Organization of an Organic Chemistry Laboratory Organic chemistry laboratories are mainly specified to conduct organic chemistry research studies, in particular organic synthesis studies. Benches & Hoods General Glassware and Metal Equipment 1- Reaction flasks (Vessels): 2- Condensers 3- Addition & Separation Funnels 4- Beakers & Erlenmeyer Flasks These glass equipments are widely used for diverse aims in organic synthesis studies. 5- Graduated Cylinders & Pipettes These glass equipments are used to transfer a certain amount of liquid. 6- Funnels 7- Reduction & Expansion adapters 8- Other accessory of synthesis – the metal, plastic and Teflon equipment 9-Balances Balances are the starting points of most of the practices in chemistry laboratories. In order to accurately weight and transfer liquid and solid organic compounds, balances are utilized. 10-FumeHood Fume hoods in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry lab. Studies are routinely used devices since they provide a safe area to work with chemicals. As learned through the safety parameters, chemicals are hazardous and potential risky to work on, therefore, chemistry labs require safe areas that supplies enough ventilation. Reaction that are generating toxic gases must be run in fume hoods. 11-Furnaces(Ovens) ovens are routinely required in organic synthesis studies to dry the solid reagents and particularly reaction products. These instruments are made-up with an electronic system to set-up desired inside temp. Depending, and particularly knowing, the melting point of organic compounds (i.e., having melting point generally higher than 50°C) ovens are used to dry materials. 12-Heaters Heaters are so important in organic synthesis studies, because some of the organic reactions require activation energy to reach to transition state and to yield the products. Employing heat is one of the ways to charge the energy required. j 13- Setting cold temperature Because of highly exothermic of some organic reactions, it is quite important to make those reactions at low temperatures. This is also critical to increase reaction yields to prevent the formation of by-products, and more importantly, to safely conduct the experiment without a serious laboratory accident. 14-Desiccators Desiccators are instruments to dry solid compounds in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry applications. They are particularly used to remove water residues in solid organic substances. Another advantage of desiccators is that they are also available to dry substances thermally unstable and therefore should not be heated to dry. & *Other instruments used in organic chemistry laboratories there are other instruments employed routinely in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry practices, like UV (Ultraviolet) spectrophotometers, HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography) systems, GC (Gas Chromatography) systems, MS (Mass Spectroscopy) systems. *Working with gases Gas state is one of the states of an organic compound and some organic compounds are at gas state at room temperature. In general, a gas compound is higher in energy due to its higher entropy. Therefore, much more attention should be paid during working with gases in chemistry practices. The safety rules must be applied, otherwise, an explosion might occur that can result in severe laboratory accidents.