Classroom Management Introductory Workshop

Report
Classroom Management
Introductory Workshop
Dr. Sandy Washburn
[email protected]
Mr. Mike Horvath
[email protected]
Ms. Michele Brentano
[email protected]
Center on Education and Lifelong Learning
Indiana Institute on Disability and Community
Indiana University
Indiana Regional Workshops 2009-10
“The children of today love luxury. They have bad
manners, contempt for authority, they show
disrespect to adults, and love to talk rather than
work or exercise. They contradict their parents,
chatter in front of company, gobble up food at the
table, and intimidate their teachers.”
What are the
necessary general
components of
effective classroom
management?
A Brief History of Classroom
Management Research
• Systematic study a rather recent
phenomenon.
• Kouinin (1970)
1. “Withitness”
2. Smoothness and momentum during lesson
presentation
3. Clear expectations for students.
4. Variety and challenge in work assigned to
students.
A Brief History of Classroom
Management Research
• Brophy and Evertson (1976)
– Findings support Kounin’s earlier work
– Major finding: Classroom Management is a
CRITICAL aspect of effective teaching.
A Brief History of Classroom
Management Research
• The Classroom Strategy Study (Brophy 1996;) Brophy & McCaslin,1992).
• Major Finding: Effective managers employed
different types of strategies with different
types of students, whereas ineffective
managers employed the same strategies
regardless of the type of student or the
situation.
A Brief History of Classroom
Management Research
•
Series of 4 studies by the Research and Development Center for Teacher
Education in Austin, Texas. (Early 80’s) (Evertson, Emmer, Sanford, Clements,
and Martin)
• Major findings:
– Support earlier work of Kounin
– Early attention to Classroom Management at the
beginning of the year was critical to a well-run
classroom.
– Teachers can improve management techniques
through training (study and practice)
Classroom Management That Works
(Marzano, 2003)
• Meta analysis
• Examined effectiveness of 5 components of
classroom management
– Rules and Procedures
– Disciplinary Interventions
– Teacher-Student Relationships
– Mental Set
– Promoting Responsibility
Rules and Procedures
• Rules are location specific behavioral
expectations
• Procedures tell students what to do when,
promote student independence and free the
teacher to teach, monitor and interact.
Disciplinary Interventions
• Actions taken by the teacher in response to
student behavior in order to influence
behavior.
– Examples from participants
Modeling
Clear
Purpose and
Strong
Guidance
Effective
Instruction
Teacher to
Student
Relationship
Attentive to
Student
Needs
High Level
of
Cooperation
Heightened
Awareness
Emotional
Objectivity
Mental
Set
Make 3 tic marks-1 for each
statement.
• This element makes the most difference (1
• I am most competent with this element. (2
• I need to do better with this element. (3
st section)
nd section)
rd section)
Rule and
Procedures
Disciplinary
Interventions
TeacherStudent
Relationships
Mental Set
Criteria for Classroom Rules
• Rules are based on 3-5 broad social principles
– Use your SW Expectations
• Rules describe location-specific behavior
• What does it look like?
• Rules are stated positively
• Involve students in the development.
• Publicly post the rules.
Rules are based on broad social principles/expectations
Responsibility
Respect
Safety
Classroom Rules
• Be on time with all materials.
• Have your work completed by the deadline.
• Work on the task that the teacher tells you to work on.
•Follow procedures—check the posters when unsure.
• Use kind and caring words.
• Use voice levels 0-3 as directed.
• Take turns and share materials.
• Keep unfriendly, unwanted and overly friendly hands and
feet to self.
• Walk at all times.
• Keep all chair legs on floor.
• Keep prohibited items at home.
Criteria for Classroom Rules
• Rules are based on 3-5 broad social principles
– Use your SW Expectations
• Rules describe location-specific behavior
• What does it look like?
• Rules are stated positively
• Involve students in the development.
• Publicly post the rules.
Evaluate and fix Sample Rules
1. No gum, food or drinks
2. Listen to adults
3. Respect peers and adults with words and
actions
4. Use appropriate langauge
5. No electronics
Partner Work
(15 minutes total-- 8 min to prepare and 7 min to share)
1. Read through a sample set of rules.
(handout)
2. Look back at the criteria.
3. Identify rules which meet the criteria-mark
somehow.
