World Teaches Day 2013 “A Call for Teachers!”

Report
Teachers Quality Learning & Citizenship
Conversations for Positive Social Change
“A Call for Teachers!” on World Teachers’ Day 2013 (5 October) –
With International and Local Partners: UNESCO, International Labour Organization (ILO), UNDP, UNICEF
and Education International (EI) – Ministries and Departments of Education & Teacher Unions
Since teachers are the most powerful force for equity, access and quality education,
a call for teachers means calling for quality education for all.
Quality education offers hope and the promise of a better standard of living.
There is no stronger foundation for lasting peace and sustainable development than a quality
education provided by well trained, valued, supported and motivated teachers.
Teachers’ professional knowledge and skills are the most important factor for quality
education. This World Teachers’ Day, we call for teachers to receive stronger training upfront
and continual professional development and support...
Irina Bokova, UNESCO Director-General
Why a Call for teachers?
There is a huge shortage of professional, well-trained and well-supported teachers
The challenge of recruiting teachers does not lie just in the numbers, but in the provision of
quality teachers. Far too often teachers remain under-qualified, poorly paid and with low status.
Lets Take a Stand for TEACHERS !
• A greater number of teachers are required if adequate provision of primary,
secondary, higher, technical and vocational, or non-formal education is to be assured.
• Teachers have a bigger role to play – what are the competencies in hand..? How can
we expand them? – Teachers With Imagination & Courage; Teachers Without Frontiers
• Are training institutions prepared for national and global challenges – multiple
literacies?
• Are Teacher Unions and Associations prepared to expand their horizons –bargaining for
rights – teachers’ status – child rights?
3
Article 25 A -18th Amendment –
Education A Constitutional Fundamental Right
State shall provide free and compulsory education to all
children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as
may be determined by law”.
Whose responsibility is Right to Education?
• The State
• Teachers
• Parents
• Society
Status of Right to Education Acts and OrdinancesProvision for teachers- in 25 A
• Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2012)-Islamabad Capital Territory
• Punjab RTE - Bill is ready but not shared with Public or tabled in the Assembly :
• Website of SED says : Draft for legislation under Article 25-A, has been prepared and submitted to the Law
Department. This law will be placed here after getting approval. Retrieved from:
http://www.schools.punjab.gov.pk/?q=new_article25a
• Right to Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2013)–Sindh
• Balochistan Free and Compulsory Education Ordinance (2013)
• No Rules made anywhere yet.. !
The unequivocal centrality of the clauses presented by each Act needs to be
recognized by all for timely action aligned to the core education mandates of
teacher unions and other stakeholders
5
Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act as passed by the Senate
(Islamabad Capital Territory); Clauses for Teachers – in the Act
17. Terms and conditions of service of teachers.(1) No person shall be appointed as a teacher unless he possesses the prescribed qualifications.
(2) Where the persons having the prescribed qualifications are not available, the appropriate
government may, by notification, relax the prescribed qualifications, for a period not exceeding
two years:
Provided that a teacher, who at the commencement of this Act, does not possess the prescribed
qualifications, shall acquire such qualifications within a period of two years.
18. Duties of teachers.(1) A teacher shall perform the following duties, namely:—
(a) maintain regularity and punctuality in attending the school;
(b) complete the curriculum and syllabi within the specified time;
Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act as passed by the Senate
(Islamabad Capital Territory); Clauses for Teachers
(c) assess the learning abilities of every child and supplement additional instructions, if any, as
required;
(d) all round development of the child;
(e) building up child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent;
(f) adopt learning through activities, discovery and exploration in a child friendly and child-centered
manner;
(g) make the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety and help the child to express views freely;
(h) hold regular meetings with parents and share with them the relevant information about the
child; and
(i) perform such other duties as may be prescribed.
(2) A teacher committing default in performance of duties specified in sub-section (1), shall be liable
to disciplinary action under the applicable service laws.
Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act as passed by the Senate
(Islamabad Capital Territory); Clauses for Teachers
19. Other teachers related matters.(1) The appropriate Government shall ensure that the prescribed Pupil-Teacher Ratio, is
maintained in each school within one year from the date of commencement of this Act.
(2) The appointing government shall ensure that vacancies of teachers in a school shall not
exceed ten per cent of the total sanctioned strength and such vacancy shall be filled within
four months.
