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Report
A history and insight into modern Haitian Life
HAITI:
HISTORY
EARLY HISTORY


It was the first Land
Columbus landed on
Fighting between
dominance in the new
world, 1697 France and
Spain finally settled in
dividing the land in half.
Spain controlling Santo
Domingo (Dominican
Republic) and Haiti
controlling St. Domingue
(Haiti)
EARLY HISTORY CON’T.


After revolts against
France, Haiti became the
first black republic on
January 1st, 1804 and
was the only successful
slave revolt in the world.
In tradition to Emperor
Napoleon, Jean Jacques
Dessalines declared
himself emperor for life.
EARLY HISTORY CON’T.

In fear of French
invasion, Haiti agreed to
pay 150 gold francs in
order to make up for
lost profits. (This debt
was reduced to 90 gold
francs in 1838)
EARLY HISTORY CON’T.


Went through twenty-two
heads of state. Most left
office by violence and
murder.
Haiti was not considered
a country by the America
(for fear of slave
uprisings) until Lincoln’s
term in 1862.
EARLY HISTORY CON’T.


Private militias scared
political opponents and
were the major source
of a government until
the twentieth century.
Due to German and
American investments
in Haiti, the
governments wanted to
put an end to this civil
unrest.
HAITI IN THE 20TH CENTURY


In 1915 Woodrow Wilson
deployed American
Marines in order to
stabilize the government.
In 1934 the American
government gave the
power back to the
Haitian army (the most
structured government
organization)
HAITI IN THE 20TH CENTURY


Protests and national
strikes were frequent
with the military ruling
until 1946.
At this time, Malgorie
(backed by the wealthy
and the military) took
power and held the first
elections in which
Estime won.
HAITI IN THE 20TH CENTURY




Estime fostered labor
laws and income tax.
1954 – Hurricane Hazel
devastated the area.
1956 - Malgorie took
over again.
The corruption and
political oppression
implemented by Malgorie
paved the way for the
Duvalier regime.
DUVALIER REGIME


1957 – Francois “Papa
Doc” Duvalier won the
presidency in (rigged)
military elections.
After rewriting the
constitution, he claimed
himself president for
life.
DUVALIER REGIME

After a failed military
coup, Duvalier created
his own personal militia
which was used to
intimidate political
opponents.

An estimated 30,000
Haitians were killed by
this militia during his 14
year rule.
DUVALIER REGIME



1962 - Due to the
corruption, JFK
suspended all funding.
“Papa Doc” disliked the
mulatto (then the rich,
lighter skinned people)
and vowed for a “dark
middle class.”
Before his death he
appointed his 19 year old
son, Jean-Claude “Baby
Doc” Duvalier.
DUVALIER REGIME


Those in power did not
object due to a foreseen,
consistent reign.
Foreign, world powers
resumed aid in 1971,
seeing “Baby Doc” as a
Play Boy and not a
dictator.
DUVALIER REGIME



1983- the 20th
constitution since 1801
was written.
Elections favored all
Duvalier candidates.
Due to famine and
disease, the people of
Haiti were intolerant to
“Baby Doc’s” disregard for
his nation and the riches
he spent on himself.
END OF THE DUVALIER REGIME


1985 – Protests swept
the nation.
Lt. General Henri
Namphy and Colonel
William Regala drove
“Baby Doc” out of the
country and to France.
HAITI IN THE 1980S


Army appointed Namphy
president for two years
during the transition to
a democracy.
New constitution of
1987 was approved by
public vote.
HAITI IN THE 1980S


Elections were
suspended after a
Duvalier militia attacked
and killed voters.
Army-run elections led to
Leslie Manigat becoming
president, but Namphy
overthrew, and Namphy
was overthrown by Lt.
General Prosper Avril.
HAITI IN THE 1980S


Avril terrorized political
opponents with a
private militia for the
next two years.
Resigned after the US
Ambassador to Haiti
(Alvin Adams) led
elections.
1ST DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS


December 16th 1990
Jean-Bertrand Aristide
(politically active Roman
Catholic priest) was well
known for his support of
the poor and opposition
of the Duavlier regime.
HAITI IN THE 1990S

International community
offered 500 million
dollars in aid to better
the country, but when
Aristide was overthrown
later that year, this
money was suspended.
HAITI IN THE 1990S


Raul Cedras led a
dictatorship and killed
thousands of people while
tens of thousands fled the
country.
At this time successful
people who could flee
(doctors, ect.) were the
ones fleeing.

(It was estimated that in
1969 there were more
Haitian doctors in Montreal
than Canadian doctors)
RECENT HAITI


1994 – UN Security
Council restored
Aristide’s presidency
and held elections in
which Preval one.
2000 – Aristide won
again, but votes weren’t
considered valid and
foreign aid was again
suspended.
RECENT HAITI


In 2001, Preval became
the first president of
Haiti to leave office as a
result of natural
expiration of his term.
Aristide was still sworn in
in 2001 and the
democratic convergence
swore Gourge as their
head of government.
CURRENT GOVERNMENT
GOVERNMENT

The government is a
republic with a bicameral
legislature.


