Turkana Conflict Dynamisms
based on Natural Resources
Presented by:
Philip Loburi Louren GTCSN to COCOON
Greater Turkana Civil Society network
The organization was started on the 5th February
2,000, with an objective of giving voice to local
organizations. This followed the recommendation made
by members of District Steering Group (D.S.G.), a body
that supervises and coordinates development activities
in what was formerly referred as Turkana District (and
now Turkana County), in one of their meetings, that as
little is known about the development activities of local
organisations, an umbrella organisation should be
formed so as to have a representative sitting in the
District Steering Group now referred to as COUNTY
STEERING GROUP(DSG) who would be giving a report of
development tasks performed by local organisations.
Conflict Dynamism Highlights
Activity constitutional highlights
•Turkana people are among the communities living
along the Northern corridor of Kenya, in rift valley
province. They occupy the Turkana County and they
depend on pastoralism as they main livelihood,
followed by fishing, agro –pastoralism, petty trade,
and employment. In terms of citizenship, the
depressed, starving, poor and the most insecure
people are part of the 40 million strong Kenyans that
the constitution of Kenya in chapter four (4) part 1,
section 19; 1, 2, and 3 (a), (b), and (c). Chapter
fourteen (14) about National security; part 1, section
238 guarantees protection.
Conflict Dynamism Highlights
•Also on the same, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’
Rights; Articles 1; which state that the Member State of the
Organizations of African Unity parties to the present Charter
shall recognize the rights, duties and freedoms enshrined in
this Charter and shall undertake to adopt legislative or other
measures to give effect to them. Article 3; 1). Every individual
shall be equal before the law. 2). Every individual shall be
entitled to equal protection of the law.
•Article 22 (1). All peoples shall have the right to their
economic, social and cultural development with due regard to
their freedom and identity and in the equal enjoyment of the
common heritage of mankind.
•Article 23 (1). All peoples shall have the right to national and
international peace and security.
Conflict Dynamism Highlights
•The principals of solidarity and friendly relations implicitly
affirmed by the Charter of the United Nations and affirmed by
that of the organization of African Unity shall govern relations
between states.
•Articles 24: All peoples shall have the right to a general
satisfactory environment, favorable to their development.
•It is therefore in this observation that we prepare this report
to inform our intended legal action against the government’s
criminal negligence. The criminal neglect and silence has
allowed the Militia from Ethiopia, Uganda and Sudan to
continually slaughter, massacre and abduct Turkana people.
Conflict Frame works under
•The framework of Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation
•constitutes an inclusive paradigm within which issues of
•Justice, Peace, Development and Integrity of Creation need to
be situated and addressed by all religious groups and
associated organizations of humanitarian concern.
•This paradigm corresponds most favorably with the far
reaching changes that are taking place in International
Relations, Development and Peace Study strategies today.
Conflict Frame works under
•There is also a thrust forward towards understanding peace,
development and reconciliation as inseparable dimension of
religious and humanitarian activity.
There is an indispensable need for reconciliation if
genuine development of peoples is to take place.
• To engage in religious activity, concerned with peace,
development human rights and freedom of worship without
addressing conflict resolution and reconciliation, both in
theory and practice is inconsistent and contradictory.
Conflict Frame works under
•Greater Turkana Civil Society Network visited Todonyang area
where the opinion leaders and community members of
Lowareng’ak were interviewed on the happenings of the two
massacres and their reactions. The team was lead by the CEO
Mr. Eliud Emeri, Brent Eleman and Bakar Angela Citizen (royal
media). With the help of the St. Pauls’s Missionary priest Fr.
Ochieng of Todonyang Parish the following information was
The Five factors identified by
GTCSN on Natural Resource
“Us" versus “them" contrast
Long-standing animosity
Factor 1: Scarcity
2. Government sending security to stop ethnic based violence
11. Pasture scarcity
12. Water scarcity
13. Food scarcity
14. Livestock Scarcity (prolonged drought)
15. Inadequate security personnel
25. If vengeance wasn't performed by your community relations would be better
32. Greed is the ultimate cause of conflict
16. Scarcity of alternatives to pastoralism
Factor 2: Marginalization-aggression
3. Injustice against one ethnic community
4. Extreme poverty
5. Loss of livestock through theft/raiding
6. Competition for water holes
7. Competition for pasture
8. Killing of members of your ethnic
9. Distrust of a neighbouring ethnic community
10. Revenge for murdered fellow ethnic and/or raided livestock
Factor 3: Insecurity
1. Elder’s Negotiations
21. Raiding and killing without taking any belongings
18. Occurrence of cattle raids only
25. If vengeance wasn't performed by your community relations would be better
26. If your community secured its cattle/own lives better, raiding and killing would
not occurred
33. People who illegally carry guns
34. Seeing people under police arrest because of participation in acts of violence
35. Unprovoked culturally sanctioned violent aggression against the other
Factor 4: “Us" versus “them" contrast
17. Scarcity of infrastructural facilities
27. Importance of history in unifying your ethnic communities against a neighbouring
ethnic community
28. Importance of language in unifying your ethnic communities against a
neighbouring ethnic community
29. Importance of culture in unifying your ethnic communities against a neighbouring
ethnic community
30. Importance of religion in unifying your ethnic communities against a neighbouring
ethnic community
31. Possibility of remorse
Factor 5: Long-standing animosity
18. Occurrence of cattle raids only
19. Occurrence of cattle raids and killing when resisted
20. Occurrence of cattle raids and killing
22. Attacking because of different ethnic identity
23. Attacking/injuring/killing as a part of a rite
24. Attacking/injuring/killing because of long standing animosity
Competition for benefits from the Resources in Turkana County
Thank You
For Your

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