(3) No teacher shall be deployed for any non-educational purposes other than the population
census, disaster relief duties or duties relating to elections.
(4) Every child completing his education shall be awarded a proper certificate, in such form and in
such manner, as may be prescribed.
(5) The grievances, if any, of a teacher shall immediately be redressed in such manner as may be
prescribed.
Teachers Unions/Association A Formidable Organized Force Globally &
Nationally – Teachers Part of the Problem but must be mobilized as Part
of a Very Big Solution
• Punjab has more than .6 million teachers as members of some union
/association :
• Punjab Teachers Union (PTU) – 450,000 members registered – oldest (1937) for
public sector teachers BS 9 to BS 19-punjabteachersunion.com/
• Primary, Elementary Teachers Association (PETA), Punjab,
• Secondary School Teachers Association
• Private Sector Schools Associations
• Each province has Teacher Unions and Associations organized from primary to
tertiary or University level –these are registered and well organized bodies
• Teacher Unions are a good platform for social and professional dialogues to
improve Quality Education responding to challenges in society and learning
9
Teachers in Pakistan- Scale
Type
2010-2011
2011-2012
-
-
Primary
436,928
427,400
Middle
334,984
351,400
High
395,709
458,700
Higher Secondary
81,103
97,600
Degree Colleges
36,349
40,200
Universities
63,557
70,100
1,348,630
1,445,400
Pre Primary
Pakistan
Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan (2012-2013)
Teachers by Province
Province
Total Number of Teachers
Share of Total (in %)
Punjab
752,361
54.71
Sindh
286,177
20.81
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
187,164
13.61
Balochistan
52,515
3.82
Islamabad Capital Territory
15,340
1.12
FATA
25,074
1.82
Azad Jammu and Kashmir
46,724
3.40
Gilgit-Baltistan
9,876
0.72
1,375,231
100
Pakistan
Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12
Challenge of Gender in Public Sector –
the Case of Gilgit Baltistan
Level
Male
Female
Total
-
-
-
Primary
2,970
1,608
4,578
Middle
2,440
1,152
3,592
High
398
542
940
Higher Sec.
120
72
192
Inter College
125
61
186
Degree College
287
101
388
6,340
3,536 (36%)
9,876
Pre-Primary
Total
Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12
Professional Competencies- Another Challenge !
Level
Primary
Professional Qualification
PTC
CT
B.ED/BS.Ed
M.Ed
Other Trained
Total
Middle
PTC
CT
B.ED/BS.Ed
M.Ed
Other Trained
Total
High
PTC
CT
B.ED/BS.Ed
M.Ed
Other Trained
Total
High Secondary
PTC
CT
B.ED/BS.Ed
M.Ed
Other Trained
Total
Pakistan
Gilgit Baltistan
150,487
55,377
57,065
7,417
46,342
316,688
9,409
21,879
40,484
6,977
38,894
117,643
9,609
25,520
68,089
24,531
55,897
183,646
965
3,028
13,898
9,183
8,072
35,146
579
900
1,678
89
44
3,290
283
443
1,681
107
17
2,531
10
8
29
47
5,868
Public & Private Sector Institutions
Province/
Region
Public Institutions
Institutions
Teaching Staff
Private Institutions
Institutions
Teaching Staff
Punjab
58,645
327,307
43955
415,653
Sindh
50,789
158,883
10179
121,551
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
27,636
120,472
6732
63,948
Balochistan
12,405
43,497
898
8,277
Islamabad Capital
Territory
418
9,412
504
5,746
FATA
5,625
20,495
330
4,530
Azad Jammu and Kashmir
6,170
31,264
1,957
15,114
Gilgit-Baltistan
1,112
6,495
436
2,949
162,800
717,825
64991
637,768
Pakistan
Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2011-12
CHALLENGES OF QUALITY & ACCESS
In Pakistan learning levels of 5-16 children
reveals (ASER 2012)
50% of Children in grade 5 unable
to reach competencies of grade 2 !
5.7 million children of primary age
group are out of school
25 million children 5-16 years are
out of school
The Education Emergency persists
in Pakistan - Who is taking notice?
close
ASER PAKISTAN 2012
Learning Levels- GB has better results!
