Environmental Science 102

Environmental Science 102
Introduction to Environmental
Steve Dutch
LS 463
[email protected]
Course Material is Not on D2L!
What Is Environmental Science?
How Can I Get An A In This Class?
• The Good News: There Are Lots of Guides to
Help You
• The Bad News: They All Say Pretty Much What
Your Professors (and Parents) Say
• Worse News: It Looks Very Much Like Work
• Worst of All: It’s a Time Eater
– 2000 Hours to Proficiency
How Can I Get An A In This Class?
Develop Good Study Habits
Recognize And Hone Your Learning Styles
Use This Textbook Effectively
Will This Be On The Test?
Decide Today to get an A
Failure is an Option – Your Option
Deal with problems Immediately
Be Prepared to Change
Approaches to Truth and Knowledge
Analytical: Break down into component parts
Creative: Look for new approaches
Logical: Use orderly approach, test consistency
Critical: What are goals? How Good is Data?
Reflective: What does it all mean?
Learning Styles
Visual, Spatial: Maps, Diagrams, Charts
Verbal, Auditory: Lectures, Discussions
Logical: Find Patterns and Structure
Active: Hands-On, Labs, Field Trips
Where does it say you can only learn one
What Do I Need To Think Critically?
• Skepticism and Independence
– Question your own skepticism
• Open-Mindedness and Flexibility
– But Don’t Let Things Fall Out
• Accuracy and Orderliness
– Check Facts, Keep them Straight
• Persistence and Relevance
– Don’t Let Yourself be Sidetracked
• Contextual Sensitivity and Empathy
– Don’t let Yourself be Manipulated
What Do I Need To Think Critically?
• Facts
• The More the Better
– How Science Works
– What Science Has Determined
– Present Controversies
• What’s Known, Alleged, Unproven
• Who Supports What
– Cultural Awareness
Don’t Believe Everything You See, or
Hear On the News
• What Political Positions are Represented?
• Who Stands to Gain? Who’s Paying for the
• What Sources are Used and how Credible are
• Evidence? Statistics? Citations?
• One Sided versus Impartial?
• Facts and Logic versus Emotional Appeal?
Avoiding Logical Errors And Fallacies
Red Herring
Straw Man
Ad Hominem (Personal Targeting)
Generalization and Anecdotal Evidence
False Causality and Denial of Causality
– Most of the Time, Things Are What They Seem
• Non-Sequiturs, Missing Links
Avoiding Logical Errors And Fallacies
• Appeal to Ignorance (“Science Can’t Explain …”)
– Most of the Time, Science Can Explain It
• Appeal to Authority
• Begging (Evading) the Question
– “Begging” = Raising or Inspiring = Illiterate
• Word Games, Double Meanings, Loaded Terms
• Slippery Slope, Where do you Draw the Line?
• False Dichotomy
An issue is decided by:
• Facts and logic
• Not by who holds the position or why
• But those factors can alert us to:
– Possible bias
– Facts and logic that need checking
– What’s omitted
• Be Careful of Things That Mesh Too Well
With Your Own Beliefs
A Concept Map

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