Truman Doctrine & The Marshall Plan •How did the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan escalate the Cold War? •Were their causes based on fear of the Soviets or competition with the Soviets? A) Truman Doctrine • Reasons for its creation: – Greece was fighting a war against the Communists with help from Britain – Britain could no longer support Greece (Feb 1947) and they withdraw troops – Truman is fearful that without support, Greece would fall to Communists – Reaction to “salami tactics”/ collection of states as buffer zones? Speech 1947 “The gravity of the situation which confronts the world today necessitates my appearance before a joint session of the Congress. The foreign policy and the national security of this country are involved. One aspect of the present situation, which I present to you at this time for your consideration and decision, concerns Greece and Turkey. The United States has received from the Greek Government an urgent appeal for financial and economic assistance. Preliminary reports from the American Economic Mission now in Greece and reports from the American Ambassador in Greece corroborate the statement of the Greek Government that assistance is imperative if Greece is to survive as a free nation. I do not believe that the American people and the Congress wish to turn a deaf ear to the appeal of the Greek Government. Greece is not a rich country. Lack of sufficient natural resources has always forced the Greek people to work hard to make both ends meet. Since 1940, this industrious, peace loving country has suffered invasion, four years of cruel enemy occupation, and bitter internal strife.” Key Points of the Speech • Help Greece for: – – – – – Defending freedom Aiding a poor and weak military with money and military Rebuilding their economy – self sustaining Putting down “terrorist” communists “There is no other country to which democratic Greece can turn. No other nation is willing and able to provide the necessary support for a democratic Greek government.” “The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world. And we shall surely endanger the welfare of this nation.“ – “We have considered how the United Nations might assist in this crisis. But the situation is an urgent one, requiring immediate action, and the United Nations and its related organizations are not in a position to extend help of the kind that is required.” Significance of the Truman Doctrine • Breaks the American tradition of isolationism • Premise for the Marshall Plan • Act of Collective Security (UN) – but issue of aid never brought to the UN • Enflames the fear of the spread of Communism • Communists in Greece were not supported by Stalin – supported by Yugoslavia – Stalin recognized Britain’s position in Greece Edvard Kardelj’s (communist leader in Greece) answer when asked by Stalin if he believed in the success of the Greek uprising: “if foreign intervention does not grow and if serious political and military errors are not made…” Stalin interrupts: “if, if… No, they have no prospect of success at all. What do you think – that Britain and the US – the US, the most powerful state in the world – will permit you to break their lines of communication in the Mediterranean? Nonsense. And we have no Navy” Stalin concludes that the Greek Civil war needs to be “rolled up” (concluded) Studies in the History of the Greek Civil War, 1945-1949 By Lars Bærentzen, John O B) Marshall Plan • Reasons for its creation: – Europe entering another postwar depression (unemployment and social unrest) • Protect against the spread of Communism – Protect democratic/capitalist trading partners so that the US itself would not fall into a depression – America was the only country able to financially aid Western Europe – Soviet sponsored coup in Czechoslovakia takes over George C. Marshall’s Speech 1947 “For the past 10 years conditions have been highly abnormal. The feverish preparation for war and the more feverish maintenance of the war effort engulfed all aspects of national economies. Machinery has fallen into disrepair or is entirely obsolete. Under the arbitrary and destructive Nazi rule, virtually every possible enterprise was geared into the German war machine.” “The truth of the matter is that Europe's requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products--principally from America--are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character.” Key Points • Economic records of countries seeking aid needed to be publicized • Country seeking aid needed to submit a plan • Open to Soviet countries as well Significance “Churchill's words won the war, Marshall's words won the peace.” Dirk Stikker Foreign Minister The Netherlands, 1948-1952 “The Marshall speech … was greeted as a great act of statesmanship and as an expression of what we felt was genuine idealism on the part of the United States.” Halvard Lange Minister of Foreign Affairs Norway, 1946-1965 Significance • Over $13 Billlion of aid given to western European nations from 1948-1952 • Created strong trade markets for the US • Communist countries invited to partake but Molotov (foreign minister) refused – Molotov Plan to counter – Russia lacked funds to give aid and was instead a trade agreement • Strengthen Western Germany to defend against Communism • Stalin responds by not allowing coalition governments in Soviet countries Soviet Union Reacts • Creation of the Cominform to organize communist parties around the world – Provoke strikes in non-communist nations – Solidify existing communist countries – Unsuccessful and is disbanded in 1956 • Comecon (council for Mutual Economic Assistance) – Trade networks made in Eastern Europe – Forced to buy Soviet products – Raw materials sold at high prices to Eastern Europe while their goods were sold back to Russia at low prices (ends in the 1970s) A British cartoon of June 1947 shows Truman and Stalin as two taxi-drivers trying to get customers. The 'customers' are labelled 'Turkey', 'Hungary', 'Bulgaria', 'Austria'.