Learning Levels – Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto
Class 2 level text
Children who can read story Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto
2011
% Children
100
2012
65
80
51
60
36
40
20
20
0
60
47
31
17
Class 3
Class 4
Language Learning levels for class 4 have improved by 5%
Class 5
since 2011
49% of Class 5 students cannot read Class 2 story
Class 6
Learning Levels (Class 5):
Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto
Learning Levels - English
Class 2 level text
Children who can read English sentences
2011
2012
% Children
100
80
63
48
60
40
34
19
20
0
56
41
25
13
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5
Class 6
Language Learning levels for class 4 have improved by 9% since 2011
Almost 52% of the children may complete primary without learning how to read fluently in
English at grade II competencies
Learning Levels (Class 5): English
g
Learning Levels - Arithmetic
Class 2 level
Children who can do division
2011
2012
% Children
100
80
58
60
44
29
40
20
0
15
52
37
22
10
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5
Language Learning levels for class 4 & 5 have improved by 7% since 2011
Almost 56% of the children may complete class 5 without learning how to do division
at grade II/III competencies
Class 6
Learning Levels (Class 5): Arithmetic
Learning levels – Boys vs. Girls
(5-16 Years)
 Girls continue to lag behind boys in learning levels
Learning levels by gender
English
37
Girls
45
Boys
Who can read at least sentences
100
80
60
40
20
0
Learning levels by gender
Arithmetic
100
40
Girls
48
% Childrern
100
80
60
40
20
0
% Children
% Children
Learning levels by gender
Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto
35
50
0
Girls
Boys
Who can read at least words
44
Boys
Who can at least do subtraction
Girls are behind boys by 9% in basic Arithmetic
Learning levels – Public vs. Private

Learning Levels are better in Private schools overall
Learning levels by school type
English
Learning levels by school type
Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto
100
60
40
69
83
58
Private
100
48
63
38
20
80
40
69
57
60
43
43
32
64
20
0
0
Class 1: Can read at least Class 3: Can read at least Class 5: Can read at least
small letters
words
sentences
Class 1: Can read at least Class 3: Can read at least Class 5: Can read at least
letters
sentences
story
 48% children in government and 63% children in private
schools in class 5 can read class 2 Urdu/Sindhi/Pashto
story.
 43% of the children in Government schools and 64% of
children in private schools can read English sentences.
Learning levels by school type
Arithmetic
Government
Private
100
% Children
% Children
80
Government
Private
% Children
Government
80
40
56
53
60
32
35
55
41
20
0
Class 1: Can recognize at
least numbers (10-99)
Class 3: Can at least do
subtraction
Class 5: Can at least do
division
School Attendance
Attendance - Students and Teachers
1 in every 5 children in government schools was absent from school
Overall attendance is better in Private schools
Children Attendance (%) on the day of visit
Government schools
Private schools
Primary
Elementary
High
Others
Overall
Primary
Elementary
High
Others
Overall
Children
attendance
79.1
84.3
85.5
79.0
82.4
85.5
86.2
86.8
82.5
86.2
Teacher
attendance
87.3
86.2
88.0
84.4
87.0
85.9
88.3
87.7
86.0
87.6
13% and 14% teachers in private and government schools respectively were found to be absent
Collecting Deeper Evidence by ITA Research & Governance Centre
Teacher Characteristics, Actions and Perceptions: What Matters
for Student Achievement in Pakistan?
2013
Shenila Rawal, Monazza Aslam and Baela Jamil
Background & Key Questions
• Drive for UPE, access and quality.
• ASER data (various years) consistently show a vast majority of pupils aged between five and
sixteen years of age lacking behind in basic competencies.
• Teacher quality recognised as one of the most significant institutional determinants of
academic success
• Improvements in teaching may be the most effective ways of raising educational quality
• However, debate regarding which characteristics of teachers are important is taking place.
• Key Question: what makes one teacher more effective than another?
• In this paper, teacher attitudes and opinions are investigated to give a more holistic approach
to researching teacher effectiveness and its impact on student learning.
Source and Methodology of Data Collection
• SchoolTELLS-Pakistan survey of 120 primary schools in rural Punjab.
• Survey covered three districts: Faisalabad, Mianwali and Rahim Yar
Khan.
• 20 villages from each district and two schools from each village (1
Government, 1 Private, where available) totalling sample 120 schools
overall.
