Breads

Report
Ch. 22
Please use workbook p. 113 to take notes during the
presentation
Categories of Breads
Quick Breads
Yeast Breads
 Prepare in a short amount of
 Require more time to prepare
 Breads
 Rolls
 English muffins
 Raised doughnuts
 crullers
time
 Biscuits
 Muffins
 Popovers
 Cream puffs
 Pancakes
 Waffles
 Coffee cakes
Selecting and Storing Baked
Products
 Quick breads and yeast breads are baked products
 Freshly Baked – ready to eat
 sold in bakeries, in bakery sections of supermarkets, and
on supermarket shelves
 Brown-and-Serve – partially baked, need a final
browning in the oven
 sold in bakery sections of supermarkets
Selecting and Storing Baked
Products
 Refrigerated dough – ready to bake
 found in refrigerated sections of supermarkets
 Frozen dough – require thawing, proofing, and/or
baking
 Found in freezer section of supermarkets
Cost of Baked Products
 Cost of baked products depends on the amount of
convenience
 Ready-to-serve costs more than frozen
 Bread costs depend on size, extra ingredients, and
brand
Storing Baked Products
 Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in
freezer tightly wrapped
 Freezing bread in hot humid weather prevents mold
growth
 Remove slices from freezer as needed, thaw and eat
 Refrigerate products with cream, custard, or other
perishable fillings
 Keep refrigerated doughs refrigerated or frozen doughs
frozen until you plan to bake them
Quick Breads
Batters
Doughs
 Range in consistency
 Large amount of flour and
 Pour batters – large amount
small amount of liquid
 Can be shaped by hand
of liquid and small amount of
flour
 Pancakes & popovers
 Drop Batters – high
proportion of flour and low
proportion of liquid
 Biscuits & muffins
 Shortcake & rolled biscuits
Flour
 Gives structure to baked products
 White wheat most often used in baking
 All-purpose flour used in most recipes
 Self-rising flour – all purpose flour with added
leavening agents and salt
Leavening Agents
 Ingredients that produce gases in batters and doughs
 Make baked products rise and become light and
porous
 Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) – an alkaline
ingredient
 Used in recipes that contain acidic ingredients
 Acids balance the alkali preventing bitter taste

Buttermilk, molasses, brown sugar, vinegar, honey, apple
sauce and other fruit, and citrus juices
Leavening Agents
 Baking Powder – contain dry acid, baking soda, and
starch or flour
 Using too much will cause too much carbon dioxide and
your baked goods will collapse and become small and
compact
 Steam – produced when liquid ingredients reach high
temperatures during baking
 Air – incorporated into baked goods by beating eggs,
creaming fat and sugar, and beating batters
 All baked products contain some air
Liquids
 Water, milk, fruit juices, eggs, and fats
 Hydrate protein and starch in flour
 Proteins must absorb water to form gluten
 Starch must absorb water to gelatinize during baking
 Moisten or dissolve ingredients
 Baking powder, salt, and sugar
 Leaven baked goods when converted to steam
Fat
 Tenderize baked products
 Fat coats the flour particles and causes the dough
structure to separate into layers
 Aids in leavening
 When beaten air bubbles form and the fat traps the air
bubbles and hold them
Eggs
 Incorporates air into baked products
 Adds color and Flavor
 Contributes to structure
 During baking, the egg proteins coagulate
 The coagulated proteins gives the batter or dough
elasticity and structure
Sugar
 Adds sweetness to baked products
 Tenderizes crusts
 Aids in browning
 In yeast breads, sugar serves as food for yeast
 Brown sugar produces baked goods that are moister
than products made with granulated sugar
Salt
 Adds flavor to baked products
 In yeast breads, it regulates the action of the yeast and
inhibits the action of certain enzymes
 If yeast breads contain no salt they will produce carbon
dioxide too quickly and be difficult to handle and have a
poor appearance.
Adjusting Ingredients
 Baking powder, fat, eggs, sugar, and salt each perform
certain functions in baked goods
 Some recipes call for more of these ingredients than
necessary
 Cutting down on unneeded ingredients will result in
breads that are lower in calories, fat, and sodium
Please take a moment to complete workbook p. 114.
The chart on p. 390 will help you.
Please use workbook p. 115 to take notes during the
presentation
Food Science Principles
 Gluten – a protein that gives strength and elasticity to
batters and doughs and structure to baked products
 It holds leavening gases which make quick breads rise
 Gluten is created from gliadin and glutenin
 When you combine wheat flour with a liquid and stir or
knead it, the gliadin and glutenin combine to form
gluten
Example
 When you first start to chew bubble gum, it is soft and
easy to chew
 As you chew the gum, it becomes more elastic, and you
can blow bubbles
 As you continue to chew for a long time, it becomes so
elastic it makes your jaw hurt
Gluten
 Gluten behaves in a similar way
 If you mix or handle a batter or dough too much, the
gluten will over develop and the bread will be compact
and tough
 To keep quick bread light and tender, mix only a short
period of time
Types of Flour
 Different types of white wheat flour contain different
amounts of gliadin and glutenin
 The strength of the gluten produced by each flour
differs
 In baking, you must use they type of flour listed or the
texture will come out wrong
 Ex. Yeast breads have a strong gluten structure, cakes
have a delicate gluten structure and quick breads fall in
between
Food Science at Work
 Chemical reactions in quick breads produce leavening
gases
 Baking soda is an alkali, when combined with an acid,
it releases carbon dioxide
 Acids help neutralize the batter, which would otherwise
have a bitter taste and off color
 Baking Powders are often double-acting
 They release some carbon dioxide when they are
moistened, then release most of their carbon dioxide
when they are heated
Preparing Biscuits
 Biscuit Method
 Involves sifting dry ingredients together in a mixing
bowl
 Use a pastry blender or knives to cut fat into the dry
ingredients
 Continue cutting until the particles are the size of coarse
cornmeal
 Add liquid all at once, and stir until dough forms a ball
Preparing Biscuits
 Dry ingredients
 Flour, baking powder, and salt

