Ddasaqmebis genderuli sakiTxebi saqarTveloSi

Report
Ddasaqmebis genderuli sakiTxebi saqarTveloSi
Nnana sumbaZe
2 dekemberi 2011
1
umuSevroba
MSemosavalis simcire siRaribs erTerT ZiriTad komponents warmoadgens, misi ZiriTadi wyaro ki umuSevrobaa.
umuSevroba ufro metia, vidre ufuloba. igi amcirebs adamianur kapitals. igi dakavSirebulia gariyvasa da izolaciasTan,
ramac adamians SeiZleba ubiZgos arajansaRi da maRali riskis Semcvel qmedebis ganxorcielebisaken, gamoiwvios
avadmyofoba. umuSevrobam SeiZleba ganapirobos depresia, dabali TviT-Sefaseba, sibraze, ukmayofileba, sircxvilis da
danaSaulis SegrZneba, seriozuli fsiqiuri daavadebebi da TviTmkvlelobac ki.
DumuSevrobis uaryofiTi zegavlena ufro didia mamakacebze, radgan samsaxuri mamakacis identurobis centralur nawils
warmoadgens.
2
UumuSevroba
umuSevarTa wili ufro didia kacebTan
20.00%
18.00%
16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
qalebi
10.00%
kacebi
8.00%
6.00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
3
dasaqmeba
M2011 wlis aprilSi saq. Mosaxleobis gamokiTxvis mixedviT ojaxSi ZiriTadi Semomtanebi mamakacebi arian (54.4%).
dasaqmeba keTildReobis mniSvnelovan nawils warmoadgens, rogorc kacebisaTvis aseve qalebisaTvis, miuxedavad
ormagi datvirTvisa
optimizmi
maRal TviT-Sefaseba
bednierebis SegrZneba
umuSevari qalebi
mosams.qalebi
umuSevari kacebi
cxovrebiT kmayofileba
mosamsax.kacebi
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
4
Kkacebsa da qalebs Soris gansxvaveba dasaqmebaSi
Ggansxvaveba vlindeba: dasaqmebulTa wilSi, formalur da araformalur dasaqmebulTa wilSi, profesiis da Tanamdebobis
mixedviT segregaciaSi, SemosavalSi.
Qqalebi mamkacebze naklebad arian dasaqmebuli.
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
qalebi
40.00%
kacebi
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
5
GdasaqmebaSi gansxvavebis mizezebi
• drois simcire-qalebs naklebi dro aqvT
• saqarTvelos SromiTi kodeqsi-126 dRe anazRaurebadi dekreti saxelmwifo dawesebulebis
TanamSromlebisaTvis maqsimaluri odenobis dawesebiT
samuSao dRis mxolod 1 saaTiT Semcireba, adre arsebuli 2-is nacvlad
• socialuri servisebis xelmisawvdomobis simcire – ufaso sabavSvo baRebis simcire
6
Gganawileba ekonomikis seqtorebis mixedviT
• mamkacebis wili ufro didia ekonomikis formalur seqtorSi,
romelic SedarebiT ufro maRali usafrTxoebiT xasiaTdeba. bolo
wlebSi aRiniSneba mamakacebis momateba araformalur
ekonomikaSi.
7
Hhorizontaluri segregacia
tradiciulad mamakacis da qalis profesiebis arseboba. qalebis romelic moiTxovs
sikeTes, daxmarebas da emociurobas da kacebis, romelic moiTxovs
agresiulobas, damoukideblobas da gadawyvetilebis advilad miRebas.
Tanasworobis komunisturi ideologiis miuxedavad 1975-1987 wlebis saqarTvelos
sabWoTa enciklopediis monacemebis mixedviT masSi moxseniebuli 321
qalidan naxevarze meti (59.5%) xelovnebis da mxolod 6.2% mrewvelobis
warmomadgenelia
8
Hhorizontaluri segregacia
sporti, 2.20%
janmrT., 5.30%
politika, 5.30%
sxva, 1.30%
gmirebi, 5.60%
mrewveloba, 6.20%
mecniereba, 14.60%
xelovneba, 59.50%
9
Hhorizontuli segregaciis mizezebi: anazRaureba
• kacebi ekonomikis ufro maRalanazRaurebad sferoebSi arian dakavebuli-wiaRiseulis mopoveba 90.42%
kaci da 0.04% qali),eleqtroenergiis, gazisa da wylis miwodeba (1.42% kaci da 0.4% qali), transporti da
komunikacia (6.4% kaci da 0.6% qali). Ggamonaklisia finansebi da sabanko saqme (0.7% kaci da 1.0%
qali).