• Each school visited once, teacher absence recorded.
• Series of questionnaires – school questionnaire, teacher questionnaire,
student questionnaires.
More on data…variables include
Students:
 Standard variables (age, gender etc.)
 Children’s aspirations
 Ability (Ravens test)
 Private tuition
 Details on their health in the last three years
 Their involvement with household chores as well as in the family business.
Teachers:
 Teacher’s age
 Qualifications
 Experience
 Political affiliations etc.
 Information on pedagogical style and time-on-task.
 Questions on teachers’ views on various aspects of the teaching profession
 A teacher test aimed at evaluating the teachers’ ability to teach at the primary school level.
Key findings: Actions, skills, perceptions?
• Ability to teach, subject matter knowledge and attitudes to teaching matter more
than observable teacher characteristics.
• Teachers’ salary not appear to significantly affect their students’ performance.
• Teachers’ levels of satisfaction with their salary rates also do not significantly impact
student outcomes.
• Teacher’s skills matter!
• The tests conducted on teachers in math and language aimed at understanding levels
of teacher skills and subject.
• Teachers maths scores are positively related to student outcomes.
Key findings: Attitudes, Perceptions & Competencies
• Perceptions and attitudes: Teachers who are dissatisfied with
the school’s facilities are also associated with poor student
performance.
• Those teachers who are associated with political parties and
those that are active in teacher unions have a significant
negative impact on student learning with low test scores than
for those taught by less politically active teachers. How can the
engagement be positive professionally for learning outcomes?
• Teachers who are confident in their maths teaching capabilities
have students who perform significantly better than those who
are less confident.
Key findings: Gender biases?
• Gender matching of teachers and students in Pakistan according to the findings is not of
significance.
• A large proportion of both male and female teachers are of the opinion that boys are more
capable in maths than girls.
• And more significantly a higher percentage of male teachers than female teachers are of the
opinion that boys are more enthusiastic about their studies.
• However, neither of these aforementioned biases appears to significantly impact on student
test scores.
• This suggests that although teachers in Pakistan may hold some gender biases about their
pupils’ capabilities, these do not appear to impact on the results of the children they teach.
Research Matters for Raising the Professional Status of Teachers
Pre STEP Initiative for Teacher Education in Pakistan – Ground
Baking Pre –Service Professional Development (2008-2013)
DOOR TOWARDS BECOMING A 21ST
CENTURY TEACHER
Pre STEP Supported :
• 22 Pakistani universities and 75 teacher
colleges to raise the level of academic
standards in teacher education programs
Delivered:
• 1887 scholarships
• 21 research grants to partner universities
and apex bodies to conduct research on
effective teacher preparation strategies
and their implementation
Teacher Licensing is the next Big Initiative and Will Elevate the Status of Teachers- We must do it!
Shifting Paradigm of Teacher EducationFrom In-Service Training to Continuous Professional Development
New Model
In-service Education
& Training
Pre-service Education
&Training
Box Adjusting Systematically to New Realities
1: From
•
Training Follow-Up
Other Pedagogical
Support
•
•
Incentives
Accountability
•
Accreditation and
Licensing
Source: Kiyani – DSD 2012
ISO 9001 - 2008
•
empty vessels to adult reflective
practitioners
From one-off training to long term systematic
training opportunities, at the local, provincial
and national levels
From fragmented dislocated training, to
processes in contexts and cultures that make
space for in-service capacity-building
opportunities addressing lifelong teacher
education
From skill training, to training on content
supported by school/curricular reforms
From isolated/individual efforts, to
collaborative processes where support groups
can be developed through mentors or District
Teacher Educators and Teacher Educators
From passive participants, to thinkers, actors
and key reform agents.
Addressing Teachers Shortages
A Total of 5.24 million teachers needed by
2015 world wide
57 million children of primary school age currently
out of school, 54 percent of them are girls
250 Million children are not learning
Situation in Pakistan
In each province/area the Education Sector
Plans being developed to identify teacher
shortages against targets of enrolments needed
for right to education 25 A for 5-16 year olds
Education needs higher allocations –
Beyond the 2 percent GDP and currently even
lower expenditures!
