KAAC 1

Report
Above All –
Know Your Impact!
Bell
Ringer
What IMPACT do your behaviors
have on student learning?
What IMPACT do your behaviors
have on a single student’s
learning?
Do you have any impact at all?
Session MA4
Segell Room
Sue A. Davis
Trish Carroll
Leadership Consultants
“This model of teaching requires
monologue with constant focus on
the teacher. Another approach is to
give a task to complete. You do it
and if you don’t do it the way I
hoped, we’ll talk about it and I’ll
come up with another approach
and give you another go at it. The
emphasis in dialogue is active
listening by the teacher to how
students are learning. “
8
“I’m at the stage now where I don’t
want to talk about teaching anymore
– not because it isn’t important but
because it often keeps us from
having important discussions about
learning. In teachers’ colleges where
the emphasis is on teaching – they
say, here’s a good way to teach and
here’s how you teach this concept
and this is what you do when this
doesn’t happen, and so on.”
“If I put up my hand, as a student in
a classroom, and say, “Look I’m
having trouble; I don’t understand,”
then I am taking the risk that my
fellow students will say, “Oh, there
he goes…he doesn’t understand.”
That’s why trust and positive
relationships are so critical. “
“With the emphasis on evaluation
of impact as the teacher’s mindset,
the fundamental reason for
administering assessments in the
classroom is to find out what you as
the teacher did well – who did you
teach well and who not so well,
what did you teach well and what
not so well, and so on. “
7
“We learned that parents didn’t
understand what happens in
schools – and this is still the case
with many parents today. They
don’t understand the language of
learning and they don’t understand
what is involved in learning today.
They don’t know how to talk with
their children about their learning
or with teachers about their
children’s learning.”
8
“If I give you an incredibly difficult
task to do, at some point very soon
on you’re going to need some
guidance and help. You’re going to
need me to get involved and say
something such as, “Don’t go that
way; go this way.” And so instead of
taking on the role as facilitator,
teachers need to see themselves as
change agents – the teacher’s role is
to effect change. “
“I think what happens to us as
educators is that we perceive our
role as implementing the
curriculum planning and
delivering lessons and making
sure the education we’re offering
meets the needs of kids. What
we don’t say is “we had an
impact on them and their
learning.’”
Mind
Frames
from
John
Hattie
“The purpose of schools is to help
students exceed their potential and
do more than they thought they
could do. To find out what students
can do, and help them do better.
And that’s a challenge. We should
never accept a student’s best. It’s
okay. But it’s a springboard to doing
even better. “
6
Mind Frame 1
Teachers and leaders serve as
evaluators of their impact.
We must cultivate the disposition to asking questions about
our work…
How can I compare ‘this’ with ‘that’?
What is the merit and worth of this influence on learning?
TPGES,
Domain 1, “Planning and Preparation”
a.
Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and
Pedagogy
c.
Selecting Instructional Outcome
Domain 4, “Professional Responsibility”
a.
Reflecting on Teaching
b.
Growing and Developing
Mind Frame 2
Teachers and leaders take responsibility
for students’ success and failure.
Don’t blame the kids!!
 Social class and low prior achievement are surmountable.
 All students can be challenged .
 We can develop high student expectations.
TPGES,
Domain 2, “Classroom Environment”
a.
Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport
b.
Establishing a Culture for Learning
Domain 1, “Planning and Preparation”
a.
Selecting Instructional Outcome
Domain 3, “Instruction”
a.
Communicating with Students
c.
Engaging Students in Learning
Mind Frame 3
“Learning,” not just “teaching,” should
guide professional conversations.




Live the growth mind-set .
Look at students as individuals who can change and grow.
Teaching is perceived as an enabler not a barrier.
Employ the power of success criteria.
TPGES,
Domain 2, “Classroom Environment”
c.
Managing Classroom Procedures
Domain 3, “Instruction”
d.
Using Assessment in Instruction
Doman 4, “Professional Responsibilities”
f.
Demonstrating Professionalism
Mind Frame 4
Teachers and leaders see assessment as
feedback about their impact on student
learning.
 Feedback is information provided by a teacher, peer, book,
parent, or self/experience about one’s performance.
 Who did you teach well and who not so well?
 What did you teach well and not so well?
TPGES,
Doman 3, “Instruction”
d.
Using assessment in instruction
e.
Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness
Domain 4, “Professional Responsibility”
a.
Reflecting on Teaching
b.
Growing and Developing
Mind Frame 5
Educators engage in dialogue and not
just monologue.
