A history and insight into modern Haitian Life HAITI: HISTORY EARLY HISTORY It was the first Land Columbus landed on Fighting between dominance in the new world, 1697 France and Spain finally settled in dividing the land in half. Spain controlling Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) and Haiti controlling St. Domingue (Haiti) EARLY HISTORY CON’T. After revolts against France, Haiti became the first black republic on January 1st, 1804 and was the only successful slave revolt in the world. In tradition to Emperor Napoleon, Jean Jacques Dessalines declared himself emperor for life. EARLY HISTORY CON’T. In fear of French invasion, Haiti agreed to pay 150 gold francs in order to make up for lost profits. (This debt was reduced to 90 gold francs in 1838) EARLY HISTORY CON’T. Went through twenty-two heads of state. Most left office by violence and murder. Haiti was not considered a country by the America (for fear of slave uprisings) until Lincoln’s term in 1862. EARLY HISTORY CON’T. Private militias scared political opponents and were the major source of a government until the twentieth century. Due to German and American investments in Haiti, the governments wanted to put an end to this civil unrest. HAITI IN THE 20TH CENTURY In 1915 Woodrow Wilson deployed American Marines in order to stabilize the government. In 1934 the American government gave the power back to the Haitian army (the most structured government organization) HAITI IN THE 20TH CENTURY Protests and national strikes were frequent with the military ruling until 1946. At this time, Malgorie (backed by the wealthy and the military) took power and held the first elections in which Estime won. HAITI IN THE 20TH CENTURY Estime fostered labor laws and income tax. 1954 – Hurricane Hazel devastated the area. 1956 - Malgorie took over again. The corruption and political oppression implemented by Malgorie paved the way for the Duvalier regime. DUVALIER REGIME 1957 – Francois “Papa Doc” Duvalier won the presidency in (rigged) military elections. After rewriting the constitution, he claimed himself president for life. DUVALIER REGIME After a failed military coup, Duvalier created his own personal militia which was used to intimidate political opponents. An estimated 30,000 Haitians were killed by this militia during his 14 year rule. DUVALIER REGIME 1962 - Due to the corruption, JFK suspended all funding. “Papa Doc” disliked the mulatto (then the rich, lighter skinned people) and vowed for a “dark middle class.” Before his death he appointed his 19 year old son, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier. DUVALIER REGIME Those in power did not object due to a foreseen, consistent reign. Foreign, world powers resumed aid in 1971, seeing “Baby Doc” as a Play Boy and not a dictator. DUVALIER REGIME 1983- the 20th constitution since 1801 was written. Elections favored all Duvalier candidates. Due to famine and disease, the people of Haiti were intolerant to “Baby Doc’s” disregard for his nation and the riches he spent on himself. END OF THE DUVALIER REGIME 1985 – Protests swept the nation. Lt. General Henri Namphy and Colonel William Regala drove “Baby Doc” out of the country and to France. HAITI IN THE 1980S Army appointed Namphy president for two years during the transition to a democracy. New constitution of 1987 was approved by public vote. HAITI IN THE 1980S Elections were suspended after a Duvalier militia attacked and killed voters. Army-run elections led to Leslie Manigat becoming president, but Namphy overthrew, and Namphy was overthrown by Lt. General Prosper Avril. HAITI IN THE 1980S Avril terrorized political opponents with a private militia for the next two years. Resigned after the US Ambassador to Haiti (Alvin Adams) led elections. 1ST DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS December 16th 1990 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (politically active Roman Catholic priest) was well known for his support of the poor and opposition of the Duavlier regime. HAITI IN THE 1990S International community offered 500 million dollars in aid to better the country, but when Aristide was overthrown later that year, this money was suspended. HAITI IN THE 1990S Raul Cedras led a dictatorship and killed thousands of people while tens of thousands fled the country. At this time successful people who could flee (doctors, ect.) were the ones fleeing. (It was estimated that in 1969 there were more Haitian doctors in Montreal than Canadian doctors) RECENT HAITI 1994 – UN Security Council restored Aristide’s presidency and held elections in which Preval one. 2000 – Aristide won again, but votes weren’t considered valid and foreign aid was again suspended. RECENT HAITI In 2001, Preval became the first president of Haiti to leave office as a result of natural expiration of his term. Aristide was still sworn in in 2001 and the democratic convergence swore Gourge as their head of government. CURRENT GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT The government is a republic with a bicameral legislature. There are two houses, kind of how the United States has the House and the Senate. The legal system is based on the Napoleonic Code Excludes hereditary privileges and aims to provide equal rights to the population, regardless of religion or status PRESIDENT Rene Garcia Preval Unemployment rates