Introduction to Ecology: Biomes

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An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere - Chapter 52
I. Definition:
The study of interactions of organisms and their environment
“Ecology is nothing”
II. Levels of Investigations in Ecology
Chpt 52
Organisms
Distribution of
organisms
Chpt 53
Populations
Factors that
influence
growth of
populations
Chpt 54
Communities
Interactions
of different
species
Chpt 55
Ecosystems
Energy
and matter
as it flows
through
living and
non-living
Chapter 52: Biomes
Which of the pictures below is not part of a Biome?
Your right… all are part of a type of Biome
Biome Definition:
Large area of the world containing very similar animals and plants
usually named by their most common Vegetation
__________
You have all studied biomes in Freshman Biology or Geography
class Let’s find out how much you remember!!
Biome Quiz Part I:
Match the description with the Biome
a. Coral Reefs
f. Tropical Forest
k. Estuaries
b. Chaparral
g. Savannah
l. Intertidal
c. Temperate Grassland
h. Desert
m. Taiga
d. Pelagic
i. Rivers
n. Tundra
e. Abyssal
j. Lakes
o. Deciduous Forest
f
__________
1. Found near the equator, where photoperiod and temperature are constant. Abundant rain
fall may vary with location and season. This is the most species rich terrestrial biome.
__________
2. Periodically inundated by seawater. Sessile organisms in the uppermost zones are
l
exposed to air and sun.
h
__________
3. Arid Biome. Low precipitation and daily temperature extremes.
c
__________
4. Relatively cool climates with deep rich soils. Periodic fires and drought inhibit the
growth of large trees and shrubs.
__________
5. Transition zone between rivers and ocean. Area has large fluctuations of salinity.
k
Tend to be very productive with an abundance of organisms.
e
__________ 6. Organisms are dependent on detritus that “rains’ down from above. Some organism
can live around vents and use chemosynthesis as an energy source.
o
_________ 7. Distinct seasons with sufficient moisture that support large trees that drop and grow
leaves.
b
__________
8. Scrublands of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs, usually adapted to fire. Area tends to be on
the coast with mild winters and hot dry summers.
j
__________ 9. Stratified vertically in regards to light. Phytoplankton and zooplankton are primary food
sources. Can be categorized as oligotrophic, mesotrophic, or eutrophic depending on
nutrients.
i
__________
10. These areas can change dramatically from its source to its final destination. Organisms
very dependent on oxygen levels and flow rates.
n
__________ 11. Very small plants with mat like growth. Trees absent due to permafrost.
__________
12. Animal skeletons form complex calcium carbonate structures that that provide food
a
and shelter for other organism. Warm tropical water only.
m
__________
13. Dense stands of evergreens characterized by long winters and short summers.
d
__________ 14. Upper layers consist of photosynthetic plankton. This biome covers more of the
earth’s surface then any other biome.
g
__________ 15. Tropical grassland with scattered trees. Precipitation varies from dry to wet seasons with
frequent fires. Large grazing herbivores are common.
Biome Quiz Part II:
Match the description with the Biome
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Slide 26
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Terrestrial Biomes Self-Quiz
Slide 27
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
Aquatic Biome Self Quiz
III. Ecological questions about Biomes
A. Why are there major areas in the world that are very similar yet these
areas are found in different continents?
What factors affect the distribution of these organisms?
Slide 26
B. Factors that Determine Geographic Distribution of Organisms
Species is absent
because
Yes
Does Dispersal
limit distribution
Area
inaccessible
or insufficient
time
Yes
Habitat
Selection
Does Behavior
limit distribution
No
No
Yes
Do Biotic Factors
limit distribution
(living factors,
other species)
No
Predation,
parasitism,
competition,
disease
Chemical Factors
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Do Abiotic
Factors limit
distribution
Non-living
factors
In the current “Modern” biosphere, which of the above is the
most important factor determining species distribution in a
Biome? Example: Tropical Rainforest
Water
Oxygen
Salinity
pH
Soil
Physical Factors
1.
2.
3.
4.
Temperature
Light
Fire
Moisture
Similarity in biomes is due to Similarities of Abiotic Factors
IV. Abiotic Factors and Biomes
A. Temperature vs. Precipitation (Climate)
Desert
Grassland
Illinois
Illinois
Tropical Forest
Temperate
Forest
Coniferous
Forest
Artic and
Alpine Tundra
As long as
specific climate
conditions are
met, similar
biomes will
result. Species
may be different
but similar
organism types
will result since
they occupy
similar niches
Where is
Illinois on
this graph?
B. Light vs. Temperature
Intensity of solar light dependent on:
Latitude of the Earth
Tilt of the earth (resulting in the 4 seasons)
C. Light vs. Precipitation
1. Areas that receive more light cause warmer
moist air to rise leading to precipitation
Why are rainforest found at the equator?
2. Areas that receive less light results in
cool dry air descending
Why are desert mainly found at 30 N and 30 S?
D. Rotation of the Earth
1. “Consistent” wind patterns
carry warm moist / dry cool air
to influence climate
2. “Consistent” currents carry warm
or cool water to influence climate
E. Geographical Effects
1. Bodies of water stabilize temperature (warm or cool)
a) air temperature
Rain
Shadow
b) moisture
2. Mountains
a) create rain shadows
b) influence biomes
due to elevation
Moisture
Is there evidence of rotational and geographical effects on the earth’s Biomes?
F. Microclimates and Ecotones
1. Local small scale effects that can create a different “mini-biome”
within a larger biome
Examples:
1. Under a log (microclimate)
2. Oasis in a desert (microclimate / ecotone)
3. Oak Grove, Long Grove, Buffalo Grove
Ecotones
“Illinois is a Biome Ecotone”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7pDQYHNdOE0
2. Microclimates may cause Biomes to flow one into the other. The
boundaries of a Biome may become fuzzy and “arbitrary”
V. Species Transplants: What happens when species of one biome
“transplant” into a similar biome
A. The Tens Rule
1. One out every ten new “introduced” species will become
established in a new “similar” biome of which one out of every ten
established transplants will become pests
B. “Successful” transplant
Examples?
C. “Pest” transplants
African Honey Bee,
Zebra Mussel
Purple Loosestrife
The Cane Toad
The Great Ocean Conveyor Belt
Slide 28
Alewife problem in Lake Michigan
Slide 30

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