 Eighty percent of the “talking” in most classrooms is done
by teachers.
 Teachers should LISTEN to students’ questions, ideas,
struggles, strategies for learning, their success, their
interactions with peers, etc.
TPGES,
Domain 1, “Planning and Preparation”
e.
Designing Coherent Instruction
Domain 2, “Classroom Environment”
c.
Managing Classroom Procedures
Domain 3, “Instruction”
a.
Communicating with Students
Mind Frame 6
We must “challenge” students rather
than ask them to do their best.
 The teacher’s role is to engage the student in the challenge by
pushing toward greater learning.
 “Do your best” is a cop-out phrase.
 There is a power in clear success criteria.
TPGES,
Domain 1, “Planning and Preparation”
e.
Designing Coherent Instruction
f.
Designing Student Assessment
Domain 3, “Instruction”
b.
Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques
c.
Using Assessment in Instruction
Mind Frame 7
Teachers believe it is their role to
develop positive relationships in
classrooms and staff rooms.
Teachers create a climate such that students believe they can
make errors without blame.
Learning requires the making of mistakes.
Leaders must do this for staff as well.
TPGES,
Domain 2, “Classroom Environment”
a.
Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport
b.
Establishing a Culture for Learning
Domain 3, “Instruction”
a.
Communicating with Students
Domain 4, “Professional Responsibilities”
d.
Participating in a Professional Community
Mind Frame 8
Educators must communicate the
language of education to parents.
Teachers build trust and rapport with families.
Teachers provide clarity, support, and understanding of the
language of learning for parents.
Schools, leaders and teachers enhance the engagement of
students in their learning by bringing parents into the experience.
TPGES,
Domain 4, “Professional Responsibility”
a.
Reflecting on Teaching
b.
Maintaining Accurate Records
c.
Communicating with Families
F.
Demonstrating Professionalism
Meta-Meta Analysis: Hattie’s group designed
algorithms that related more than 900 “metaanalyses” including over 50,000 studies and
more than 240,000,000 students to measure
the impact—or “effect” — of 180 variables on
how “much” students learn in a year. The
original “study” took fifteen years to
complete. It is still going on. As new metaanalyzes are completed, the team includes
them in the research.
Percentage of Achievement Variance
Hattie’s Categories of Influences
Students
Teachers
Teaching
Curricula
Home
Peers
Principal
Schools
Reverse Effects are self-explanatory, and below 0.0.
Developmental Effects are d=0.0 to d=0.15, and the
improvement we expect to see in a child who simply
grows up with little or not schooling.
Teacher Effects – teacher typically can attain d=0.20 to
d=0.40 growth per year, and this can be considered
average (refer to median standard deviation). This is
subject to a lot of variation.
Desired Effects are those above d=0.40 which are
attributable to specific interventions or methods being
researched.
Six Sign Posts Toward Excellence in Education, p. 22
1. Teachers are among the most powerful influences in learning.
2. Teachers need to be directive, influential, caring and actively and passionately
engaged in teaching and learning.
3. Teachers need to be aware of what each student is thinking
and what they know and be able to construct meaning in light
of this knowledge of the students.
4. Teachers AND student need to know the learning intentions
and the criteria for student success.
5. Teachers need to move from the single idea to multiple ideas
and to relate and extend these ideas so that learners
construct and reconstruct knowledge.
6. School leaders and teachers need to create schools,
staffrooms and classroom environments in which error is
welcomed as a learning opportunity.
Effect Sizes of Influences on Achievement
from John Hattie
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
The benchmark: 0.40 + one year’s learning
over one year’s time
Effect sizes greater that 0.40 accelerate
student learning.
First – what could be so harmful
that we would need to plan
interventions to remove barriers,
compensate, contest or combat
its effect on learning?
Rank Influence
Studies Effect Effect What does this mean to us?
s
Size
150
Mobility
181
540
-.34
149
Television
37
37
.-18
148
Retention
207
207
-.13
146
Summer
Vacation
39
39
-.02
Regression in learning may require
RTI, re-teaching or acceleration.
145
Open vs
315
Traditional
Classrooms
315
.01
Structure and boundaries appear to
promote learning
133
Diet
23
125
.12
Breakfast and lunch programs;
school food banks and “back pack”
distribution
133
Gender
2926
6051
.12
If students make a friend in the first
6 weeks, effect of mobility negated.
We cannot promote passive
involvement with video stimulus.
Retention is a last resort . It hurts kids.