4. Make improvements to those that don’t.
5. Working backwards, what broad principles
would you tie these rules to?
School-wide
Expectations or
Guiding Principles
Classroom Rules
General
Classroom
Rules
Arrival and
Dismissal
Respect
 Keep unfriendly and overly
friendly hands and feet to
self.
 Use words and actions that
are kind, welcoming, and
helpful.
 Greet others
 Leave area around desk
clean for others
 Raise hand and wait to be
Teacher-led
called on or helped.
Instruction or
Independent
seatwork
Small group
work
Responsibility
 Be on time with all materials.
 Have your work completed by the
deadline
 Use time allotted for this class’s work.
 Take credit for your achievements and
accept the outcomes of mistakes
 Walk through doorway before bell
ends
 Have necessary materials before bell
ends
 Leave promptly with all necessary
materials when dismissed
 Listen, consider and think about topics
of study
 Be able to paraphrase directions
 Follow directions
 Talk quietly to those in your  Participate fully—take turns
own group
contributing
 Look at the speaker
 Ask relevant questions of group
 Be able to paraphrase the
members
speaker’s words
Integrity
 Leave prohibited items at
home or in locker.
 Talk about ideas and not
people
 Bring only allowed items into
classroom
 Follow school dress code
 Try each problem before
asking for help
 Put forth serious effort and
time towards work.
 Complete action items on
time
 Know and fulfill the tasks of
your role
Teach Expectations, Rules and
Procedures
• Teach expectations directly.
– State the rule in concrete terms
– Tell Students Why
– Provide students with examples and non-examples of
rule-following.
– Provide examples via demonstration.
• Actively involve students in lesson— game, roleplay, etc., to check for their understanding.
• Provide opportunities to practice rule following
behavior in the natural setting.
Prompt or Remind Students of the Rules
• Provide students with visual prompts (e.g.,
posters, illustrations, etc).
• Use pre-corrections, which include: “verbal
reminders, behavioral rehearsals, or
demonstrations of rule-following or socially
appropriate behaviors that are presented in or
before settings where problem behavior is likely”
(Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997).
Monitor Students’ Behavior in Natural Context
• Active Supervision (Colvin, Sugai, Good, Lee, 1997):
– Move around
– Look around (Scan)
– Interact with students
• Provide reinforcement and specific praise to
students who are following rules.
• Catch errors early and provide specific,
instructive feedback to students who are not
following rules. (Think about how you would
correct an academic error.)
Evaluate the Effects of Instruction
• Collect information
– Are rules being followed?
– If there are errors,
•
•
•
•
who is making them?
where are the errors occurring?
when are errors being made?
what kind of errors are being made?
• Summarize information (look for patterns)
• Use information to make decisions
Writing Procedures
• Procedures tell students what to do when.
– Focus in on student behavior
• Procedures promote student independence
– Free teacher to teach, do not rely on your
involvement
• Task Analysis
– Step by step
– Discrete and observable
– Sequential
Mental Set-Heightened
Awareness
Smokey
the Bear
Working the Crowd- The Inner Loop
Mental Set-Emotional Objectivity
RE-FRAMING
Mental Set-Emotional Objectivity
• Monitor your own thoughts. Do not hold
grudges. Start fresh.
– Mentally review and anticipate troublesome
student
– Try to replace negative expectations with
positive ones
– Keep those in mind
• Take Care of Yourself
Disciplinary Interventions
• Balanced Set of:
–Rewards
–Punishments
T chart
Types of Disciplinary Interventions
Teacher
Reaction
Tangible
Recognition
Direct Cost
Group
Contingency
Home
Contingency
Teacher Reaction
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eye contact and proximity
Silent signals
Private request (Initiating v. terminating)
Non-disruptive? Prompt desired behavior
Precision command
Pre-correction or stimulus cueing
Frequent acknowledgment
– 4:1 positive to negative interactions
• Re-teach and practice
Teacher Greetings
and On- Task
Behavior
Allday &
Pakurar (2007)
General Guidelines for Responding to
Problem Behavior
(see salmon colored handout in folder)
• What is the reason we should delete these
from our commentary?