• gasamrjelos gazrdis SemTxevaSi mamakacebi inacvleben qalis profesiebSi-mag. notariusebi. Qkacis
profesiaSi mosul qalebs emuqrebaT dasja- maTi naklebi mowonebis saxiT, xolo kacebs ki waxalisebaqalTa profesiaSi dawinaurebis saxiT.
• QqalTa SromiT bazarze masiurma gamoCenam gamoiwvia qalis sasurveli xatis Secvla. Moxda qaluri
formebis dafarva, da modaSi Semovida sigamxdre, problema anoreqsia
10
vertikaluri segregacia
• maRal Tanamdebobebze qalebis mcire raodenobaa. 2003 wlidan erovnul bankis
sabWoSi mxolod erTi qali iyo. organizaciaTa mxolod 19.7% ukaviaT qalebs maRali
Tanamdeboba.
• qalebi iSviaTad arian didi biznesis mflobelebi, roca es xdeba maT ukan rogorc wesi
qmrebi, mamebi an vaJiSvilebi arian.
11
vertikaluri segregaciis mizezebi
•
genderuli atitudebi da dasaqmebis maskulinuri xasiaTi
zegavlenas axdenen rogorc damqiravebelze aseve daqiravebulze, gansazRvraven ra muSakis gadawyvetilebas Tanamdebobis
dakavebis Taobaze, mis qcevaze da damqiraveblis gadawyvetilebaze aiyvanos an daawinauros muSaki.
Qgadawyvetiilebas dawinaurebis pretenziis gacxadebaze gansazRravs warmatebis aRqma. Qqalebi nakleb arian darwmunebuli
gamarjvebaSi.
damqiravebeli gadawyvetilebas sul ufro xSirad iRebs muSakis dasakavebel Tanamdebobis miseul xatTan Sesabamisobis
safuZvelze. es xati ki ufro xSirad mamakacuria.
Ddasaqmeba maskulinuri xasiaTisaa, xazs usvavs SejibrobiTobis, riskze wasvlis, gadawyvetilebis swrafad miRebis da sakuTari
Tavis reklamirebis aucileblobas. qalebi dgebian dilemis winaSe an moiqcnen rogorc mamakaciebi miaRwion warmatebas
mowonebis dakargvis xarjze an moiqcnen qalurad, naklebs miaRwion magram iqnen mowonebuli.
12
vertikaluri segregaciis mizezebi gagrZeleba
• TanamSromelTa dawinaurebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebi ZiriTadadAaraformalur viTarebaSi, mag.sufraze
miiReba, rasac qalebi rogorc wesi naklebad eswrebian.
• unarebis ar qona. Mmonacemebi urazrovania, radgan saqarTveloSi qalebis ufro did wils aqvs umaRlesi
ganaTleba, Tumca xSirad naklebi gamocdileba aqvT karieraSi ojaxis moTxovnebiT gamowveuli wyvetis
gamo. liderobaSi ar gamovlinda kacebis upiratesoba qalebze, magram dasdasturda gansxvavebuli liderobis
stilis arseboba qalebTan (ufor demokratiuli) da kacebTan (ufro avtoritaruli).
13
Ggansxvaveba SemosavalSi
Semosavali mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravs qalis damoukideblobas. SemosavalSi gansxvaveba genderuli
Tanasworobis erTerT ZiriTad indikators warmoadgens.
gansxvaveba SemosavalSi arsebobs.
14
Ggansxvaveba SemosavalSi
qalis Semosavalis wili kacis SemosavalTan mimarTebaSi
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
sul
saxelmwifo seqtorSi
kerZo seqtorSi
10.00%
0.00%
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
15
Ggansxvaveba SemosavalSi
90-ian wlebSi gansxvaveba mcire iyo-qalebis Semosavali mamkacebis Semosavalis
75%-s Seadgenda. Semdgom wlebSi gansxvaveba gaizarda da man isev
daiwyo dakleba 2007 wlidan. 2009 kerZo seqtorSi qals kacis Semosavalis
70.3%, xolo saxelmwifo seqtorSi 49.9% qonda. Ees miuTiTebs kerZo seqtoris
Sedegebze ufro met orientaciaze.
gansxvavebis mizezebi: horizontaluri da vertikaluri segregacia
16

similar documents