We often separate kids by gender
but never change our teaching.
There are influences that
have a better “effect size”
than those we just
examined, but they should
be used with caution.
Rank
Influence Studies Effects Effect What Could This Mean?
Size
119 Personality 234
1481
.19
We can teach students how to be
resilient, work hard and have “grit.”
114 Charter
Schools
18
18
.20
Charter schools appear to have a lower
impact on student learning than do
public or private schools.
113 Class
Size
96
785
.21
Smaller classes are NOT bad but NOT cost
effective. Again, no change in teaching.
106 Summer
School
105
600
.23
Summer school has little/no impact on
summer regression. Credit recovery.
1971
.28
Are the informal “brain breaks” used in
some classrooms actually helping with
the opportunity to learn?
CAI DOES have a positive effect, but it is
far more effective with teacher input,
guidance and feedback.
Think more about what Marzano called
“opportunity to learn” with time and a
viable curriculum.
96
Exercise / 227
Relaxation
Programs
77
Computer 4899
Assisted
Instruction
8914
.37
75
Time on
Task
136
.38
100
There are influences that
consistently have the
greatest “effect size” on
student learning.
Rank
Influence
Effect
Size
1
Student Expectations
for Their Own
Learning
1.44
2
Piagetian Programs
1.28
3
Response to
Intervention
1.07
4
Providing Formative
Evaluation
.90
4
Teacher Credibility
.90
6
Micro-teaching
.88
7
Classroom discussion .82
8
Teacher Clarity
.75
8
Feedback
.75
10
Reciprocal Teaching
.74
What does this mean to daily instruction?
Continue to teach in developmentally appropriate ways: sensorimotor (birth to 2 years old);
preoperational (2-7 years); Concrete Operation (7-11); Formal Operational (12 to adulthood)
As with our assessment literacy focus in Kentucky, assessment is used to inform
and adjust instruction so that students learn at an optimum level.
Similar to student teaching activities where a mini-lesson is taught and then a
mentor gives immediate feedback on teacher behaviors and student learning.
The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a group effort between teacher and students
as well as among students in the task of bringing meaning to the text
Rank Influence
Effect What does this mean to daily instruction?
Size
1
Student
1.44
Expectations 3 years’
for Their Own growth
Learning
2
Piagetian
Programs
Greatest impact on student learning. Describes
students who challenge themselves with high
expectations, work to meet them and achieve their
goals.
1.28
Continue to teach in developmentally appropriate
3 years’ ways: sensorimotor (birth to 2 years old);
growth preoperational (2-7 years); Concrete Operation (711); Formal Operational (12 to adulthood)
3
Response to 1.07
3rd most powerful influence – individual nature of
Intervention 2 years interventions targeted to student’s specific needs.
growth
4
Providing
Formative
Evaluation
.90
As with our assessment literacy focus in Kentucky,
2 years’ assessment is used to inform and adjust instruction
growth so that students learn at an optimum level.
4
Teacher
Credibility
.90
This should no longer be perceived as happenstance.
2 year’s Teachers can BUILD their credibility.
growth
Rank Influence
Effect What does this mean to daily instruction?
Size
6
Microteaching
.88
7
Classroom
discussion
.82
Teacher
Clarity
.75
Feedback
.75
8
8
Similar to student teaching activities where a mini2 years’ lesson is taught and then a mentor gives immediate
growth feedback on teacher behaviors and student
learning.
2 years’
growth
2 year’s
growth
2 years’
growth
10
Reciprocal
Teaching
.74
As in Mind Frame 5, teachers LISTEN and teach
students to listen to each other. Protocols.
Success Criteria - Specific learning goals stated in
student friendly language and related to their
interests.
Dollops and dollops of feedback that is specific,
related to the learning target and formative from
teacher to student and student to teacher.
The purpose of reciprocal teaching is to facilitate a
2 years’ group effort between teacher and students as well
growth as among students in the task of bringing meaning
to the text.
Help us write a conclusion and
come to closure on the
implications research by John
Hattie, as written in Visible
Learning and Visible Learning
for Teachers, SHOULD have
on our practice.
With your elbow partner,
please answer these two
questions:
1.
What does this information mean
to my school and me?
2. If we have the information, how
can we not help but act?
Unless someone like you
cares a whole awful lot,
nothing is going to get
better. It’s not.
Dr. Seuss
When teachers SEE learning
through the eyes of the
student and when students
SEE themselves as their own
teachers, visible learning
occurs.
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