International Pledges and Commitments
• EFA Goals
• MDGs 2 & 3
• Emerging Post 2015 Development Agenda
• GMR UNESCO - Education Transforms Lives
Education For All Goals : Six internationally agreed education goals to meet the learning needs of all
children, youth and adults by 2015.
Goal 1
Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and
disadvantaged children.
Goal 2
Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic
minorities, have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality.
Goal 3
Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning
and life-skills programmes.
Goal 4
Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic
and continuing education for all adults.
Goal 5
Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by
2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality.
Goal 6
Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning
outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.
Pakistan is struggling to achieve these by December 2015!
The challenges of learning and governance are multiplying in Pakistan
The Post 2015 Challenges – 14 Core Areas For Our Teachers
A comprehensive and transformative agenda was discussed at the 68th UN General Assembly last week covering14
areas; Poverty, gender and education as cross cutting Each of the 14 areas is about education and teachers
engaging actively for understanding and action to make a difference to society and responsible citizenship.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Eradicate poverty in all its forms through a multifaceted approach;
Tackle exclusion and inequality;
Empower women and girls –with equal access of women and girls to all services;
Provide quality education and lifelong learning: Young people should be able to receive high-quality
education and learning, from early childhood development to post-primary schooling, including not only
formal schooling but also life skills and vocational education and training;
Improve Health ;
Address Climate Change;
Address environmental challenges;
Promote inclusive and sustainable growth and decent employment
End hunger and malnutrition;
Address the Demographic Challenges;
Enhance the Positive Contributions of Migrants;
Meet the challenges of urbanization;
Build peace and effective governance based on the rule of law and sound institutions and
Foster a renewed global partnership
Global Monitoring Report GMR - Proposed Goals
Education transforms lives- GMR
Education lights every stage of the journey to a better life,
especially for the poor and the most vulnerable.
That means making special efforts to ensure that
all children and young people – regardless of their family
income, where they live, their gender, their ethnicity,
whether they are disabled – can benefit equally from its
transformative power.
Education empowers girls and young women, in
particular, by increasing their chances of getting jobs,
staying healthy and participating fully in society – and it
boosts their children’s chances of leading healthy lives.
To unlock the wider benefits of education, all children
need the chance to complete not only primary school but
also lower secondary school. And access to schooling is
not enough on its own: education needs to be of good
quality so that children actually learn. Given education’s
transformative power, it needs to be a central part of any
post-2015 global development framework.
ITA Contributions – Research, Awards and Social
Dialogues for World Teachers Day 2004-2015
• Status of Teachers 2008
• Empowered Stories
-Social Dialogues
- Anita Ghulam Ali WTD Awards
-Mobilization of
Teachers Unions
-Research diversity
-Policy Round Tables
-Teacher Education
- Quality Assurance
Call for Empowered Teachers Stories Volume II - UNESCOITA
•
•
•
•
Details: ITA/IPL and UNESCO calls for Stories from Teachers in Pakistan on Best Practices
on National Professional Standards for Teachers 2009*
Full document for downloading at:
http://unesco.org.pk/education/teachereducation/files/National%20Professional%20Sta
ndards%20for%20Teachers.pdf & Ideas given below for each of the 10 Standards
The best 100 stories will be selected by an eminent panel of practitioners, each one
translated in Urdu/English to be published as "Stories from Empowered Teachers II"
2013 ;for use in classrooms and teacher education institutions across Pakistan
Who can write: Teachers from ALL SCHOOL SYSTEMS ACROSS PAKISTAN (as long as a
teacher is a practicing one )
Words’ Limit: 500-750 words - to be concluded with some key questions for tomorrows
teachers .. some ideas to consider at the end of the story
Important Dates: August 30- September 30th, 2013
43
A Call for Action
Some Pledges & Responses By Teacher Unions On September 8,
2013 International Literacy Day ..
• Get as many out of school children enrolled as
possible
• Impart education through modern teaching
methodologies in the classroom
• Focus on teacher and student learning outcomes by
emphasising on teaching abilities and interactive
learning environment
• Provision of free or subsidized education to
deserving students to encourage greater enrolment
• Lobby and advocacy with different stakeholders for
promotion and implementation of Article 25-A.
There is a dire
need to work
collectively at
all levels to
enhance Status
of Education in
Pakistan ----------A LONG WAY
OF STRUGGLE

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