Don*t Desert your ELLs in the Desert of Multiple

Report
Help you’re students serf or sale
the grate see of English!
Presented by
Mary T. Castañuela
The Nature of Language Proficiency:
BICS
CALP
Basic
Interpersonal
Communication
Skills
Cognitive
Academic
Language
Proficiency
• Conversational
• Textbook
language
Cummins, 1979
Levels of Language Proficiency
• Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
(BICS)
– Everyday language
– Communicative
– Universal across all native speakers
– Not related to academic achievement
– Usually attained within 2 years
Levels of Language Proficiency
• Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
(CALP)
–
–
–
–
Abstract, decontextualized language
Non-interpersonal
Related to literacy skills and academic achievement
CALP in L1 and L2 overlap despite differences in
surface features
– Usually develops in 5 to 7 years or longer depending on
individual and contextual variables
Academic Vocabulary
Subject Area
Level 1
(K-2)
Level 2
(3-5)
Level 3
(6-8)
Level 4
(9-12)
TOTALS
Mathematics
80
190
201
214
685
Science
100
166
225
282
773
History
General History
U.S. History
World History
162
0
0
560
154
245
319
123
301
270
148
297
1,311
425
843
ELA
83
245
247
223
798
TOTALS
425
1,560
1,416
1,434
4,835
Academic Vocabulary
• These terms are drawn from the national
standards.
• Some are critically important to the
understanding of a given subject area, others
are useful but not critical, and still others are
interesting but not very useful.
No Wonder our ELLs struggle!
But really – with what?
ELLs struggle with the following:
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Basic words (table, chart)
Correct meaning of simple words (state, power)
Connectors (so that, thereby)
Cognates (vapor, función)
Multisyllabic words (inconsistently)
Homophones, homographs, & homonyms
-Laura F. Vega, Dariusz Zdunczyk, &Liliana Minaya-Rowe
• Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading
comprehension.
• Comprehension depends on knowing between
90% and 95% of the words in a text.
• Knowing words means explicit instruction not
just exposure. Students need 12 production
opportunities to own a word.
-Laura F. Vega, Dariusz Zdunczyk, &Liliana Minaya-Rowe
Tier 1, 2, & 3 Words
• Tier 1 – Basic words needed in everyday
communication
• Tier 2 – general but sophisticated words –
“mortar” words that hold the content specific
area words together
• Tier 3 – Content specific – “brick” words
• Dutro & Moran (2003) refer to “brick” and
“mortar” terms as a way to distinguish
between content-specific vocabulary and
general cross-curricular academic language.
Vocabulary Tiers
Tier 1
run
fell
cars
pretty
Tier 2
sprinted
stumbled
automobiles
enchanting
Tier 3 Words
Equation
Photosynthesis
Simile
Democracy
Hypothesis
Acute
Tier 2 Words also include the following
categories of words across academic content
areas
• Homonyms
– They have the same spelling.
– They have the same pronunciation.
– However they have different meanings depending
on the context.
• Homographs
– They have the same spelling.
– They have different pronunciations.
– They have different meanings.
Tier 2 Words also include the following
categories of words across academic content
areas
• Homophones
– They have a different spelling.
– They have the same pronunciation.
– They have different meanings.
Homonyms
• Some of the most troublesome words for ELLs are
multiple meaning words.
• ELLs typically only know one meaning and it may not
be relevant to the context.
Bill
Homonyms
• Some examples are:
bank
table
right
leg
side
right
Word
Math Context
ELA Context
Science
Context
Social Studies
Context
Meter
The perimeter of the
The most
square is 8 meters. common meter
in English
poetry is
iambic
pentameter.
Acceleration is
usually
expressed in
meters per
second.
The results of
the mock
election will be
seen as a
meter of the
actual
outcome.
Table
Please fill out the
When selecting
table on your
an appropriate
worksheet with your
book, make
answers.
sure you look
at the table of
contents.
While you are
working on
your
experiment,
make sure you
fill out the
table on page
109.
The President
has tabled the
discussion at
this point.
Homographs
• Other troublesome words for ELLs are homographs.
• ELLs typically only know one pronunciation and one
meaning and it may not be relevant to the context.
wind
Homographs
• Some examples are:
wind
bow
present
close
wound
live
Homophones
• Another category of troublesome words for ELLs are
homographs.
• ELLs typically only know one spelling and one
meaning and it may not be relevant to the context.
cent
scent
sent
Homophones
• Some examples are:
waste/waist
pare/pair/pear
sell/cell
break/brake
rode/road
bored/board
How do we help our ELLs?
The “secret to teaching vocabulary is
keeping students interested in a word
long enough that their minds will have
time to absorb the many possible
meanings.”
Nilsen and Nilsen (2003)
How do we help our ELLs?
• Direct explicit instruction
• Rich discussions
• Teacher modeling
What are some activities that I can
implement within my classroom?
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Frayer Model
This is/This is NOT… organizer
Word Walls
Vocabulary Notebooks – Marzano
Go Fish Game
Phone Game
Foldables
Songs
2007 The Florida Center for Reading Research
http://www.fcrr.org/Curriculum/PDF/G4-5/45VPartThree.pdf
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Know or No Activity
Multiple Meaning Match Activity
All For One Activity
Undercover Meaning Activity
Defining Depictions Activity
What Do You Mean? Activity
Word-by-Word Activity
Since ewe are knot bound two you're chair
ewe are now bound two go two you're
next cession and afterwards ewe wheel
bee home bound. .
Region 15
Education Service Center
325-481-4068
[email protected]

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