3 ½ minutes End Pass in your sheets Students will understand the changing values of revolutionary France by • Examining the influence of radical ideas on the revolution • Analyzing the effects of the Reign of Terror • Louis XVI is still on the throne as a new government is being negotiated • He agrees to uphold a new constitution that limits his power • France is still in chaos • Georges Danton rallies citizens to attack the King’s palace and violence erupts in the streets • Jean-Paul Marat emerges as a leader of the people • Jean-Paul Marat urged the poor to violently revolt against the nobility • He’s assassinated but… • He’s seen as a martyr for the revolution. • A National Convention is creates a new constitution • They abolish the monarchy and create the French Republic • French is consumed by rival parties • Girondins are more moderate. • Jacobins are radicals • Former King Louis XVI is executed on January 21st by guillotine • Now, the radicals are in control of the government The Guillotine: Embodies “Enlightenment Thinking” • Equality – everyone executed in the same way • Scientific – ends life quickly without pain • Unrest and rebellion across France because some groups don’t accept the new gov’t. • Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and the Dutch Republic all unite against France after the execution of King Louis XVI. • Maximilien Robespierre (and the Committee of Public Safety) gains broad power to protect the revolution from all threats. “We must smother the internal and external enemies of the Republic or perish with it; now in this situation, the first maxim of your policy ought to be to lead the people by reason and the people's enemies by terror.” Committee of Public Safety tries to reshape French society • Laws established for education and outlaw slavery • De-Christianization of France with deist principles like the Cult of the Supreme Being • Robespierre wanted it to become the new French Religion • Not successful because of devout French Catholics The Committee of Public Safety prosecutes anyone who it suspects is undermining the revolution. • Revolutionary Tribunals determine guilt and punishment • 300,000 arrested • 40,000 killed • Marie Antoinette and Olympe de Gouges both fall victim to the “National Razor” Insert DRK – Crane’s Court Room As many as 4,000 are drowned in Nantes after being accused of not supporting the revolution % of Different Social Classes Executed 7% 8% 28% Peasants and Farmers Working Class Bourgeoisie 25% Nobility Clergy 32% No, this is a totally reasonable way to voice your disagreements… • Robespierre’s terror further intensifies • Members of the National Convention, condemn Robespierre before he goes after them too • Robespierre is executed on July 28, 1794, the Jacobins lose power, and the Terror ends.