The FRUIT (Fructus )

Introduction Fruits
The FRUIT (Fructus )
A fruit is a result of
the development of the
It is a developed or
ripened ovary or ovaries.
Function of Fruit:
Protection of the seed
Nourishment of the seed
during its development
Gynaecium ( Pistel)
The female organs of
the flower, consisting
of one or more
carpels forming one
or several ovaries
with their stigmas
and styles.
 Fruits are classified as:
True fruit
Composite fruit
False fruit
fruit is formed from the
gynaecium of a single flower
other parts of the flower
take part in its formation
fruit is formed from
the whole inflorescence
and not from a single
True fruit
Simple fruit
single ovary,
A)Simple, Dry, dehiscent.
B)Simple, Dry, indehiscent.
C)Simple, Dry, schizo-carpic
or splitting.
D)Simple, Succulent
Apocarpous gynoecium
free carpels united
on a single receptacle
i- Simple Fruits:
A) Simple, Dry, Dehiscent Fruits:
The pericarp becomes dry and remains attached to
the plant and splits when ripe to release the enclosed
1-Legume(pod):opened through ventral and dorsal
2-Follicle: dehisces by the inner suture only.
Star Anise
The capsules may dehisce by:
 A-Valves:
Pores or holes:
 b- Lid:
B) Simple, Dry, Indehiscent Fruits: The pericarp becomes
dry, they are usually detached but do not split open when ripe. :
2-Caryopsis or It is an achene in which the pericarp and testa are
fused together as Wheat.
It is similar to an achene but bigger .The nut has a hard and woody or
leathery pericarp as Chestnut.
C) Simple, Dry, Schizocarpic or Splitting Fruits:
 The pericarp becomes dry. On ripening, they split up into a
number of one-seeded, indehiscent parts called mericarps.
They include several types but the most familiar type is:Cremocarp: -A fruit formed of bicarpellary ovary.
-The ovary is inferior and bilocular.
-The cremocarp splits longitudinally
between the two locules into two one-seeded
indehiscent mericarps as in the umbelliferae.
in mericarps
D) Simple and Succulent Fruits:
*Part or most of the pericarp is fleshy.
*Usually indehiscent
1-Drupe:. The epicarp is leathery; the mesocarp is fleshy,
the endocarp is hard and woody and encloses one seed as
peach, Olive
2-Berry:. It is usually many seeded as
Capsicum,melons, cucumber,Orange, Lemon.
II- False Fruits (pseudocarps fruit):
 Derived from a mature ovary or ovaries of a single
flower together with other parts of the same flower
 The receptacle becomes swollen, fleshy, constituting
the main part of the fruit, and enclosing the
leathery or hard pericarp.
 The fruit consists of the pericarp which is a swollen and
modified ovary wall, enclosing the seeds which are arranged on
the placenta.
 The wall of the pericarp is divided into three regions: the
outer epicarp, the inner endocarp and the mesocarp in
 1- epicarp: the outer epidermis.
2-The endocarp formed of:
 The inner epidermis only
 3-The mesocarp: in which the vascular strands ramify. It may
be: Succulent, parenchymatous, or may consist of several
layers of different types
*General Characters of Umbelliferous Fruits
The fruit is true, simple, dry, schizocarpic,
cremocarp. The apex of the fruit stylopod
(represents the remains of the style, stigma
and nectary disc).
2. When the fruit splits, it divides vertically into
two mericarps. Each mericarp has a flat
surface, the commissural surface, and a
rounded surface, the dorsal surface.
Each mericarp is attached to the
pedicle by a carpophore.
characterized by the presence of 10
primary ridges (5 on each mericarp)
(V.B.)and 2ry ridges (vittae).
The fruits are derived from inferior
ovary due to the presence of remains
of floral parts just beneath the
stylopod at the fruit apex.
The seed is attached by its testa to the
pericarp (fused) filling the whole locule.
7. The seed is apically placented and contains a
small embryo that is embedded in an oily
B -Histology
1)Epicarp is usually one row (epidermis).
2) Glandular trichomes or non-glandular.
3) Schizogenous secreting ducts (vittae) in the
mesocarp, containing volatile oil or bitter
principles; six in r in each mericarp.
4) The vascular bundle is bicollateral fibrovascular bundle .
5) The endocarp is composed of one row of narrow
elongated cells. In surface view, parallel cells,
arranged in groups, either in parquetry or nonparquetry manner.
6) Endosperm thick cellulosic cells containing fixed
oil and aleurone grains. Each aleurone grain
contains a globoid and one or more micro-rosette
crystals of calcium oxalate.
Types of endosperm
Orthospermous endosperm (straight)
e.g. Fennel
Campylospermous endosperm (groove)
e.g Conium fruit
Coelospermous endosperm
(curved) e.g coriander

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