May use self-rising flour, which is a combo of all three
 Liquid ingredients
 Milk to buttermilk
 Drop Biscuits – drop from a spoon onto a greased
cookie sheet
 Contain higher proportion of liquid
 Rolled biscuits – knead the dough, roll into a circle
and cut dough with a biscuit cutter and bake on an
ungreased baking sheet.
Characteristics of Rolled Biscuits
 Have an even shape with a smooth, level top and
straight sides
 Crust is an even brown
 When broken open the crumb is white
 Moist and fluffy, peels into layers
 Under mixed – low volume and rounded top (rough)
 Over mixed – low volume and rounded top (smooth)
Preparing Muffins
 Muffin Method
 Measure dry ingredients into a mixing bowl
 Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients
 In a separate bowl, combine beaten eggs with milk and oil or
melted fat
 Pour all the liquids into the well of dry ingredients
 Stir the batter until just moistened
Preparing Muffins
 Dry ingredients
 Flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar

Fruits, nuts, cheese, and other ingredients may be added
 Liquid ingredients
 Milk or water, eggs, and fat
 After combining ingredients, drop muffin batter into a
greased muffin pan and bake
Characteristics of Muffins
 Thin, evenly brown crust
 Top is symmetrical, but looks rough
 When broken apart, texture is uniform
 Crumb is tender and light
 Under mixed – low volume, coarse crumb, and flat top
 Over mixed – peaked top, pale slick crust, and when
broken apart, narrow tunnels are visible
Preparing Popovers
 Use the muffin method when preparing popovers
 Place in a hot oven for the first part of baking
 Allows steam to expand walls of the popover
 Lower oven temperature to prevent over browning
 DO NOT open door to check popovers
 This will cause popovers to collapse
Characteristics of Popovers
 Good volume
 Shell is golden brown and crisp
 Interior contains slightly moist strands of dough
 Under baked – collapses when removed from oven,
exterior is soft, interior will be doughy
 Over baked – over browned exterior, dry interior
Preparing Cream Puffs
 Cream Puff Method
 Bring water and fat to a boil
 Add flour and stir vigorously over low heat until the
mixture forms a ball
 Remove mixture from heat, stir in eggs until mixture is
smooth
 This mixture is called puff paste
Preparing Cream Puffs
 Drop puff paste onto an ungreased baking sheet
 Bake in a hot oven to rise, then lower temperature to
prevent overbrowning
 DO NOT open door to check cream puffs
 This will cause the steam to condense and the cream
puffs will collapse
Characteristics of Cream Puffs
 Good volume
 Brown, tender crust
 Interior should be hollow
 Under baked - collapses when removed from oven,
exterior is soft, interior will be doughy
 Evaporation of too much liquid will cause cream puffs
to ooze fat
Storing Quick Breads
 Store freshly baked items at room temperature or in
freezer tightly wrapped
Please use workbook p. 116 to take notes during the
presentation
Flour
 All purpose flour can be used for most yeast breads
 Bread flour contains larger amounts of gliadin and
glutenin making it ideal for bread machines
 This is ideal because the action of the bread machine
requires stronger gluten.
 Whole wheat, rye, corn, soy, and oat flours have lower
protein content than all purpose
 This creates loaves that are denser or more compact
 These flours are generally used in combination with all
purpose flour to create lighter loaves
Liquid
 Plain water, potato water, milk, buttermilk, fruit juices,
applesauce, and cottage cheese
 Milk produces a softer crust and helps breads stay
fresh longer than water
 Temperature of liquids affect yeast cells.
 Liquids too cold can stop yeast activity
 Liquids too hot can kill yeast
 105°F - 115°F
Salt
 Regulates the action of the yeast
 Without salt, dough is sticky and hard to handle
 When baked loaf will look moth-eaten
 Omitting salt can cause the top of the loaf to collapse
Yeast
 A microscopic single-celled fungus that causes baked
products to rise
 Available in three forms
 Compressed – made from fresh, moist cells that are
pressed into cakes
 Active Dry – made from an active yeast strain that has
been dried and made into granules
 Fast-rising – highly active yeast strains that have been
dried and made into smaller granules that cause them to
act more quickly.
Yeast
 Active dry & fast acting are both available in foil packets
and glass jars
 Should be stored in a cool dry place – refrigerate after opening
 Buy in small quantities and use promptly – may be frozen
 Using too much yeast will cause dough to rise too quickly
 Excess yeast gives bread undesirable flavor, texture, and
appearance
Sugar
 Types – granulated, brown sugar, honey, molasses
 Influence browning, flavor, and texture
 Provide extra food for the yeast
 Too much sugar will cause dough to rise more slowly
 Bread machines have special cycles for sweet breads
Fat
 Increases the tenderness of yeast breads
 Fat is optional in some traditional recipes (made by
hand) but is required in bread machine recipes
 Most use solid fat (lard, butter, margarine, shortening)
but some call for oil
Eggs
 Add flavor and richness to breads
 Add color and improve structure
 Adding an egg to recipes that call for whole grain flour
will improve structure and volume.
 Eggs are considered a liquid ingredient in yeast breads
 If you add an egg to the recipe decrease the liquids by ¼
cup
Other Ingredients
 Added to yeast breads for flavor and variety.
 Suggestions:
 Raisins
 Nuts
 Cheese
 Herbs
 Spices

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