There are two houses, kind
of how the United States has
the House and the Senate.
The legal system is based
on the Napoleonic Code

Excludes hereditary
privileges and aims to
provide equal rights to the
population, regardless of
religion or status
PRESIDENT

Rene Garcia Preval



Unemployment rates fell
to its lowest level when
his term ended in 2001.
Is a strong supporter of
investigation and trials
related to human rights
violations.
Gets most of his support
from Haiti’s poorest
people.
PRIME MINISTER

Jean-Mac Belerive



Is head of the
coordination of
investments and foreign
aid for Haiti.
Highly recommended by
Preval to become Prime
Minister.
Served three years as
minister of planning and
was the chief of staff
before becoming Prime
Minister.
Brief History of
THE ECONOMY
18TH CENTURY


In colonial times, Haiti,
or Saint Dominque, was
a wealthy colony. When
it gained independence
from France, they owed
150 million gold francs
in order for France not
to invade.
Haitian Revolution
devastated agricultural
output 1791-1803
# of
plantati
ons
Crops
800
Sugar
3000
Coffee
800
Cotton
3000
Indigo
19TH CENTURY

1806 – Dual Economy





North = forced labor on large
plantations
South = Small scale farming
1820 – Unified, peasantbased economy
1838 France reduced the
debt to 90 gold francs.
This was one cause of the
limited social and economic
reforms
1900S-1940S

During the United States
occupation between 1915
and 1934, there were
economics benefits which
included:


US military built roads,
telephones in Port-auPrince, bridges, schools,
harbors, clinics, ect.
Economics advisors
overlooked the avocations
of funds and stayed until
1941.
1900S-1950S CON’T.

Economy boomed during
the 1940s due to
infrastructure and that
exports were sold at
higher prices than
before.
ECONOMY DURING THE DUVALIER REGIME

Economy was based on
personal patronage,
institutionalized
corruption and internal
security concerns.


Ex. No accounting records were
kept on the Tobacco
Administration.
High taxes were brought
on by the military, family’s
vast expenses, and
paramilitary security
(known as the tonton
makouts)
ECONOMY DURING THE DUVALIER REGIME
CON’T.

The UN states that Haiti
was the ONLY country in
the world that did not
experience economic
growth in the 1950s and
1960s
ECONOMY DURING THE 1970S

There was a 5%
economic growth in the
1970s due to:





Foreign aid and
investment and the
Renewal of aid in 1973
Higher prices for coffee,
sugar, cocao, oils, ect.
Improved infrastructure
The doubling of tourism
ECONOMY DURING THE 1980S


Down 2.5% PER YEAR from
1980 to 1985
Inflation and
unemployment rose from
22% to 30% because:




Suspension of aid because
of human rights violations
Worse ecological problems
and decline in argiculture
Bad media of politics and
Haitians (AIDs) made
tourism decline
Economic Mismanagment
ECONOMIC MISMANAGEMENT DURING THE
1980S

Economic
Mismanagement by “Baby
Doc” Duvalier:








Drug trafficking
Stop of food aid
Illegal resale and export of
oil
Fraudulent lotteries
Export of blood plasma
Manipulation of
government contracts
Tampering of Pension
funds
Ect.
WORLD BANK

Bazin, the World Bank
Official, documented
many cases of corruption
and stated that “” at
least 36% of government
revenue was embezzeled
ECONOMY TODAY


Most people who work
are small farmers and
depend on their own
labor.
The average family of
six people earns less
than $500 a year.
WHAT DOES HAITI HAVE TO OFFER?





Small gold and copper
reserves
Assembly and
manufacturing production
Exported wood, sugarcane,
cotton, coffee, used to be
popular exports.
Mangoes are the primary
export along with cocoa,
oils for cosmetics, ect.
Illegal drug trafficking is a
part of their current
economy
The People
CULTURE
LINGUISTICS

Official language was
been French for the
majority of the nation’s
history.


Estimated 5%-10%
speak fluent French
Majority of people
speak Kreyol (derived
from French, but similar
to creoles)
ETHNIC RELATIONS


Haitians refer to all
outsiders (even those who
are dark skinned from
African ancestry) as blan
(white)
Dominican Republic has
intense prejudice against
Haitians

In 1937 dictator Trujillo
ordered a massacre of 15 to
35 thousand Haitians living
in the Dominican Republic
FOOD


Rice and beans are the
national dish
Traditional rural staples
include:

Sweet potatoes, manioc,
yams, corn, rice, pigeon
peas, cowpeas, bread,
and coffee.
GENDER ROLES


Men are dominant in the
work-force.
Women do the domestic
house work
RELIGION

Official religion is
Catholicism.

70% of Haitians are
Catholic.
LOCATION AND GEOGRAPHY
NAMING OF THE COUNTRY

“Haiti” means
“mountainous
country” and
is from the
Taino Indians
who lived on
the island
before
European
colonization.




10,714 square miles
Subtropics
Second largest island in
the Caribbean
Tectonic Fault lines runs
through the country and
is associated with the
Caribbean hurricane belt.
THE EARTHQUAKE
QUICK FACTS






Strongest Haitian
Earthquake since 1770
7.0 Magnitude
3 million people needed
emergency medical aid
33 aftershocks hit (4.2
– 5.9 magnitudes)
Killed over 200,000
people
Over 1 million homeless
QUICK FACTS CON’T.



Most government who
have offered help has yet
to deliver this help
509 million has been
given to Haiti (9% of what
was promised)
Doctors Without
Boarders have received
112 million dollars to
work there.
HEALTHCARE
HEALTH

Common diseases:



Malaria. Typhoid,
Tuberculosis, Intestinal
parasites, STDs
Estimated 11% of
Haitians between 22
and 44 are HIV Positive
Life expectancy is 51
years old
WHY?


Absence of modern
medical care has created
deadly situations in
treatable cases.
Spiritual healers are
prevalent and many
believe that HIV can be
cured through this.

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