruction of two Japanese cities
The deaths of thousands of civilians
Practice Question #18
18.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
At which of the following wartime/post-war
conferences did Stalin agree to hold free elections in
the countries of Eastern Europe?
London
Casablanca
Teheran
Yalta
San Francisco
Practice Question #19
19.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
From 1942 to 1945, the United States was allied with:
Great Britain
Great Britain and the Soviet Union
France, Spain, and the Soviet Union
Italy and Great Britain
Japan, the Philippines, and Guam
Practice Question #20
20.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Which of the following is an accurate characterization
of how U.S. foreign policy shifted from 1938 to 1941?
From a policy of Interventionism to one of Isolationism
From an open alliance with Britain and France to Neutrality
From Isolationism to membership in the League of Nations
From Neutrality to steadily increasing support for Great
Britain
From Isolation to the formation of NATO as a means of
collective security against the spread of communism
Answer Key
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
A
B
D
D
C
B
C
D
B
D

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