– “Why”
– “You”
– “No” and “Don’t”
– Nagging/Berating/Lecturing
Tangible Recognition
• Refers to any type of concrete recognition or
reward offered by teacher.
=
Types of Differential Reinforcement
• DR…of lower rates of behavior (DRL)
• DR…of other behaviors (DRO)
• DR…of alternative behavior (DRA)
• DR…of incompatible behavior (DRI)
Direct Cost
• Move seat
• Briefly remove
access to materials
• Restitution or
Overcorrection
• Token economies
• Loss of privilege
• Isolation time out
Group Contingency
• Three types:
– “All for one”
(Interdependent Group Contingency)
– “One for all”
(Dependent Group Contingency)
– “To each his/her own” (Independent
Group Contingency)
Home Contingency
• Most basic—Information shared
• More detailed—parents collaborate to establish
home consequences
– Requires face to face meeting
– Requires record keeping and communication
Pop quiz: A)Only for problem behavior
B) For problem and positive behavior
C) Only for positive behavior
D) B or C
Disciplinary Interventions
Rank these in order of impact/effect from most to least
• Teacher Reaction
• Tangible Recognition
• Direct Cost
• Group Contingency
• Home Contingency
General
Response
Hierarchy
(staff managed)
Warning of Impending
Consequence
Student Refuses
Proximity, eye contact,
silent signal
Behavior Continues
Direction/Re-teaching
• State the rule
• Tell me . . .
• Show me . . .
Behavior Continues
Give small consequence
that prevents behavior
from continuing
Behavior Continues
Defusing Strategy
Bigger
consequence—
logically related
Behavior
Stops
Acknowledge
Student
Complies
Disciplinary Interventions--Limits and
Record Keeping for Unacceptable
Behavior
•
•
•
•
•
Establish realistic and meaningful limits
Involve students in their own record keeping
The simpler the better
Everyone needs a clean slate
Public record keeping is NOT good
Establishing a Group Contingency
1. Decide on a behavior that you wish to
increase or a problem you wish to decrease
If decrease, look back to DR
2.
3.
4.
5.
Decide on type of GC
Behavioral Criteria (consider baseline)
Tracking or record keeping
Reward (incremental and final)
Group Contingency
• Three types:
– “All for one”
(Interdependent Group Contingency)
– “One for all”
(Dependent Group Contingency)
– “To each his/her own” (Independent
Group Contingency)
Goal Setting/Action Planning
1. Identify 1-2 goals for yourself.
2. For each goal, list 2 specific things that you
will do in the next two weeks
What, When, With whom, For how long
How will you monitor whether you implement the
strategy?
What will be the outcome measure?
How will you decide if it is worth continuing?
Continued this Summer
•
•
•
•
•
•
Developing Procedures
Teacher to Student Relationship
Practice activities
Self-assessment and action planning
Culturally Responsive Management
Defusing Power Struggles
Modeling
Clear
Purpose and
Strong
Guidance
Effective
Instruction
Teacher to
Student
Relationship
Attentive and
Responsive
to Student
Needs
High Level of
Cooperation
Classroom Management is
• ______ proactive and __________ reactive.
• Do you remember the 5 elements of effective
classroom management?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Marzano’s Meta-analysis Results for
Four Management Factors
FACTOR
Rules and
Procedures
Disciplinary
Interventions
Average
Effect
Size
-.763
-.909
Number of Number of
Subjects
Studies
626
3,322
10
68
Percentile
Decrease in
Disruptions
28
H.S. -.772
M.S. -.617
Int. -772
32
H.S. -.694
M.S. -.762
Int. -.953
Pri. -1.046
H.S. -.549
M.S. -2.891
Int. -1.606
Teacher-Student
Relationships
-.869
1.110
4
31
Mental Set
-1.294
502
5
40
Disciplinary Interventions
• Teacher Reaction (-.997)
• Tangible recognition (-.823)
• Direct Cost (-.569)
• Group Contingency (-.981)
• Home Contingency (-.555)

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