Organization of an Organic Chemistry Laboratory

an Organic Chemistry Laboratory
Organic chemistry laboratories are
mainly specified to conduct
organic chemistry research
studies, in particular organic
synthesis studies.
Benches & Hoods
General Glassware and Metal Equipment
1- Reaction flasks (Vessels):
2- Condensers
3- Addition & Separation Funnels
4- Beakers & Erlenmeyer Flasks
These glass equipments are widely used for diverse aims in
organic synthesis studies.
5- Graduated Cylinders & Pipettes
These glass equipments are used to transfer a certain
amount of liquid.
6- Funnels
7- Reduction & Expansion adapters
8- Other accessory of synthesis – the metal, plastic and
Teflon equipment
Balances are the starting points of most of the practices in
chemistry laboratories. In order to accurately weight and
transfer liquid and solid organic compounds, balances are
Fume hoods in organic and pharmaceutical
chemistry lab. Studies are routinely used devices
since they provide a safe area to work with
chemicals. As learned through the safety
parameters, chemicals are hazardous and
potential risky to work on, therefore, chemistry
labs require safe areas that supplies enough
Reaction that are generating toxic gases must be
run in fume hoods.
ovens are routinely required in organic synthesis
studies to dry the solid reagents and particularly
reaction products. These instruments are made-up with
an electronic system to set-up desired inside temp.
Depending, and particularly knowing, the melting point
of organic compounds (i.e., having melting point
generally higher than 50°C) ovens are used to dry
Heaters are so important in organic synthesis
studies, because some of the organic reactions
require activation energy to reach to transition state
and to yield the products. Employing heat is one of
the ways to charge the energy required.
Because of highly exothermic of some organic
reactions, it is quite important to make those
reactions at low temperatures. This is also
critical to increase reaction yields to prevent
the formation of by-products, and more
importantly, to safely conduct the experiment
without a serious laboratory accident.
Desiccators are instruments to dry solid compounds in organic and
pharmaceutical chemistry applications. They are particularly used
to remove water residues in solid organic substances. Another
advantage of desiccators is that they are also available to dry
substances thermally unstable and therefore should not be heated
to dry.
*Other instruments used in organic
chemistry laboratories
there are other instruments employed routinely in
organic and pharmaceutical chemistry practices,
like UV (Ultraviolet) spectrophotometers, HPLC
(High Pressure Liquid Chromatography) systems, GC
(Gas Chromatography) systems, MS (Mass
Spectroscopy) systems.
*Working with gases
Gas state is one of the states of an organic
compound and some organic compounds are at gas
state at room temperature. In general, a gas
compound is higher in energy due to its higher
entropy. Therefore, much more attention should be
paid during working with gases in chemistry
practices. The safety rules must be applied,
otherwise, an explosion might occur that can result
in severe laboratory accidents.

similar documents