fell to its lowest level when his term ended in 2001. Is a strong supporter of investigation and trials related to human rights violations. Gets most of his support from Haiti’s poorest people. PRIME MINISTER Jean-Mac Belerive Is head of the coordination of investments and foreign aid for Haiti. Highly recommended by Preval to become Prime Minister. Served three years as minister of planning and was the chief of staff before becoming Prime Minister. Brief History of THE ECONOMY 18TH CENTURY In colonial times, Haiti, or Saint Dominque, was a wealthy colony. When it gained independence from France, they owed 150 million gold francs in order for France not to invade. Haitian Revolution devastated agricultural output 1791-1803 # of plantati ons Crops 800 Sugar 3000 Coffee 800 Cotton 3000 Indigo 19TH CENTURY 1806 – Dual Economy North = forced labor on large plantations South = Small scale farming 1820 – Unified, peasantbased economy 1838 France reduced the debt to 90 gold francs. This was one cause of the limited social and economic reforms 1900S-1940S During the United States occupation between 1915 and 1934, there were economics benefits which included: US military built roads, telephones in Port-auPrince, bridges, schools, harbors, clinics, ect. Economics advisors overlooked the avocations of funds and stayed until 1941. 1900S-1950S CON’T. Economy boomed during the 1940s due to infrastructure and that exports were sold at higher prices than before. ECONOMY DURING THE DUVALIER REGIME Economy was based on personal patronage, institutionalized corruption and internal security concerns. Ex. No accounting records were kept on the Tobacco Administration. High taxes were brought on by the military, family’s vast expenses, and paramilitary security (known as the tonton makouts) ECONOMY DURING THE DUVALIER REGIME CON’T. The UN states that Haiti was the ONLY country in the world that did not experience economic growth in the 1950s and 1960s ECONOMY DURING THE 1970S There was a 5% economic growth in the 1970s due to: Foreign aid and investment and the Renewal of aid in 1973 Higher prices for coffee, sugar, cocao, oils, ect. Improved infrastructure The doubling of tourism ECONOMY DURING THE 1980S Down 2.5% PER YEAR from 1980 to 1985 Inflation and unemployment rose from 22% to 30% because: Suspension of aid because of human rights violations Worse ecological problems and decline in argiculture Bad media of politics and Haitians (AIDs) made tourism decline Economic Mismanagment ECONOMIC MISMANAGEMENT DURING THE 1980S Economic Mismanagement by “Baby Doc” Duvalier: Drug trafficking Stop of food aid Illegal resale and export of oil Fraudulent lotteries Export of blood plasma Manipulation of government contracts Tampering of Pension funds Ect. WORLD BANK Bazin, the World Bank Official, documented many cases of corruption and stated that “” at least 36% of government revenue was embezzeled ECONOMY TODAY Most people who work are small farmers and depend on their own labor. The average family of six people earns less than $500 a year. WHAT DOES HAITI HAVE TO OFFER? Small gold and copper reserves Assembly and manufacturing production Exported wood, sugarcane, cotton, coffee, used to be popular exports. Mangoes are the primary export along with cocoa, oils for cosmetics, ect. Illegal drug trafficking is a part of their current economy The People CULTURE LINGUISTICS Official language was been French for the majority of the nation’s history. Estimated 5%-10% speak fluent French Majority of people speak Kreyol (derived from French, but similar to creoles) ETHNIC RELATIONS Haitians refer to all outsiders (even those who are dark skinned from African ancestry) as blan (white) Dominican Republic has intense prejudice against Haitians In 1937 dictator Trujillo ordered a massacre of 15 to 35 thousand Haitians living in the Dominican Republic FOOD Rice and beans are the national dish Traditional rural staples include: Sweet potatoes, manioc, yams, corn, rice, pigeon peas, cowpeas, bread, and coffee. GENDER ROLES Men are dominant in the work-force. Women do the domestic house work RELIGION Official religion is Catholicism. 70% of Haitians are Catholic. LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHY NAMING OF THE COUNTRY “Haiti” means “mountainous country” and is from the Taino Indians who lived on the island before European colonization. 10,714 square miles Subtropics Second largest island in the Caribbean Tectonic Fault lines runs through the country and is associated with the Caribbean hurricane belt. THE EARTHQUAKE QUICK FACTS Strongest Haitian Earthquake since 1770 7.0 Magnitude 3 million people needed emergency medical aid 33 aftershocks hit (4.2 – 5.9 magnitudes) Killed over 200,000 people Over 1 million homeless QUICK FACTS CON’T. Most government who have offered help has yet to deliver this help 509 million has been given to Haiti (9% of what was promised) Doctors Without Boarders have received 112 million dollars to work there. HEALTHCARE HEALTH Common diseases: Malaria. Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Intestinal parasites, STDs Estimated 11% of Haitians between 22 and 44 are HIV Positive Life expectancy is 51 years old WHY? Absence of modern medical care has created deadly situations in treatable cases. Spiritual healers are prevalent and many believe that HIV can be cured through this.